Friday, December 30, 2011

Lycoris

Lycoris
A genus of bulbs that are part of the larger Amaryllis family. The funnel-shaped flowers appear late summer after the foliage dies down.
Plant the bulbs no more than 6 inches deep and 1 foot apart.
Most species are hardy from zones 7 to 9

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Lycoris aurea ( Golden Spider Lily )
A bulbous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet, that is a native to central & southern China, Japan and much of southeast Asia. It is found on moist, shaded slopes in the wild. The bulbs are up to 2 inches wide.
The leaves, up to 24 x 1 inches in size, appear during spring. The leaves are mid-green with a bright green midrib.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 4 ( rarely over 3 ) inches across, appear during late summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

* photos taken on Aug 2011 in Columbia, MD


Lycoris chinensis ( Yellow Chinese Spider Lily )
A bulbous perennial, native from southeastern China to South Korea. The bulb is up to 1.5 inches wide. It is found on moist, shaded slopes in mixed forests in the wild.
The leaves are mid-green with a bright green midrib. The foliage appears during spring.
5 to 6 yellow flowers, up to 1 inch long, appear atop a cluster up to 2 feet high, during mid to late summer.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Lycoris 'Hill Beyond Hill'
Flower scapes, up to 2 feet in height, bear spidery flowers that are yellow fading to creamy-white.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( possibly 6 )

Lycoris radiata ( Red Spider Lily )
A bulbous perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet, that is native to Nepal, central & southern China, Korea and Japan. It is found on stream banks and moist shaded slopes in the wild. The bulbs are up to 1.2 inches wide.
The leaves are up to 18 x 0.3 inches in size. The deep green foliage appears during autumn.
The orange-red, spidery flowers, up to 2 inches across, appear during late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( mulch heavily during winter in colder regions ).

* photo of unknown internet source


Lycoris sanguinea ( Orange Spider Lily )
A bulbous perennial, reaching up to 2 feet in height, that is native to China, Korea and Japan. It eventually spreads to form small colonies. It is usually found in woodland edge in mountainous areas.
The linear leaves, up to 24 x 0.5 inches in size, appear during spring then go dormant by early summer.
The orange-red flowers, up to 2.4 inches wide, appear during late summer. They appear on a stalk up to 2 feet high.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( 5b on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, humus-rich, fertile, well drained soil. The bulbs should be planted 9 inches apart with 0.25 inches of the bulb neck above ground.

Lycoris squamigera ( Resurrection Lily )
A fast spreading, bulbous perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2 feet, that is native to far eastern China, Korea and Japan. It is found on streambanks and moist shaded slopes in the wild.
The leaves are up to 12 x 2 inches in size. The foliage appears during autumn then again during early spring.
The fragrant, pale pink flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne on large inflorescences during late summer.
Hardy north to zone 4 if summers are hot. It requires full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is drought tolerant during summer while the foliage is dormant. The bulbs should be planted 6 inches deep and 6 inches apart. Clumps do not like disturbance and may skip a year blooming if moved.


* photos taken on Aug 3 2011 in Columbia, MD






* photos taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 12 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

Decaisnea

Decaisnea fargesii
A moderate growing, multi-stemmed, upright, large shrub, reaching up to 20 x 20 feet, that is native to western China. It is one of 2 species of plants in the Decaisnea genus which is part of the larger Lardizabalaceae family.
The bold pinnate leaves, up to 3.3 feet in length, are composed of 13 to 25 large, oval leaflets, up to 6 inches in length.
The foliage is deep blue-green. The foliage turns yellow during autumn.
The yellowish-green, bell-shaped flowers are borne on pendulous panicles, up to 20 inches in length. They are not fragrant.
The flowers are followed by very showy, metallic-blue, finger-sized pods, up to 6 x 1 inches in size, borne on clusters of 3. The pods ripen during autumn and persist well into winter when they are very showy. The seeds are black.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, fertile, well drained soil. Very easy to grow once it is established, pests and diseases rarely occur. It is recommended to protect young plants from cold sweeping winter winds ( building a temporary burlap enclosure may help ).
Propagation is easily done by opening up the pods and sowing the black seeds.
They do not grow well in containers and are difficult to transplant and it is often easier just to seed them in their permanent setting.

* historical archive photos


Decaisnea insignis
Very similar, except with golden-yellow fruit.

Lyonia

A genus of 35 species of trees and shrubs originating from the eastern U.S., Mexico plus also the Caribbean where many species are endangered with extinction. There are also a few species that are native to warm, low elevation woodlands in Asia from the Himalayas to Japan.
All species of Lyonia have simple leaves arranged alternatively along the stems.
They should be much more widely used in the landscape as both the foliage and the flowers are very attractive. The flower clusters on many species are similar to that of Lily-of-the-Valley. Pests and disease rarely occur on these plants so that the foliage remains attractive throughout the entire season.
Lyonia require partial shade and consistently moist, neutral to acidic soil.
Most species do not tolerate drought. Pruning is rarely needed but plants can be shaped during late spring or any other time ( do not shear...if ruins their attractive natural shape ).
Propagation can be achieved from sowing seeds during autumn, layering during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. They are easy to transplant while small.

Lyonia ferruginea ( Tree Lyonia )
Also called Rusty Staggerbush. A twisted-trunked, upright, small evergreen tree, that is native to sandy pine-oak forests in the southeastern U.S. ( southern Georgia to South Carolina, south into Florida )
Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The pointed-elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy mid-green.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.1 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils during mid spring.
They are followed by a light brown capsule, up to 0.5 inches in length.
The scaly, ridged bark is red-brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It is very drought tolerant but does not tolerate salt.

Lyonia ligustrina ( Maleberry )
A deciduous, dense, large shrub, that is native to open woodlands and swamps in the eastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to western Tennessee to southern Ohio to western New York State to northern Maine; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in New Hampshire and extinct in the wild in Ohio. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 25 x 20 feet.
The finely-toothed, hard-textured leaves, up to 4.2 x 2 ( rarely over ) 3 inches in size. The foliage is bright green; turning to brilliant-red to purplish-red during autumn. The leaves resemble that of the Privet.
The small, creamy-white, urn-shaped flowers, are borne on dense, terminal panicles during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on acidic moist soil. It is generally found on swampy land in the wild. It thrives as far north as Ottawa in Canada however the alkaline soil in much of Ontario stunts it's growth.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


'Foliosa'
Leaves persist very late in fall.

Lyonia lucida ( Fetterbush )
A suckering, erect, dense, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, that is native to very moist pine woods and swamps in the southeastern U.S. ( on the coastal plain from Louisiana to Florida, north to southeastern Virginia ). It will grow much further north than its native range suggests but becomes deciduous north of zone 7.
Some records include: largest on record - 17 x 13 ( averaging 4 x 6 ) feet. It is a very beautiful and valuable landscape plant.
The rolled-margin, pointed, elliptical or obovate leaves, up to 4.2 x 2.2 ( rarely over 3.5 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green.
The hanging, white to pinkish-white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne on axilliary clusters towards the stem tips during late spring into early summer.
The stems are 3-angled unlike any other species of Lyonia making identification easy.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist to wet, acidic soils. It is prone to leaf spot in some regions.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Rubra'
Flowers are dark pink, otherwise similar.

Lyonia mariana ( Piedmont Staggerbush )
A moderate growing, dense, erect, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 4 feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( on the coastal plain and Mississippi Valley from far southeast Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana to Florida, northwards to Rhode Island ). It is found in variable habitats in the wild, ranging from dry pine-oak woods to swamps. It makes an attractive landscape plant and is tidy in habit.
The ovate, elliptic or obovate leaves are up to 7 x 2 ( rarely over 3.5 ) inches in size. The leathery deep green foliage turns to red during autumn. The foliage looks similar to Vaccinium corymbosum but is larger.
The hanging, white or pinkish-white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch long, are borne during mid spring ( before the foliage emerges ).
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on acidic, sandy loam.
Tolerant of wet conditions.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


Lyonia ovalifolia
A evergreen, small tree, reaching around 15 x 15 feet on average, that is native to mountainous areas from Pakistan to central & eastern China; south to India to Malaysia. Some records include: largest on record - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. In colder climates, it may be deciduous.
The ovate to broadly-elliptic leaves are up to 8 x 5 ( rarely over 4 inches ) in size. The foliage is glossy bright green.
The abundant, showy, pure white, bell-shaped flowers are borne on clusters, up to 2.5 inches in length, during late spring to early summer.
The fibrous bark is pale brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( use seed source from Shaanxi in coldest areas ) in partial shade on moist, fertile, very acidic, well drained soil that is mulched.

var 'elliptica'
Also called Lyonia elliptica. Very similar except for having smaller leaves ( up to 4.3 x 2.4 inches ) and being native to Japan & Taiwan.