Tuesday, November 15, 2016

Crowberry

Empetrum
A small genus of cold climate low growing shrubs that are closely related to Vaccinium Cranberries.

Empetrum nigrum ( Black Crowberry )
A low, groundcover, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 0.8 ( rarely 3.3 for var. japonicum ) feet in height, that is native to the arctic tundra & boreal forest region of northern North America and Greenland. It is also native to northern Europe, eastern Russia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. It is among the most hardy of all shrubs, thriving even in most of Alaska. There was once a separate heat tolerant native population found in bogs on Long Island, New York but it is now extinct. In Alberta; it is widespread in the northern and central region.
The linear leaves, up to 0.3 inches in length, are glossy bright green, turning to bronze-red during fall and winter.
The tiny flowers are followed by a rounded, deep purple to black berry, up to 0.25 inches wide. The edible fruits are used for jellies and pies.
Hardy zones 1 to 4 in full sun to partial shade on moist, sandy, acidic, well drained soil. It thrives with seashore conditions and even on gravel.

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Lucia'
Attractive golden-yellow to lime-green foliage.



Woolly Beach Heath

Hudsonia tomentosa
A low shrub, reaching up to 8 inches x 3.5 feet, that is native to northern North America ( from British Columbia to northeast Alberta to Northwest Territories to Nova Scotia; south to eastern North Dakota to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to northern Ohio to Delaware and New Jersey. It is extinct in Ohio; endangered in North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ontario, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont. It has declined considerably in much of its range due to destruction of its sand dune habitat for the contruction of cottages and waterfront homes. In Alberta, it is mostly found on the shores of Lake Athabasca. It is found on sand dunes and open pine woods in the wild.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, appear during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

Labrador Tea

Ledum
A genus of shrubs that is closely related to the Rhododendrons and even considered species of Rhododendrons by some botanists. A mildly stimulating, bitter tea can be made from steeping the dried leaves for 12 to 15 minutes. Tea can be made from all species of Ledum.

Ledum columbianum ( Trappers Tea )
Also called Ledum glandulosum or Coastal Labrador Tea. A rhizomatous, small,evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native to western North America ( from near Williams Lake in central British Columbia to extreme southwest Alberta to central Montana to central Wyoming; south to central California to northern Nevada to southern Utah to western Colorado ). A great plant for the rock garden or bog garden, it is extremely cold hardy and can thrive even in central Alaska.
The oppositely-arranged, small, elliptical oval leaves are up to 3.2x 1.2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. The aromatic, foliage is glossy deep green above, downy white to tawny-brown beneath.
The fragrant, small, white flowers are borne on clusters of up to 35 during late spring into mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on humus-rich, moist soil.

* photo taken by W. Carl Taylor @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora


Ledum decumbens ( Northern Labrador Tea )
Also called L. palustre decumbens. Native Americans burned this plant in sweat lodges and the fumes can be inhaled for narcotic effect. It forms a creeping shrub that is native to northern North America ( from far northern Alaska to Baffin Island to northern Quebec, Labrador and Greenland; south into far northern British Columbia to far northern Ontario. It is also native to bogs and open coniferous woods in northern Europe, eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Mongolia and Manchuria but is not native to the mainland U.S.
The linear leaves are up to 0.6 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, downy white to tawny-brown beneath.
The fragrant flowers are white to pink.
Hardy zones 1 to 3, thriving even in interior Alaska.

Ledum groenlandicum ( Labrador Tea )
Also called Rhododendron groenlandicum. An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 5 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet, that is native to the boreal forest region of northern North America ( from northern Alaska to far northern Yukon to southern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to northern Quebec to Labrador, Newfoundland and southern Greenland; south to the far northern United States...except absent from the entire Great Plains region ). In the east, it is found as far south as Wisconsin to central Michigan to Tobermory, Ontario to northern Pennsylvania to Connecticut ). It is typically found in bogs and acidic open woods in the wild.
The aromatic, oppositely-arranged, narrowly-oblong, leathery leaves are up to 2 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, hairy rusty-orange beneath.
The alternately-arranged leaves are often crowded at the tips of the stems.
The fragrant, small, white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne on dense, rounded clusters of up to 35 from late spring into mid-summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on humus-rich, moist to wet soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo

Texas Red Yucca

Hesperaloe parviflora
An evergreen succulent, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet, that is native from southern Texas to northeast Mexico. The Texas Red Yucca makes a stunning focal point adding a southwestern vibe to the landscape. It is ideal for a large patio planter.
The very showy, scarlet-red flowers are borne on tall spikes from late spring until autumn frosts. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. Heat, drought and alkaline soil tolerant; deep watering of once weekly or less is preferred.
Plant during spring only during zones 5 & 6, spring and autumn further south.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Perpa'
Intense deep-red flowers borne late spring into autumn, otherwise similar.


'Yellow'
Same except with bright yellow flowers.

Asphodel

Xerophyllum
A small genus of plants related to the Yuccas.

Xerophyllum asphodeloides ( Mountain Asphodel )
Also called Eastern Turkeybeard. A rhizomatous, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 5 feet in height, that is native to dry pine-oak woods in the Appalachian Mountains and sandy pine barrens in New Jersey and Delaware. It was originally native from eastern Kentucky to New Jersey ( excl Pennsylvania ); south to northern Alabama and northern Georgia ). It has declined considerably due to habitat destruction and is now extinct in Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware.
The toothed, linear leaves, up to 20 x 0.1 inches in size, form a dense clump.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne on long inflorescences up to 12 inches in length. The total flower structure including the stalk can reach up to 5 feet high. It may take up to a decade or more for a plant to bloom for the first time.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil.

* historic archive photo


Xerophyllum tenax ( Bear Grass )
A perennial, reaching up to 2 feet in height, that is native to slope grassland and open woods in western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Nelson, British Columbia; south to central California...also in Idaho, western Montana and northwest Wyoming ).
The leaves, up to 0.2 inches wide, are silvery-green at first, later deepening to green.
The white flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne on plumes up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet high during late summer. The individual flower plumes are up to 2 feet long.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

* photo taken by A.C. Jackson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

Grass Tree

Xanthorrhoea
Native to Australia but adaptable to other warm climates, this is among the most unique plant genuses on the globa.

Xanthorrhoea arborea ( Forest Grass Tree )
A slow growing, Grass-like small tree native to eastern Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The narrow, linear, Grass-like leaves are up to 48 inches in length.
The foliage is bright green later turning to deep green.
The flowers, up to , are borne in clusters up to 3 feet in length and borne on 6 foot long stems during spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Xanthorrhoea australia ( Southern Grass Tree )
Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 8 feet including the trunk reaching up to 6.6 feet; longest lived - 200 years
The narrow linear Grass-like leaves are up to 3 feet in length.
The foliage is
The very fragrant, white flowers are borne in spears up to 16 feet in length, during spring, after the plant is 15 years of age.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun.

Xanthorrhoea glauca ( Narrow-leafed Grass Tree )
Native to southwest Queensland and New South Wales in Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 14 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.2 feet.
The long narrow, Grass-like leaves are, up to 0.3 inches across.
The foliage is blue-green.
The flowers are borne in spikes, up to 7 feet in length, on top of a 3 foot stalk.
The branched trunks are blackish.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun. It is the hardiest of all species of Xanthorrhoea and even grows in parts of England.

subsp 'angustifolia'
From the southernmost part of X. glauca's natural range and has narrower leaves, up to 0.2 inches across. It is the hardiest of all

Xanthorrhoea johnsonii ( Queensland Grass Tree )
Native to Queensland, Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 16 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; longest lives - 600 years.
The long narrow, Grass-like leaves are up to 5 feet in length.
The foliage is bright green.
The creamy-white flowers are borne very profusely on gigantic cylindrical spikes.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 tolerating as low as 15 F, in full sun.

Xanthorrhoea media
Some records include: largest on record - 8 feet
Hardy zones 9a to 11

Xanthorrhoea preissii ( Western Australian Grass Tree )
A most exotic looking ornamental plant that is native to Western Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 18 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The long narrow, arching Grass-like leaves are up to 4 feet in length.
The foliage is luxuriant medium green.
The creamy-yellow flowers are borne on spikes up to 6 feet in length.
They are followed by leathery, brown capsules.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 hardy to as low as 15 F

* historic archive photo


Xanthorrhoea quadrangulata
Native to southern Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 12 x 8 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The very narrow leaves, up to 3 feet in length, are deep green.
The creamy-white flowers are borne on narrow spikes up to 4 feet in length during autumn.
Hardy zones 9a to 11 in full sun. Drought tolerant.

Xanthorrhoea semiplana
Some records include: largest on record - 8 feet
The long narrow, Grass-like leaves are up to 3 feet
Hardy zones 9a to 11

Nolina

A genus of plants related to the Yuccas.

Nolina beldingii
A slow growing, yucca-like tree, reaching a maximum height of 25 feet, that is native to the Baja Peninsula.
The grass-like leaves, up to 36 x 0.7 inches, are blue-green.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 3 F ) in full sun on well drained soil.

Nolina bigelovii ( Bigelow's Bear Grass )
Reaching a maximum size of 13 x 8 feet, it is native to California to Nevada to Arizona; south into Mexico. Older plants develop multiple trunks. It makes a great accent or screen.
The leaves, up to 60 x 2 ( rarely over 48 x 1.3 ) inches, are blue-green.
The greenish-white flowers are borne on plumes up to 5 feet in length.
Hardy zones 8b to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ) in full sun to partial shade on light, very well drained soil. It is extremely heat and drought tolerant. Plant while small as it does not enjoy transplanting.

Nolina brittoniana ( Britton's Beargrass )
A perennial native to sandy pine-oak scrub in central Florida. It does not form a trunk. It is endangered in the wild.
The strap-shaped leaves, up to 40 x 0.3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The flower spike is up to 4 feet in height.
Hardy zones 8 to 9b ( possibly lower ) in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo of unknown internet source


Nolina georgiana ( Georgia Beargrass )
Clumping and Yucca-like, reaching up to 3 x 4 feet, that is native to the sandy pine flatlands and turkey oak savanna in the southeastern U.S. ( from central Tennessee to central South Carolina; south to Mississippi to central Georgia ). It is endangered in the wild.
The serrate-edged, narrow, strap-shaped leaves, up to 50 x 0.3 inches in size, are blue-green.
The white flowers are borne on an upright spike up to 4.5 feet tall.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.


* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Nolina lindheimeri ( Lindheimer's Nolina )
Clumping and Yucca-like, reaching up to 3 x 4 feet, that is native to open woods and limestone bluffs in central Texas hill country.
The narrow, strap-shaped leaves, up to 40 x 0.5 inches in size, are blue-green.
The creamy-white flowers are borne on upright spikes up to 5 feet high during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( possibly even 5b on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Nolina longifolia ( Oaxacan Tree Nolina )
A slow growing, mop-head small tree, reaching up to 10 x 6 feet, that is native to pine-oak cloud forests in mountains in Oaxaca state in Mexico. The trunk is swollen at the base and the bark is deeply fissured.
The blue-green, strap-shaped leaves are up to 7 feet in length.
The abundant, small, creamy-white flowers are borne on a spike up to 4 feet in length.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( possibly 7 or lower ) in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source


Nolina matapensis
A large evergreen, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 6 feet. Slow growing, it grows at a rate of only 4 inches per year.
The leaves are up to 36 x 0.5 inches.
Hardy zones 8 to 10, tolerating as low as 5 F.

Nolina microcarpa ( Sacahuista )
A fast growing, evergreen clumping perennial, reaching up to 8 x 6 feet, that is native to southwest Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and northern Arizona.
The serrate-edged, strap-shaped leaves are up to 52 x 0.5 inches in size.
The golden-brown flowers are borne on spikes up to 8 feet high.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun on light, well drained soil.
Drought tolerant. Rabbit and deer resistant.

Nolina nelsonii ( Blue Beargrass Tree )
An extremely beautiful tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 8 feet, it is native to the Tamaulipas, Mexico. Older trees develop multiple trunks. It can form a clump up to 5 x 5 feet in just 3 years.
The leaves, up to 48 x 1.5 inches, are blue-green.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ). Extremely heat tolerant.

Nolina parryi ( Parry's Nolina )
A clumping, evergreen, large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 15 ( usually under 5 x 6 ) feet, that is native to southern California to northwest Arizona.
The narrow leaves, up to 4.5 feet x 1.6 inches in size, are gray-green.
Thousands of creamy-white flowers are borne on a showy tall spikes, up to 8 feet high, during early summer. They persist for about 4 weeks.
Hardy zones 7b to 11 ( use inland mountain seed source only in 7b & 8 ) in full sun on light, well drained soil.

* Work of the National Park Service - Public Domain


Nolina texana ( Texas Sacahuista )
A woody-based, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 3 x 6 feet, that is native from south-central Colorado to western Oklahoma; south to southeast Arizona to central Texas. It is great in a large container or used as a focal point.
The leathery leaves are long and narrow.
The tiny creamy-white flowers are borne on clusters that barely reach above the foliage during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade ( full sun on moist sites only ) on just about any well drained soil. Deer resistant and a great plant for using in dry shade.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

Sotol

Dasylirion
A genus of plants related to the Yuccas. All prefer sandy, well drained soil.

Dasylirion acrotrichum ( Great Desert Spoon )
A very rare, slow growing, Yucca-like evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 7 ( up to 20 incuding flower spike ) feet, that is native to the Chihuahuan Desert in northern and central Mexico.
The grass-like narrow leaves, up to 40 x 0.4 inches in size, are blue-green. The leaves are edged in fibers.
The small white flowers are borne on a spike up to 15 feet tall.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating 20 F ) in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.

Dasylirion berlandieri ( Berlandier Sotol )
A stunning, large yucca-like shrub, reaching forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 7 x 12 ( up to 15 in bloom ) feet in size, that is native to dry open pine-oak woods in high mountains of northeast Mexico. Some records include: 10 years - 7 x 4 feet.
The spine-edged, stiff, strap-shaped leaves, up to 64 x 0.7 inches in size, are powdery bright blue.
The creamy-white to yellow flowers are borne on a narrow, upright tall panicle. These plants do not die after blooming.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( reports of even colder ) in full sun on just about any very well drained soil. It is highly drought tolerant. It is adaptable to humid climates, even northern Florida if planted on sandy soil.

'Zaragoza'
Strikingly blue foliage.

Dasyliron cedrosanum ( Cedros Sotol )
A Yucca-like shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 8 feet, that typically has 1 to 3 branched stems originating from a short stocky trunk. It is native to grasslands in the mountain highlands of northern Mexico. It can reach up to 3 x 4 feet in 10 years though is usually slower growing.
The stiff, twisted, linear leaves, up to 48 x 2 inches in size, are bright gray-blue to bright green. The leaf margins are armed with teeth that curve towards the leaf tip.
The small, pale yellow flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne abundantly on a narrow upright panicle atop a tall spike up to 12 feet high.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant and requires only 12 + inches of average yearly rainfall. It prefers a hot dry climate and does not do well in maritime regions.

Dasylirion glaucophyllum ( Blue Hidalgo Sotol )
A Yucca-like shrub, forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 7 x 9 ( rarely over 4 x 7 ) feet, that is native to Hidalgo in northern Mexico.
The stiff, straight, strap-shaped leaves, up to 54 x 1 inch in size, are powdery blue.
The flower spike up to 7 feet tall is composed of small white flowers that later fade to tan.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( possibly colder ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

Dasyliron leiophyllum ( Smooth Sotol )
A Yucca-like shrub, that reaches a maximum size of 6 x 6 ( rarely over 5 x 5 ) feet, and is native to New Mexico, western Texas and northeast Mexico.
The shiny blue-green leaves are up to 40 x 1.5 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne on a foot long panicle atop a spike, up to 13 feet high, during summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is extremely heat and drought tolerant.

Dasylirion longissimum ( Mexican Grass Tree )
A native to the Chihuahuan Desert in northwest Mexico, it reaches a maximum size of 16 x 8 feet. It can form a clump up to 6 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually very old plants may grow a trunk up to 10 feet in height.
The leaves are up to 6 feet x 0.2 inches in size. The leaves are not edged with spines unlike most Dasylirion.
The flower panicles reach a maximum height of 18 feet!
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Dasylirion lucidum ( Rose Sotol )
A short-trunked, multiple crowned, yucca-like evergreen shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height, that is native to high elevations in central Mexico.
The stiff narrow leaves are bright green. They are armed with deep red prickles.
The flower spikes reach up to 12 feet in height.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. It is tolerant of coastal conditions.

Dasylirion miquihuanense ( Tree Sotol )
A native to the northeast Mexican mountains, that develops a massive trunk and reaches a maximum size of 8 x 6 feet, with smooth-margined, evergreen leaves, up to 48 x 2 inch in size. The foliage is mid-green.
Occasionally this plant may develop a trunk up to 15 feet in height.
The white flower spike reaches up to 6 feet in height.
Hardy north to zone 7 and very drought tolerant.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Dasylirion quadrangulatum.
May be same as Dasylirion longissimum. A native to the northeast Mexican mountains, that reaches a maximum size of 6 x 10 ( 12 incl. flower spike ) feet, with smooth-margined, evergreen leaves, up to 50 x 0.5 inch in size.
Occasionally this plant may develop a trunk up to 15 feet in height.
The white flower spike reaches up to 6 feet in height.
Hardy north to zone 7 and very drought tolerant.
Hardy zones 8 to 9

Dasylirion texanum ( Texas Sotol )
A native of Texas Hill Country, that reaches a maximum clump size of 3 x 10 feet, Older plants may grow a trunk reaching up to 1.5 feet high.
The evergreen leaves, up to 48 x 1.5 ( rarely over 36 ) inch in size, are gray-green to green.
The flower spike, up to 15 feet in height, includes a panicle up to 3 feet in length of creamy-white flowers.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, in cool, moist, partial shade or full sun in cooler climates on well drained soil. Texas Sotol is very drought tolerant. It thrives far outside its native range, including parking lot islands in northern Florida with no irrigation.

Dasylirion wheeleri ( Desert Spoon )
A native to Arizona to western Texas; to northern Mexico, that reaches a maximum size of 6 x 6 feet, with evergreen leaves, up to 36 x 1 inch in size. Older plants may grow a trunk up to 5 feet in height. The foliage is grayish-green.
The flower spike reaches up to 20 feet in height.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. It is very drought tolerant.

* photo taken by W.C. Barnes @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo

Travels - Annapolis

* photo taken on Oct 21 2016

* photos taken on Nov 4 2016

* photos taken on Nov 9 2016