Friday, July 29, 2011

Model Homes - Xeriscape Balcony

Model Homes - Xeriscape Balcony

All these plants were specially selected for low water requirement and extreme heat tolerance. Other than the Dwarf Alberta Spruce, all these balcony terrace planters will require minimal water. All plants except for the Scaveola are winter hardy in zone 7.














Grapes

Vitis

Grapes are most frequently grown for their fruit which are either eaten fresh, used to produce wine and juices or dried into raisins. Fresh grapes or fresh juice of such, cleanse and purify the body. All species of Grapes are edible but some have better quality fruits than others.
When using Grapes to produce juice and wines, DO NOT throw away the seeds. They make excellent ( and edible ) vegetable oil.
The easiest way to make Grape Juice is with a juicer, then adding some sparkling water.
Wine is most often produced from cultivars of Vitis vinifera; though native North American Grapes can be used as well.
The leaves are also edible and in Mediterranean countries are often cooked for a few minutes and wrapped around fruit. The young vigorous vine tips during late spring into summer also make a great addition to any salad.
Grapes typically prefer full sun on deep, fertile, well drained soil.
Grapes are very easily propagated from cuttings taken while dormant.
The species can also be propagated from seed.
Plants usually take around 3 to 5 years to start producing fruit.
When originally introduced into North America; European Grapes fared poorly due to diseases which affected them which the North American species had natural immunity.
When Phylloxera vastatrix, a disease of American Grapes was accidently introduced into Europe, it killed over 2 million vines devestating vineyards.
Now the choiciest European selections of Grapes are grafted onto disease resistant American Grape rootstock.
Grapes do have some issues that need to be addressed regarding pests and diseases. Some are preventable by clean cultivation and planting the right variety in the right place, others may need other treatments such as spray. For all varieties of Grapes - it is important to remove all old leaves that have fallen during autumn. During summer, thinning some of the foliage to allow sunlight penetration will usually increase harvest, improve ripening as well as helping prevent foliar diseases such as Mildews. Sulfur sprays also prevent disease ( it is recommended to not spray sulfur during extremely hot weather ). Sulfur spray can be used as a preventative - make sure to soak the canopy including underneath the leaves.
Minor defoliation during summer may not cause much long term damage but serious to complete defoliation will weaken and damage the plant well into the future.
Pierce's disease is a bacterial disease that affects Grapes in much of the southern U.S. It can cause the leaves to turn brown while the veins remain green then by late summer the stem tips die back, the fruit may shrivel and the roots begin to die. There is no real control other than planting varieties that are resistant.
Vitis vinifera Grapes are very prone to Phylloxera, a sucking insect that damages the roots. It is thus very important to grow Grapes that are grafted on American rootstock in the central and eastern U.S or anywhere else this insect in prevalent.
Keeping vineyards weed/turf free ( increases airflow as well as health of roots ) and mulched ( cools soil and prevents soil splash onto plant ) will also reduce incidences of disease.

Some diseases that affect Grapes are:

Anthracnose - random gray spots in the foliage which dry up, fall out and leave holes in the leaves. Anthracnose may also affect the berries. Prune of damaged twigs and disinfect pruners.

Black Rot - foliage develops circular orangish-brown leaf spots that turn to small, black dots which produce spores if the weather is humid enough.
The berries will turn hard and black.
Spray preventitive treatment of copper fungicide if your crop has had this problem the previous year. Remove and dispose of all infected fruit.

Botrytis Bunch Rot - attacks fruit clusters turning them soft and brown with a brown powdery covering. The foliage may also develop leafspots.

Downy Mildew - foliage develops lighter colored blotches on the foliage. The undersides of the leaves will also be covered in a white, fuzzy mould. The white powder may also cover the stems and fruit clusters.

Powdery Mildew - a gray mold begins to cover the stems followed by the leaves and often eventually the fruit clusters which stop developing.
Thinning vines to improve air circulation may reduce problems with mildews.

Crown Gall - may kill canes. Make sure to use Grape varieties fully hardy in your climate to prevent winter injury. Also be very careful not to damage bark on stems whether trough pruning or cultivation ( there shouldn't be grass at the base of the stems to weed whack to begin with ). Clean pruners ( ex. dip in 9/1 bleach / water mix ) after use to prevent spread of Crown Gall disease if it occurs.

Grapes are long lived - lasting up to 50 years of more. It is important to plant them right the first time. In order to get a good crop, the require full sun on deep, light, well drained soil with an ideal PH of 5 to 6. They are best planted on a slope or near water, to minimize damage from late frosts which can damage the flowers and cause loss of production. It is recommended to plant Grapes during early spring while they are still dormant. Small 1 year old plants establish much more successfully than larger plants. Soak roots in water for 2 hours before planting in a hole large enough to stretch the roots out before backfilling with organically enriched soil. Dust a handful of bonemeal in the bottom of the hole to encourage rapid root establishment. Before planting, prune the vines back but be shure to leave 2 live buds. Grafted vines should be planted with the graft union above ground level.
Too much nitrogen can cause too much growth and too small of a crop. Grapes do like Phosphorous such as is found in Bonemeal. Grapes also love Zinc foliar sprays if zinc is deficient in the soil where you are.
If you are growing grapes on a steep slope where erosion is a problem, use a low cover crop such as Clover rather than mulch ( do not used turf in orchards - it will compete with your crop and cause lower yields ).
Prune in very early March which will allow the cuts to rapidly callous and heal. Grapes can "bleed" profusely from cuts if pruned later during spring.

Vitis aestivalis ( Summer Grape )
A fast growing, woody vine that is native to Sandy open woodland in eastern North America ( from eastern Nebraska to southeast Minnesota to central Michigan to Grand Bend, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to southern Maine; south to central Texas to southern Florida ). It only occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s, however one was known to have climbed 80 feet high and had a trunk diameter of 9 inches at Perkins Township in Erie County, Ohio.
The rounded leaves, up to 10 x 10 ( rarely over 8 x 8 ) inches in size, are deeply-lobed. The foliage is bright green above, downy white beneath.
The sour, edible, bluish-black, small grapes are up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 ( 4 for central Wisconsin population ).

* photos taken on July 31 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1991


Vitis amurensis ( Amur Grape )
A massive, fast growing vine, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to northern China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan.
The huge, toothed, Maple-lobed leaves, up to 9.5 x 12 inches in size, are luxuriant green turning to intense deep red in autumn.
The berries are small and black.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, tolerating as low as -40 F.

* photos taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Vitis californica ( California Grape )
A very fast growing, tendril-climbing, deciduous, large, woody vine, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 30 feet, that is native to riverbanks and woodland edges in the western U.S. ( from southwest Oregon to central California )
The smooth-edged, very shallowly 3-lobed, rounded leaves are up to 6 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green, turning to intense orange and scarlet-red during autumn. The leaves are hairy on both sides.
The fragrant flowers are yellow-green.
The small, rounded, deep purple ( white bloom covered ) grapes, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne on dense bunches during summer.
The bark on older stems attractively peels.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It is resistant to phylloxera aphids and therefore most Vitis vinifera grapes grown commercially in California are grafted onto Vitis californica root stock.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


'Roger's Red'
Exceptionally intense red fall foliage.

Vitis coignetiae ( Crimson Glory Vine )
An extremely fast growing, tendril climbing, massive woody vine, reaching a maximum size of 133 feet, that is native to Sakhalin, Korea and Japan in eastern Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 50 feet.
The 3 to 5 lobed, rounded, very large leaves are up to 10 x 12 inches in size. The thick foliage is luxuriant deep green above, hairy and brown beneath. The foliage turns intense red and purple during autumn.
The small and black fruits are up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on alkaline or neutral, well drained soil. It is propagated from hardwood cuttings during late autumn.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photo


Vitis girdiana ( Desert Wild Grape )
A very fast growing, tendril-climbing, deciduous, vine, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to chaparral woods and streamsides in southern California and the Baja Peninsula.
The large, toothed, 3-lobed, heart-shaped leaves are downy and silvery, later turning rich mid-green. The foliage turns to red during autumn.
The yellow flowers are followed by blackish-blue grapes up to 0.3 inches wide. They can either be eaten fresh, dried as raisons or made into jellies and wine.
The attractive bark is peeling.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. It is tolerant of extreme heat, drought, pure sand and flooding.

* photos of unknown internet source


Vitis labrusca ( Fox Grape )
A very fast growing vine, reaching a maximum height of 60 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to northern New York to central Maine and New Brunswick; south to southern Illinois to northern Alabama to central Georgia ). It is endangered in Ontario where it is only found from Ridgetown to Hamilton as well as near Brockville. It was moderately common on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include; fastest recorded growth rate - 2o feet; tallest on record - 117 feet; largest trunk diameter - 1 foot.
The palmate to rounded leaves, up to 8 inches across, are deep green above, downy white beneath.
The sweet-tasting, small berries, up to 0.8 inches across, are purple.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* photos taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Vitis nesbittiana
A dense, compact ( for a Grape ) vine that is native to high mountains in Veracruz state in Mexico where it is very rare.
The very attractive glossy foliage is bronze at first, turning to bright green.
The profuse, fragrant, bright greenish-yellow flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 10, it is recommended for maritime climates as well as tropical and mild temperate highlands.

Vitis riparia ( Riverbank Grape )
A vigorous, very large, deciduous vine, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is native to rich woods and swamps in eastern North America. ( from southeast Montana to southern Manitoba to Sault Ste Marie, ON to Temagami, Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to central Oklahoma to Louisiana to Tennessee to central Virginia..it is mostly absent from the Haliburton highlands in Ontario ). It was very abundant in most of Windsor/Essex County, Ontario; the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 30 feet; largest trunk diameter - 6 inches; longest lived - 150 years at least.
The 3-lobed, cordate-rounded leaves are up to 9 inches across. The foliage is smooth above, hairy beneath.
The tiny yellowish-green flowers are borne on clusters up to 4 inches in length.
They are followed by dense bunches of acidic, purplish-blue ( with white bloom ) berries up to 0.5 inches wide.
The attractive exfoliating bark is reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Seed sourced from the wild in Manitoba proved fully hardy in trials at both Indian Head, Saskatchewan and Brandon, Manitoba. It is tolerant of temporary flooding.

* photo taken by Bill Summers @USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora

* photos taken on Apr 24 2015 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Vitis rotundifolia ( Muscatine Grape )
A very fast growing, long-lived, massive vine, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southeast Missouri to Kentucky to Delaware; south to eastern Texas to the Florida Keys ).
The coarsely-toothed leaves, up to 5 x 5 inches, are glossy deep green. The foliage turns to deep yellow during autumn.
The tiny flowers are followed by purplish berries, up to 1 inch across, ripening during mid-autumn. The skin is thicker than other Grapes and there are less per cluster ( rarely as many as 10 ). The sweet tasting fruits are edible and are great for making wine and jellies. Muscadines are extremely rich nutritionally and many cultivars are grown commercially in the hot humid southeastern U.S. They typically have more antioxidants than Vitis vinifera cultivars.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( most cultivars are not hardy north of zone 8 ) in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil, preferrably fertile and slightly acidic. Propagation is usually from layering as cuttings are very difficult to root.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Doreen'
Small, late ripening fruits that are great eaten fresh or used in wine.
It has good hariness for a Muscadine and has great disease resistance.

'Nesbitt'
Large fruit that ripen over a long period and are great eaten fresh. The fruits begin ripening mid-season.
It is very hardy and disease resistant.

'Noble'
Small fruits that ripen over a long period that are great used in wine. The fruits appear early for a Muscadine.
It is very hardy and has excellent disease resistance.

'Summit'
Large mid-season fruits that are great eaten fresh.
It is very hardy and also has good disease resistance.

Vitis vinifera ( Wine Grape )
A fast growing, very large, tendril clinging, deciduous woody vine, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet, that is native to Europe. Some records include: maximum trunk diameter - 20 inches.
The 3 to 5 lobed leaves, up to 8.7 inches across, are green.
The tiny, pale-green flowers are borne during early summer.
They are followed by green or black small grapes.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on acidic or neutral, well drained soil. A subspecies that grows wild in southern Kazakhstan is a great candidate for use in breeding cultivars for cold climates, it is also very drought, insect and disease resistant.
Propagation is from hardwood cuttings taken during late autumn.

* historic archive photo


'Apiifolia' ( Cutleaf Grape )
Foliage is deeply-cut.

'Brant'
A hybrid including Vitis riparia, bearing deeply-lobed leaves that turn red in fall. The sweet tasting grapes are black.

'Incana' ( Dusty Miller Grape )
Powdery-white foliage contrasts with red-purple fruit.

'Purpurea' ( Purple Leaf Grape )
The foliage is deep green to purplish-green above, downy white beneath. The foliage turns to intense orange-red in fall, later deepening to deep purple.
The fruits are black.

Vitis vulpina ( Frost Grape )
A large, deciduous woody vine native to swamps and bottomlands in eastern North America ( from central Nebraska to southern Michigan to southern Ontario to Long Island, NY; south to central Texas to central Florida. It is critically endangered in Ontario where it is only currently known to occur along the Canard River Valley floodplain near Amherstburg though also occurred at Point Pelee and the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. It was considered abundant at Detroit, Michigan and moderately common on the Ohio shore during presettlement era. It is also endangered in Nebraska, Iowa, Ohio and New York State.
The very shallowly 3-lobed, rounded leaves, up to 7 inches wide, are mid-green.
The tiny flowers are borne on clusters up to 7 inches in length.
They are followed by clusters of black berries up to 0.4 inches wide. The grapes are sour until the first autumn freeze.
Hardy zones 4b to 9.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


HYBRID GRAPES
Prefer full sun.
Train onto wire frame or scaffold. Prune out stems that appear low on the trunk as theys steal nutrients from the upper fruiting part of the plant.

RECOMMENDED LINKS on Cold Hardy Grape Cultivars

http://viticulture.hort.iastate.edu/cultivars/cultivars.html
http://albertafruittrees.tripod.com/id11.html

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos of unknown internet source










Vitis 'U.M.O.'
A Grape vine originating in western Maine that produces fruit, even after the worst winters in Orono, MD.

COMMERCIAL GRAPES

* photo taken by Francine Mason near Niagara Falls, Ontario

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Konzelmann Winery in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* additional photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* videos found on Youtube






Vitis 'Alden'
Strong growing and vigorous, it originated in 1925 in Geneva, NY.
The tasty, tender, large, nearly black grapes are borne on mid-sized clusters, up to 0.5 pounds. They are borne mid season taking about 100 days from bloom to harvest.
The grapes are great eaten fresh, as raisons, or juices. It is not used for wine.
It is very soil tolerant. Moderately prone to botrytis bunch rot and mildew.
Rarely bothered by crown gall or other diseases.
Hardy north to zone 5

Vitis 'Alpenglow'
A moderate growing, interspecific hybrid between Vitis labrusca & V. riparia; that was developed in Wisconsin.
The abundant, mid-sized grapes are light green to light red, depending upon sunlight. They ripen very early and are borne on long, loose clusters.
It is used for white wine.
Hardy north to zone 5 and the wood ripens early.

Vitis 'Aurore'
Vigorous in habit, it was developed around 1860 in France.
The profuse, golden grapes mature early making it a good choice for climates where autumn frosts come early.
The grapes are ok for wine and moderately good for juice.
It is very prone to powdery mildew, black rot, botrytis bunch rot and eutypia dieback. Moderately prone to crown gall.
Tolerates as low as -15 F

Vitis 'Autumn King'

* video found on Youtube


Vitis 'Baco Noir'
A very vigorous interspecific hybrid including Vitis riparia & V. vinifera; originating in France.
The small, rounded, black grapes are borne on mid-sized, dense, cylindrical clusters.
It isused for a deep colored, mildly acidic wine.
It is very prone to crown gall and black rot. Moderately prone to botrytis bunch rot, eutypa dieback and mildew.
Tolerates as low as -15 F; it thrives on heavy clay even if it is poorly drained.

Vitis 'Baltica'
A strong growing, interspecific hybrid that includes Vitis amurensis, V. labrusca, V. riparia and V. vinifera.
The deep blue, mid-sized grapes are borne on long, mid-sized clusters.
They make a fruity wine that is clear in color.
Moderately prone to powdery mildew during early autumn, it is otherwise very disease resistant.
It is tolerant of very short growing seasons, cool summers and temperatures as low as -20 F. It is among the very few grapes that produce well and ripen in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe.

Vitis 'Beta'
A very vigorous grape, reaching over 20 feet, that is useful for arbors. It is a hybrid between Vitis 'Concord' and Vitis riparia 'Carver' that originated in Minnesota in 1881.
The mid-sized, black grapes are borne on moderately compact clusters mid season.
They make good jelly but poor wine.
Tolerant of temps colder than -20 F, it is often grown in Minnesota. Generally disease resistant, it is slightly prone to mildew.

Vitis 'Bluebell'
Vigorous in habit, it originated in Minnesota in 1923.
The tasty, juicy, mid-sized fruit are borne on moderately loose, mid-sized clusters during early autumn. They make poor wine but produce great jelly and pink colored juice.
It is generally disease resistant and only slightly prone to black rot, botrytis bunch rot and mildews.
Tolerant of temperates as low as -20 F or colder.

Vitis 'Brianna'
A non patented 2001 introduction bearing large, rounded, thick skinned, golden grapes on tight, mid-sized clusters during late summer. They make a moderately sweet, white wine. It can also be used to make grape juice.
It is very prone to crown gall, moderately prone to bunch rot and black rot while only slightly prone to mildew and leaf phylloxera.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerant of temperatures colder than -20 F with foliage that is more frost tolerant than most Grapes ); it is popular in the upper Midwest.

Vitis 'Chontay'
Vigorous in habit, it is a 1925 introduction from Brookings, South Dakota, that is an interspecific hybrid between Vitis labrusca and V. riparia.
The mid-sized, blue-purple grapes are borne on mid-sized, conical clusters borne early autumn. They are great for eating fresh as well for wine.
Very disease resistant except that it is slightly prone to anthracnose.
Tolerant of temperatures as low as -20 F or colder.

Vitis 'Clinton'
Vigorous in habit, it is an interspecific hybrid between Vitis labrusca and V. riparia, originating in 1819 in New York State.
The mid-sized, rounded, purple-black berries have very juicy, deep green flesh and large seeds. The grapes are borne on mid-sized, cylindrical clusters. They are good for juices but not wine. They are also too tart for use as a table grape or in deserts.
It prefers acidic soils, it is rarely bothered by diseases.
Hardy to -20 F, it does flower early making it prone to late spring frosts.

Vitis 'Concord'
A vigorous interspecific hybrid of Vitis labrusca with some V. vinifera, that was discovered in 1849.
The large, moderately glossy, blue, rounded grapes are borne in broad, moderately compact clusters, around 0.3 pounds.
The juicy flesh is pale green. The Concord Grape is good as a table grape as well as for wine and canning.
The fruit ripen during mid autumn or 115 days after flowering.
It is very prone to black rot, eutypa dieback, phomopsis cane and leaf spot as well as injury from 2,4-D. The Concord Grape is moderately prone to mildew and crown gall; only slightly prone to bunch rot, anthracnose, mildew and crown gall.
Tolerant of temperatures as low as -20 F; it is the most common cultivated grape in the U.S.

* photo taken on Jul 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


Vitis 'Corot Noir'
Originating in Geneva, New York in 1970.
The mid-sized, black grapes are borne on large clusters ripening during mid autumn.
It is used to make wine that is deep red.
It may get defoliated by mildew but is only slightly prone to anthracnose, botrytis bunch rot, crown gall, eutypa dieback and phomopsis cane and leaf spot.
Hardy to -15 F. Bud break is late so frost damage is rarely a problem.

Vitis 'Cynthiana'
Also called Vitis 'Norton'. It is vigorous in habit, with small, rounded, blue-black fruit borne in mid-sized, cylindrical clusters. The flesh is deep green and juicy.
The fruit requires a long frost free season to mature, they mature 125 days after blooming. This Grape makes very good, dry red wine.
Tolerant of as low as -15 F, it requires well drained soil and is not tolerant of wet soil or excessive potassium.

Vitis 'Edelweiss'
A vigorous grape, originating in Wisconsin in 1955.
The mid-sized, rounded, green grapes are borne on mid-sized, moderately dense clusters during late summer. The fruit does not handle well but is useful for white wine as well as juice or eaten fresh.
Moderately prone to anthracnose, botrytis bunch rot and mildew. It is only slightly prone to crown gall, black rot, eutypha dieback and phomopsis cane and leaf spot.
Hardy to -32 F, even fruiting the season after without protection.

Vitis 'Elvira'
A very vigorous grape, originating in 1874.
It bears mid-sized, green grapes borne on mid-sized, dense, cylindrical clusters during early autumn. Cluster thinning is essential, especially on plants under 5 years of age. They make a wine with low alcohol content, also good for making juice.
Very prone to botrytis bunch rot. Moderately prone to crown gall and mildew.
It is only slightly prone to black rot, eutyphia dieback and phomopsis cane and leaf spot. Tolerates as low as -20 F.

Vitis 'Espirit'
A moderately vigorous Grape bearing whitish-green, large, round grapes borne in large, moderately dense, conical clusters up to 1 pound. Each cluster has 60 to 90 berries. It makes an excellent white wine.
Tolerant of temperatures as low as -20 F.

Vitis 'Fredonia'
Moderately vigorous, it originated in 1915 in Fredonia, New York.
The large berries are borne on large, dense, cylindrical clusters in late summer.
Very prone to anthracnose, mildew and phomopsis cane and leaf spot. Moderately prone to powdery mildew. Slightly prone to botrytis bunch rot, crown gall, black rot and eutypa dieback.
Tolerates as low as -20 F

Vitis 'Frontenac'
Moderately vigorous in habit, it originated in 1978 in Minnesota.
The abundant, bluish-black, mid-sized grapes are born in conical clusters up to 7 inches in length. The grapes are ready for harvest during mid autumn, around 100 days after flowering. Berry splitting is rare. This Grape makes an excellent red wine.
Slightly prone to black rot, botrytis bunch rot and powdery mildew. Otherwise it is very disease resistant and only rarely affected by phomopsis cane and leaf spot & anthracnose. It is not known to be affected by crown gall.
Tolerant of as low as -35 F, possibly colder. It is the most common Red Wine Grape in Minnesota. Great for zone 3 to 5 in the eastern U.S. and Canada.
'Frontanac Gris'
is similar to 'Frontenac' but with gray fruit.

Vitis 'GR7'
Very vigorous in habit, it originated in 1947 in Geneva, New York. The black berries are borne in moderately tight clusters around 0.3 pounds, during early autumn.
It is used for dark red wines.
Only moderately prone to botrytis bunch rot and mildew. Slightly prone to anthracnose, black rot, eutypa dieback, promopsis cane and leaf spot & crown gall.
Hardy to colder than -20 F

Vitis 'Jupiter'
Moderately vigorous, originating in 1987 in Clarksville, Arkansas.
The seedless, large, blue, oblong grapes are borne on mid-sized, conical clusters around 0.6 pounds. The Grapes are ready for harvest in late summer or 85 days after blooming. It is great as a table grape and for juice.
Very prone to mildew, moderately prone to black rot and only slightly prone to anthracnose, botryris bunch rot, phomopsis cane and leaf spot as well as crown gall.
Very cold hardy, vine death begins at -25 F.

Vitis 'Kay Gray'
Very vigorous, originating at Osceola, Wisconsin in 1981.
The juicy, large, whitish-green grapes are borne in small, dense, cylindrical clusters borne late summer into autumn. Can be used for wine, juice or as a table grape.
Very disease resistant, rarely with any major problems.
Tolerates as low as -35 F or even -40 F on protected sites.

Vitis 'King of the North'
Very vigorous, needing wide spacing. It is an interspecific hybrid between Vitis labrusca and V. riparia.
The large, rounded, juicy, deep blue grapes are borne on conical, mid-sized clusters during early autumn. They are great for juice and jelly.
Prone to downy mildew, other problems are rare.
Hardy to as low as -35 F.

Vitis 'La Crescent'
Very vigorous, originating in Minnesota in 1988.
The smallish, rounded, deep yellow grapes are borne on conical, loose, mid-sized clusters up to 6 inches in length during early autumn. They make a good white wine.
Bud break is early so late spring frosts may be a problem on some sites.
Moderately prone to black rot, anthracnose and mildew. Other problems are rare.
Tolerates as low as -36 F, possibly even colder.

Vitis 'Landot Noir'
Vigorous and upright, originating in France.
The profuse, large, black berries are borne on loose, mid-sized clusters during early autumn. They make a great red wine.
It is moderately to Botrytis bunch rot & and downy mildew. Only slightly prone to anthracnose, black rot & powdery mildew.
Hardy to -15 F

Vitis 'Lemberger'
Also called Vitis 'Limberger'. Very vigorous and upright, originating in Austria and having Vitis vinifera parentage.
The blue, mid-sized grapes are borne on large, long clusters, up to 0.3 pounds.
The buds break early and the grapes ripen 110 days after blooming. It can thus be prone to both late spring and early fall frosts. The grapes are used to make an excellent red wine. The wine made from 'Lemberger' contains low level of histamines, thus not causing allergy headaches in people with histamine allergies.
Very prone to susceptible to black rot, crown gall,
mildew and eutypa dieback. and powdery mildew. Rarely bothered by
Botrytis bunch rot.
Tolerates as low as -13 F or colder, though fruting is greatly reduced below -10 F.
Thrives in New York State.

Vitis 'Leon Millot'
Originating in France, it is a very vigorous interspecific hybrid - including Vitis riparia, V. rupestris & V. vinifera.
The small, juicy, rounded black grapes are borne on loose, small, cylindrical clusters. The bud break is mid season and the grapes ripen early ( 85 days after blooming ). It is great for use in making wine and juice.
It is very prone to Botrytis bunch rot and moderately prone to mildew. Only slightly prone to anthracnose, black rot, crown gall, Eutypa dieback & Phomopsis cane and leaf spot.
Tolerates as low as -20 F.

Vitis 'Louise Swensen'
Moderate growing, originating at Osceola, Wisconsin in 1980.
The golden-yellow, rounded, mid-sized grapes are borne on dense, conical, mid-sized clusters ripening during early autumn. The grapes can be eaten fresh or made into wine.
The buds break late in spring so that late frosts is rarely a problem.
It does need irrigation during drought however since it is more drought sensitive than many grapes.
It is very disease resistant and problem free.
Very cold hardy, even to as low as -40 F.

Vitis 'Marechal Foch'
A slow growing grape, originating in Alsace, France in 1920.
The small, bluish-black, rounded grapes are borne on tight, cylindrical clusters up to 4 inches long, ripening during late summer.
It makes a great wine.
It is very prone to Eutypa dieback; moderately prone to anthracnose), black rot and mildew. Only slightly prone to Botrytis bunch rot and crown gall ( moderately prone in cold climates ).
Tolerates as low as -20 F. Very early in bud, making it prone to late spring frosts.

Vitis 'Marquette'
Moderately vigorous, originating in 1989 in Minnesota.
The round, mid-sized, bluish-black berries ( with light pink pulp ) are borne on mid-sized clusters up to 4 inches long, during early autumn. They are useful in making red wine.
It has shown extreme disease resistance, not typically bothered by any major problems.
Tolerates as low as -36 F without injury.

Vitis 'Mars'
Very vigorous, originating in Arkansas in 1972.
The abundant, deep red turning deep blue, rounded, very large grapes with sweet juice, are borne on mid-sized, cylindrical clusters around 0.4 pounds. The grapes ripen late summer or early autumn, about 80 days after blooming. They are great for eating fresh or for juice and jelly.
Hardy zones 5 t 8 ( to at least -15 F ), it is the most hardy seedless grape. It is late to leaf out so it is rarely bothered by late frosts. It is resistant to anthracnose, botrytis, black rot and mildew. Slightly prone to phomopsis.

Vitis 'Merlot'

* video found on Youtube


Vitis 'Niagara'
Also called 'Niagara White' or 'White Concord'. The large, oval, pale yellow-green grapes are borne on large, moderately dense, cylindrical clusters. They ripen during early autumn or 110 days after blooming. They are great eaten fresh, made into juices or white wine.
Very prone to black rot, mildew, phomopsis cane and leaf spot. Moderately prone to crown gall and anthracnose. Only slightly prone to botrytis bunch rot and eutypa dieback.
Not exceptionally hardy, tolerating as low as -15 F but recommended on sheltered sites anywhere winters go below 0 F. Not recommended for much of the midwest.

Vitis 'Noiret'
Vigorous, originating in New York State in 1973.
The black, mid-sized grapes are borne in large, loose clusters.
They make are great wine with a deep color.
Moderately prone to mildew when grown on certain conditions, as well as black rot and crown gall ( in cold climates ).
Tolerates as low as -14 F. Bud break is late so that late spring frosts are rarely a problem.

Vitis 'Petite Anne'
Moderate in growth, it was discovered in 1983 in South Haven, Minnesota.
The small, rounded, yellow-green grapes are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized, conical clusters, up to 10 inches in length, during late summer into early autumn.
The flesh is juicy and soft. The grapes keep well on the vine and make an excellent wine.
It is very easy to grow and disease problems are very rare other than minor anthracnose and black rot during wet years.
Tolerates as low as -25 F.

Vitis 'Petite Jewel'
Moderate in growth, it originated in 1984 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The small, rounded, seedless, red grapes are borne in conical, mid-sized clusters ripening mid summer and persisting well on the vines. They are eaten fresh and can also make an excellent white wine.
Very disease resistant, with rare exceptions of minor black rot and downy mildew.
Tolerates as low as -20 F

Vitis 'Prairie Star'
Vigorous in habit, originating in 1980 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The round, mid-sized, thick-skinned yellow grapes are borne on long, curved clusters around 0.4 pounds, late summer into early autumn. They are eaten fresh or made into white wine. The bud break is moderately late so that late spring frosts are rarely a problem.
It is moderately prone to black rot and anthracnose; only slightly prone to mildew.
Of excellent disease resistance, other diseases have not been observed.
Easily tolerant of -35 F and known to survive -40 F.

Vitis 'Ravat 34'
Moderately vigorous, originating in France.
The rounded, small, pinkish-white grapes are borne on loose, small clusters, up to 4 inches in length. They are eaten fresh or made into white wine.
It is very prone to mildew but otherwise of high disease resistance.
Tolerates as low as -17 F

Vitis 'Reliance'
Moderately vigorous, originating in 1964 in Fayetteville, Arkansas.
The pink to red, rounded, mid-sized, seedless grapes are borne on mid-sized, moderately dense, conical clusters borne late summer. The grapes are eaten fresh and made into raisons, they are not used for wine.
Very prone to anthracnose, black rot, botrytis bunch rot, mildew and phomopsis cane and leaf spot. It is moderately prone to mildew and slightly prone to crown gall.
Tolerates as low as -29 F.

Vitis 'Rosette'
Very vigorous and often used for arbors, it originated in France before 1927.
The bluish-black, mid-sized, rounded grapes are borne on mid-sized, compact, cylindrical clusters during early autumn.
Unfortunately it is often a sparse producer.
It is very prone to mildew; moderately prone to black rot, Phomopsis cane and leaf
spot & crown gall. Problems with Botrytis bunch rot are rare and generally mild.
Tolerates as low as -15 F

Vitis 'Sabrevois'
Vigorous and upright, originating in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The mid-sized, black berries are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized clusters during late summer. Unfortunately it is sometimes a sparse producer.
The grapes are used for wine which is very dark in color.
It is very disease resistant, only rarely bothered by minor cases of
black rot and mildew. Phylloxera has been reported.
Tolerates as low as -31 F. It is not drought tolerant as drought tends to cut yield.

Vitis 'Seyval Blanc'
Moderately vigorous and semi-upright, it originated in France in 1930.
The small, golden-yellow, rounded grapes are borne on large, dense clusters during late summer into early autumn. Cluster thinning is often needed for as it tends to overbear. The grapes are used to make white wine and this is the most common white wine grape in eastern North America.
It is very prone to Botrytis bunch rot, black rot and mildew;
moderately prone to Crown gall & Phomopsis cane and leaf spot. It is only slightly
prone to anthracnose and Eutypa dieback.
Tolerates as low as -15 F.

Vitis 'Sipaska'
Extremely vigorous in habit, it originated around 1925 in Brooks, South Dakota.
The small, red grapes are borne on moderately dense, small, conical clusters during late summer into early autumn. The grapes are used fro very dark red wine.
They are also used for jelly.
Very prone to anthracnose; other disease problems are very rare.
Tolerant of temperatures as low as -40 F, it is an excellent wine grape for the upper midwest.

Vitis 'Skujinsh'
Moderately vigorous, it originated around 1970 in Moscow, Russia.
The yellowish, mid-sized grapes are borne on moderately dense clusters around 0.25 pounds during late summer. They are eaten fresh and wines are sometimes made from them. Bud break is somewhat late in spring so that frost damage is rare.
It is not often bothered by pests or disease problems.
Tolerates temperatures as low as -32 F ( possibly colder ), even producing around Moscow, Russia with no winter protection. It is highly recommended for the upper midwest, even northern Minnesota.

Vitis 'Somerset Seedless'
Moderately vigorous in habit, originating in 2002 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The seedless, mid-sized, pink turning to red, sweet tasting grapes are borne on dense, mid-sized clusters borne late summer into early autumn.
The grapes are eaten fresh and not used for wine.
It is very disease resistant though sometimes affected by mildew.
Tolerates as low as -30 F and is very tolerant of cool growing seasons - producing well even in the Baltic Sea region of Europe.

Vitis 'St. Croix'
Vigorous in habit, originating in 1981 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The juicy, mid-sized, blue, rounded grapes are borne on dense, mid-sized, conical clusters ripening late summer into early autumn around 90 days after blooming.
They are eaten fresh or made into juice or red wine.
Tolerates as low as -40 F but should be mulched where snow cover is not reliable during severe cold.

Vitis 'St. Vincent'
Moderately vigorous and upright, it originated in Missouri in 1973.
The deep purple, large grapes are borne on loose, mid-sized, conical clusters weighing around 0.4 pounds. The grapes ripen during early autumn and are used to make a red wine.
The attractive foliage turns scarlet-red during autumn.
It is moderately prone to black rot, Botrytis bunch rot and mildew; slightly prone to
black rot, Botrytis bunch rot, crown gall, Eutypa dieback & Phomopsis cane and leaf spot ( after cool wet springs ).
Tolerates as low as -15 F though protection is recommended below -4 F to prevent loss of fruit production. It needs a long growing season for the fruits to mature.

Vitis 'Steuben'
Very vigorous and useful for arbors, it originated in 1925 in Geneva, New York.
The abundant, sweet, juicy, mid-sized, black, rounded grapes are borne on dense, large, cylindrical clusters ripening mid autumn or 100 days after flowering.
They are eaten fresh or used for juices and wines.
The foliage turns attractive red tones during autumn.
It is moderately prone to black rot; slightly prone to Anthracnose, Botrytis bunch rot, crown gall, mildew & Phomopsis cane and leaf spot.
Tolerates as low as -20 F

Vitis 'Swensen Red'
Vigorous in habit, originating in 1962 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The large, deep red to reddish-blue, rounded grapes are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized, conical clusters borne early autumn.
The grapes are eaten fresh and make a moderately good white wine.
It is very mildew prone; moderately prone to Botrytis bunch rot and only slightly prone to anthracnose, black rot and crown gall. Other diseases have are not known.
It is less prone to disease in climates that are not hot and humid.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -30 F )but fruiting is compromised without protection below -15 F.

Vitis 'Swensen White'
Very vigorous in habit, originating in 1988 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The large, yellowish, rounded grapes are borne on moderately dense, large, conical clusters borne early autumn and persisting over a long period making it a good candidate for ice wine.
The grapes are eaten fresh and make a moderately good white wine.
The bud break is mid season so that late spring frosts are not usually a serious concern.
It is very mildew prone; moderately prone to Botrytis bunch rot and only slightly prone to anthracnose, black rot and crown gall. Other diseases have are not known.
Hardy zones 4b to 8 ( tolerating as low as -30 F ) but fruiting may be compromised without protection below -20 F though more testing may be needed to determine this.

Vitis 'Tabernet Franc'
Similar to Vitis 'Tabernet Sauvignon' but is more cold tolerant and early ripening.

Vitis 'Tabernet Sauvignon'
Cold hardy in much of the Great Lakes and more disease resistant than most varieties of Vitis vinifera.
The grapes ripen late and make a great red wine.

Vitis 'Traminette'
Moderately vigorous in habit, it originated in Geneva, New York in the 1960s.
The mid-sized, amber-yellow, rounded grapes are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized clusters ripening early to mid autumn or 110 days after blooming.
The grapes are used for white wine.
Bud break is late so that damage from late spring frost is not a major concern.
It is very prone to Phomopsis cane and leaf spot; moderately prone to mildew and crown gall ( most commonly occurs on heavy clay soil ). Only rarely is it bothered by anthracnose, black rot & Botrytis bunch rot.
Tolerates as low as -15 F.

Vitis 'Trollhaugen'
Moderately vigorous, originating in 1985 in Osceola, Wisconsin.
The sweet tasting, seedless, mid-sized, blue, rounded grapes are borne on small, dense, cylindrical clusters. The grapes ripen during early autumn though are long persistant until hard frost occur. They are eaten fresh and not used for wine.
It is typically very disease resistant and problem free; black rot and downy mildew can occur but is rare.
Tolerant of temperatures as low as -22 F.

Vitis 'Valiant'
Originated in 1967 in Brookings, South Dakota.
The abundant, sweet tasting, small, black, rounded grapes are borne on small, dense clusters up to 4 inches in length, ripening during late summer.
They are used for juice, jams and jellies.
Generally disease resistant, it tends to be prone to powdery mildew in overly wet climates.
Hardy to -50 F, surviving in Manitoba, Canada with no damage.

Vitis 'Van Buren'
Vigorous in habit, originating in 1935 in Fredonia, New York.
The mid-sized, sweet tasting, deep purple-black, rounded grapes are borne on dense, mid-sized, cylindrical clusters. The flesh is translucent green and juicy. They are eaten fresh and are best straight off the vine as they store poorly.
Bud break is late in spring so late frosts rarely cause damage.
Very prone to downy mildew; slightly prone to Botrytis bunch rot, crown gall and
powdery mildew. Not known to be damaged by anthracnose, black rot,
Eutypa dieback or Phomopsis cane and leaf spot
Tolerates as low as -20 F

Vitis 'Vanessa'
Moderately vigorous, it originated in 1965 in Vineland, Ontario.
The mid-sized, intense red, rounded, seedless grapes are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized clusters borne during late summer. They are eaten fresh.
It is highly prone to black rot; moderately prone to mildews; and slightly
prone to Botrytis bunch rot), crown gall & Phomopsis cane
and leaf spot. Other disease problems are unknown.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 ( tolerating as low as -18 F ), it required winter protection in the upper midwest.

Vitis 'Ventura'
Vigorous in habit, originating in 1951 in Vineland, Ontario.
The small, rounded, yellow ( with white bloom ) grapes are borne on moderately dense, mid-sized clusters, ripening early to mid autumn.
The grapes are used to make juice and white wine.
It is moderately prone to black rot and mildews; only slightly prone to anthracnose , Botrytis bunch rot, crown gall & Phomopsis cane and leaf spot. Other problems are unknown.
Tolerates as low as -20 F

Ventura 'Zilga'
Very vigorous in habit and originating in 1964 in Latvia; it is a complex hybrid including Vitis amurensis among other species. Very attractive, it can be used for arbors.
The abundant, blue, mid-sized grapes are borne on dense, mid-sized grapes are borne on dense, mid-sized clusters. They are eaten fresh and used in wine.
Excellent disease resistance.
Tolerates as low as -40 F, thriving even in cool, wet climates with short growing seasons.