Saturday, March 26, 2011

Montbretia

Crocosmia

Also called Tritonia. These Iris relatives are corms, forming fast growing clumps composed of sword shaped, semi-evergreen leaves.
The funnel-shaped flowers, from 1 to 2 inches in length, are borne on arching spikes during mid summer. Crocosmias are great plants for attracting hummingbirds and butterflies. They make great cut flowers.
These perennials are easy to grow in full sun ( or partial shade ) on just about any light, humus-rich, fertile, well drained soil and are propagated from division during mid-autumn or early spring. Plants bloom best when divided every 2 to 3 years, they multiply rapidly with ideal conditions. Some species are so vigorous, that they may even become invasive in some places including New Zealand. The ideal planting depth for the bulbs is 4 inches.
Prune old and tattered leaves off during early spring.
Deep winter mulch or snow cover is essential during winter to protect the roots. Mulch heavily during the first winter.
Planting during late spring is recommended to give the plant time to establish before the following winter.
In zones 1 to 4; the fleshy roots can be lifted and wintered indoors in the same way as Cannas. The corms should be planted back out in the garden 6 inches deep on light,
fertile, well drained soil during spring after the last frost. In mild climates, the corms can also be planted during autumn.
Crocosmias are not eaten by deer and are not usually bothered by pests or disease either though spider mites may sometimes occur.

* photos of unknown internet source



Crocosmia aurea
Forms a fast growing clump, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet.
The large flowers are glowing bright yellow.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora
The hybrids between C. aurea & C. pottsii; forming clumps reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet, with leaves up to 3 feet x 1 inch. The bright green foliage is evergreen in mild climates.
The large, yellow to scarlet-red flowers are borne during late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. Mulch well during winter in cool climates.

* photos taken on July 7 2011 in Columbia, MD



'Bressingham Beacon'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 3 feet with orange and yellow bicolor flowers.

'Bressingham Blaze'
Intense orange-red flowers.

'Bright Eyes'
Dwarf in habit, reaching a maximum height of 20 inches, with linear deep green leaves and orange ( red eyed ) flowers borne mid to late summer.

* photo taken on Aug 29 2013 in Clarksville, MD


'Cast Leward'
Vigorous and clumping, reaching up to 5 feet with green foliage and dark stems bearing pendulous, deep orange-red flowers.

'Citronella'
Light yellow flowers.

'Constance'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet with yellow and red bicolor flowers borne during summer.

'Culsean Reach'
Floppy and upright in habit, reaching up to 3.5 feet, with narrow green leaves and peach-red, tubular flowers.

'Custard Cream'
Forms a clump of deep green foliage bearing late season flowers that are orange in bud, opening to yellow.

'Emberglow'
Reaches up to 3 x 3+ feet with very large, deep orange-red ( centered yellow ) flowers.

'Emily McKenzie'
Fast growing and reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6 feet, with long-lasting, intense orange ( centered red ), trumpet-shaped flowers borne during late summer. Can be mixed with 'Lucifer'.

'George Davidson'
Reaches a maximum height of 4 feet, with small, intense bright yellow flowers.

'Jenny Bloom'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 3 feet, with intense deep yellow flowers.

'Lucifer'
Reaches a maximum size of 6 x 7 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, with sword-shaped leaves and nodding, small, scarlet-red flowers borne mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( 5 & 6 if very sheltered & mulched - do not cut back old foliage until spring ) in full sun.
Looks great combined with Moonbeam Coreopsis.

* photo taken on Aug 24 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 6 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 19 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Morning Light'
Short and compact, only reaching up to 2.5 feet in height.
The drooping foliage is green and the flowers are bright yellow.

'Norwich Canary'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 2.5 feet with bright yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers borne mid summer into early autumn.

'Queen of Spain'
Upright and dense, reaching up to 3 feet, with narrow green leaves and large but sparse intense orange-red flowers.

'Saracen'
Very compact, reaching up to 2.5 feet, with bronze-olive green leaves and nooding flowers that are pinkish-orange with yellow centers.

'Severn Sunrise'
Upright in habit, reaching up to 4 feet, with mid-green leaves and peachy-orange flowers.

'Solfatare'
Dense, upright and clumping, reaching up to 2.7 feet.
Foliage is bronze and the flowers are apricot-orange eventually fading to yellow.

'Spitfire'
Upright in habit, reaching up to 2 feet, with green foliage and bright orange flowers.

'Star of the East'
Upright ( to 4 feet ) and running in habit with green, medium-width foliage and very large, tangerine-orange flowers up to 3 inches across each. The flowers are borne during early autumn.

'Venus'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet in height, with apricot-orange flowers during mid to late summer.

'Vulcan'
Reaches up to 3 feet with orangish-red flowers.

'Walberton Yellow'
Reaches up to 2 feet in height, with brilliant yellow flowers borne all summer long.

'Zeal Tan'
Moderately slow growing and upright in habit, reaching up to 3 feet.
The dark stems bear orange-red flowers.

Crocosmia masonorum
Forms a clump, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 5 feet, with fine textured leaves up to 3 feet in length.
The broad, erectly held flowers are fiery orange-red. They are borne over a long season.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( reported of 3 to 6 on sheltered sites and heavily mulched ).

'Blaze'
Very compact in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with green leaves and bright orange flowers.

'Rowallane Yellow'
Upright and floppy, reaching up to 4 feet with broad leaf blades and early season yellow-orange flowers.

Crocosmia pottsii
Forms a clump, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet, composed of broad leaves, up to 1.5 feet in length.
The bright yellow ( with red flushing ) flowers are borne on erect inflorescences during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Comfrey

Symphytum

Symphytum ( Comfrey )
Highly ornamental, tough perennials, closely related to Pulmonarias but much taller.
Comfrey grows in full sun or partial shade ( tolerates full shade ) preferring fertile, moist soil though will grow in just about anything. They are deer resistant. They are easy to reproduce from root cuttings. Using this method, in a few years you will be giving away Comfrey plants to the entire neighborhood. Most plants do not reliably form viable seed so propagation from seed is not a reliable form of reproduction. Older clumps can also be divided during autumn. These plants are very long lived and persistant.
Comfrey makes an excellent forage plant and is fed to racehorses to bring them into peak condition. Comfrey is among the best of all plants for the production of plant proteins. An acre of Comfrey yields as much as 6 times as much protein as Soybeans. It has high Vitamin B content ( rare for vegetables ) and is rich in Vitamin A, Vitamin C as well as Potassium, Phosphorus and Calcium.
The leaves can be used in a green drink or smoothie.
Comfrey plants contain a substance called allantoin which is a cell growth stimulator. Comfrey is excellent for use in stopping bleeding and speeding up the healing of ulcers, burns and wounds. Comfrey juice is beneficial for the skin.
Very productive plants, up to 50 tons of green matter may be produced on an acre in a single season. It can be used for the production of methane with the additional by-product of nitrogen rich fertilizer. The leaves are high in nitrogen content and make a great green manure. The vigorous root system is great for breaking up compacted soils. New home owners can sow a mixture of Comfrey and Clover ( roots fix nitrogen ) to prepare the soil for an outstanding future garden or home farm.

* photos of unknown internet source



Symphytum asperum ( Prickly Comfrey )
A deeply-rooted perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 feet, that is native from Turkey to the Caucasus; south to northern Iran. It has naturalized locally in North America to as far north as Juneau, Alaska and Quebec City in Canada.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves are up to 10 inches in length.
The pale pink aging to blue, tubular flowers are borne in drooping cymes during late spring to late summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 on protected sites ) in sun or shade on any, deep, fertile, well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Symphytum azureum
Reaches up to 20 inches x 2 feet, with rich green foliage that is topped in pure blue, bell-shaped flowers.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. Tolerant of deep shade.

Symphytum caucasicum ( Blue Comfrey )
A very fast growing to invasive, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 32 inches, that is native to the Caucasus.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves, up to 10 ( rarely over 8 ) inches in length, are green.
The tubular, bright blue flowers, up to 0.5 inches in length, are borne in drooping cymes during spring into early summer. It sometimes blooms again during late summer if old flowering stems are deadheaded.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Symphytum grandiflorum ( Large-Flowered Comfrey )
Also called Symphytum ibericum. A rapid spreading but not invasive, rhizomatous, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 2 x 4 feet, that is native from northeast Turkey to the Caucasus. It spreads underground with stolons.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are rich deep green.
The foliage is great for forming a weed smothering carpet.
The profuse, creamy-white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches in length, are borne in drooping cymes during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in sun or shade, tolerating drought but more vigorous on moist soil. Tolerant of deep shade and dry shade. Propagation is from division during early spring.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Goldsmith'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with showy, deep green leaves, up to 18 x 6 inches, that are edged in yellow.
The flowers, up to 0.7 inches in length, during late spring into early summer, are pink in bud, opening to white and blue.

'Hidcote Blue'
Blue flowers.

'Hidcote Pink'
Pink flowers.

Symphytum officinale ( Common Comfrey )
A fast growing to invasive, robust perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 7 ( rarely over 4 x 6 ) feet, that is native to France. It has naturalized locally in North America to as far north as Juneau, Alaska and Quebec City, Canada.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are deep green.
The tubular, yellowish-white, pink or purple flowers are borne in drooping cymes during early summer ( sometimes repeating into early autumn ).
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. The roots fix their own nitrogen.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD


Symphytum orientale
A fast growing to invasive, short-lived, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 28 x 40 inches, that is native to western Asia ( from Turkey to the Caucasus ).
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves, up to 5.5 inches in length, are mid-green.
The tubular, white flowers are borne in drooping cymes during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil though tolerant of dry shade. Frequently self seeds.

Symphytum rubrum ( Red Flowered Comfrey )
An excellent, fast growing, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 2 feet, that is native to Armenia.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves are deep green.
The tubular, deep red flowers are borne in drooping cymes all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil

Symphytum tuberosum
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3.5 feet, that is a widespread native of woodlands and riverbanks in Europe ( from the British Isles to Russia; south to Spain to Turkey ).
The leaves are up to 10 inches in length. The foliage goes dormant during summer.
The pale yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches in length, are borne during late spring into early summer. Hardy zones 5 to 8 in sun or shade.

Symphytum x uplandicum ( Russian Comfrey )
The very fast growing hybrid between Symphytum asperum & S. officiale, forming a very attractive, huge, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 ( rarely over 7 x 4 ) feet.
The coarse, hairy, elliptical leaves, up to 2 feet in length, are borne on winged stems. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The tubular, rosey-pink ( later turning bluish-purple ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches long, are borne in drooping cymes during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ) in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. If foliage looks worn and tired after blooming, cut entire plant to ground and new foliage will appear and lasting until freezing weather occurs later in autumn.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Axminster Gold'
Shorter in stature ( 4 feet ) but with the same spectacular oversized ( 2 foot ) foliage with a twist - it is boldly margined in creamy-yellow. The bold colorful foliage makes this a great substitute for Hostas where hungry deer abound.

'Variegatum'
Mid green foliage that is edged in creamy-white; it is otherwise nearly identical to the species.
The flowers are purplish-pink.

Trachystemon

Trachystemon orientalis ( Russian Borage )
A relative of the Pulmonarias, forming a very fast growing to invasive groundcover, forming a dense clump, up to 4 x 7 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in size. The Eastern Borage is native to wet deciduous forests from Bulgaria to the western Caucasus.
The hairy, heart-shaped leaves, up to 20 x 12 ( rarely over 12 x 7 ) inches, are deep green.
The purplish-blue, starry flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne on on open sprays on short stalks before the foliage during early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in sun or shade on just about any soil though preferring moist and humus-rich. It prefers moist shade but will tolerate dry shade making an excellent large scale groundcover for under trees. Propagation is from seed or division while dormant.

* photos of unknown internet source


Useful Weeds

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Useful Weeds

Cardamine ( Spring Cress, Hairy Bitter Cress )
Harvested during cool weather when they are not bitter, they are excellent eaten raw in salads or used as a pot herb.

Chenopodium album ( Lambs Quarters )
Originating in Europe and now spread around the world, this colonizer plant or seed is a close relative of Spinach. The young growth can be used in salad and this plant is rich in Vitamin A, Bs, C as well as Phosphorus, Iron and Calcium.

Cichorium intybus ( Chicory )
A member of the Aster family, the Chicory was originally native of Europe but is now found growing wild in much of North America.
The flowers are bright blue and this plant can in some cases be used as a landscape plant as well.
The leaves are very nutritious and bitter just like that of the Dandilion. They are very rich in Iron, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium as well as Vitamins A & C.
The young leaves are the best for use in salads, the older leaves become tough and bitter. Chicory can be used as a green drink but can be extremely bitter unless mixed with other juices.
Chicory prefers full sun and light, fertile, moist soil however has much wider soil tolerances. Propagation is from seed and it often seeds itself.

Glechoma hederacea ( Ground Ivy )
The leaves on young tender shoots are rich in Vitamin C and minerals and can be added to salads. The leaves can also make a great tea though you may need alot to get good flavor.
The plant is a diuretic and considered to be a blood purifier.

Malva ( Mallow )
The young leaves can be cooked as a pot herb or eaten raw. Malva has among the highest Carotene content of all plants, with as much as 16 000 i.u. per ounce. The human body converts carotene to Vitamin A.

Osmorrhiza ( Sweet Cicely )
They prefer fertile moist soil. Propagation is from division or seed.
The entire plant can be used for tea. The seeds when immature can be eaten in salads.

Oxalis corniculata
The foliage contains abundant Vitamin C, you can add a few leaves to a herbal tea. They can be boiled as a pot herb which removes much of the oxalic acid. Unfortunately this plant should not be used fresh or in large quantities since it has up to 7% oxalic acid content. Large amounts of Oxalic Acid is toxic, damages the kidneys and inhibits calcium absorbtion.

Plantago major ( Great Plantain )
The tender new foliage is spring can be boiled as a pot herb or eaten fresh in salads or sandwiches. The nutritious greens are rich in Vitamin A and C.
All Plantain are edible. Plantago fastigiata, P. maritima & P. macrocarpa can be used in the same way.

Portulaca oleracea ( Purslane )
Should not be used excessively due to Oxalic Acid content but used sparingly, Purslane contains abundant Vitamin A, C, iron and omega 3 fatty acids.

Pueraria lobata ( Kudzu )
The foot a day vine! Should never be planted but this Japanese native that has taken over and ruined over 11 000 acre of land in the southeast U.S. has a few used. In a single season Kudzu can overtake a 100 foot tree and eventually starve it from lack of light.
In the southeastern U.S. it does not die down to the ground during winter unlike in its native Asian territory. One way to control Kudzu in the southeastern U.S. is to remove lower branches from trees along the forest edge and use chemical sprays to remove shrubby plants to give Kudzu nothing to climb onto in its search for the light in the sky.
Kudzu isn't entirely useless however. The foliage is very nutritious, as much as Alfalfa but more palatable, making it an excellent forage crop for livestock while it enriches the soil with nitrogen. The sugar rich Kudzu roots can be used to produce alcohol and the vines can be fermented to produce 5 cu ft. of methane gas while the residue be used as fertilizer. The drought tolerant, tuberous roots of mature Kudzu plants can be MASSIVE, weighing a few hundred pounds.
Kudzu produced its own nitrogen thus enriching the soil. The harvested plant can be used as compost.
It can also be used to cover sheds and roofs of small homes during summer, thus providing natural air conditioning ( recommended to cut back hard during autumn ).
Kudzu is easy to grow once it is established. Propagation is from seed soaked for 24 hours in water after the hard shell is nicked.
It is not necessary to dig up all the roots to get rid of Kudzu but definately do get rid of the first foot. This plant can easily regenerate from the root crown but not from deeper roots.

Silybum marianum ( Milk Thistle )
A nutritious plant that can be eaten cooked or raw. This plant should be grown organically since it can accumulate nitrates.
The seed can be used to protect the liver from toxins and even help it recover if damaged. The extract is sold in most health food and vitamin stores.
Milk Thistle is also reported to reduce growth of cancer cells in prostate, cervical and breast cander.

Smilax ( Greenbriar )
A genus of plants that are part of the larger Smilacaceae family.
They are typically vines and many bear both tendrils and thorns which is rare in the plant world.
Considered by many as noxious weeds in the wooded landscape, they can be used in the kitchen. The growing tips during spring and early summer or the tender young leaves can be cooked like asparagus or eaten raw in salads.

Sonchus ( Sow Thistle )
All species are edible and the tender new foliage of this Lettuce relative are rich in Vitamin A & C. They can be used in salad if the spines are removed.

Stellularia media
Native to Eurasia but now worldwide, the Chickweed is a cool season annual. It germinated during autumn, tolerates temperatures as low as 10 F and luxuriates at 40 F. During hot summer weather if disappears. They grow fast from seed and produce their own seed in as little as 30 days. Only mildly flavored, Chickweed can be eaten and is rich in Vitamin C.

Trifolium pratense ( Red Clover )
Originally introduced from Europe, is now the most common Clover in North America.
The leaves don't taste all that great, but the young spring leaves are very nutritious and can be eaten either raw or cooked fro 5 to 10 minutes.
DO not eat Trifolium arvense ( Rabbits Foot Clover ) which is not edible.
The fresh nectar rich flowers are used to make a slightly sweet tea. The flowers are highly valuable for Honey Bees.
The plant may have some tumor inhibiting properties.
The roots of clover fix nitrogen in the same way as Alfalfa, making this among the most valuable of all cover crops to rejuvenate tired old farmland.
A single acre of Clover may produce between 100 and 500 pounds of nitrogen in a year.
CLOVER IS 100 TIMES BETTER THE COVER CROP FOR FRUIT ORCHARDS THAN GRASS. Clover will increase growth of the crop while turf will severely impede it. Clover is also more drought and cold tolerant, staying green long after the turf turns brown.

Trifolium repens commonly invades lawns and itself is an excellent lawn substitute providing luxuriant green and white flowers while enriching the soil.
The foliage is high in proteins but do not eat foliage off lawns that have been sprayed.


Tropaeolum majus ( Nasturtium )
The leaves are great used as a pot herb, in soups, stir fries and eaten fresh in sandwiches and salads. The seeds before ripening can also be eaten in salads.
It also makes a great ornamental plant, staying green all year in mild climates, an annual in cold climates.

Urtica dioica ( Stinging Nettle )
A very vigorous perennial weed that is widely distributed in North America.
The Stinging Nettle is covered with stinging hairs that act like hypothermic needles injecting formic acid into anything that brushes up against it. The sting is irritating to the skin but wears off quickly. Few animals eat Stinging Nettle.
Strangly enough, Stinging Nettle is not only edible but also very tasty.
Only the fresh young shoots during spring are edible and they need a few seconds of cooking to get rid of the stingers. Stinging Nettle can be used in the same way as Spinach, producing an excellent tasty potherb with just a few minute of steaming or boiling.
The dried leaves can be used to make a very nutritious tea though it isn't particularly tasty. The dried leaves can be powdered and added to bread and soups to increase their nutritional value.
Stinging Nettle is very nutritious. It contains abundant chlorophyll, Vitamin A, multiple Bs, abundant Vitamin C and D and more protein than any other green leaf.
Stinging Nettle also has among the highest Iron content of any plant, as well as containing calcium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon and sulfur.

Valeriana edulis & officinalis
Roots can be cooked and eaten or boiled in a change of water ( makes great tea ).
The root tea is a great bedtime mild sedative. Valeriana ciliata, dioica, obovata, occidentalis and sitchensis can also be used in the same way.
Propagation is from seed, division and soft cuttings.

Viola
Viola contain beta-ionone, a natural fungicide, which can be used to treat skin diseases and even cancer. The tender spring leaves can be used in salads and are very rich in Vitamin C as well as Vitamin A.

PREVENT CANCER WITH DANDILION

Sometimes you may not want to spray the lawn. A milky spore treated, dense, crabgrass free natural turf area may contain some non grassy plants you may just decide to keep, especially Dandilion. Your local water supply will thank you for deciding to keep this valuable plant which occurs in all U.S. states and most of Canada.

Dandilion ( Taraxacum )
The deep roots of these plants are great for breaking up compacted soil. The entire plant makes great organic material.
Improved cultivars with larger, more succulent foliage also exist and are still hardy and vigorous. The foliage makes an excellent salad herb, equal in flavor to Chicory.
The leaves of ( unsprayed ) Dandilion are VERY HEALTHY!!! They contain enzymes, chlorophyll and are rich in Vitamins ( A, B and C ) and Minerals ( Calcium, Iron, Copper, Magnesium & Phosphorus ). The Dandilion is also a Diuretic and Blood Cleanser. The leaves can be cooked in a change of water and can also be eaten fresh though are too bitter for some peoples taste. Dandilion can also be used in Green Drinks though sparingly enough to not make the drink too bitter. Blanching Dandilion is not recommended as it reduces not only the bitterness of the foliage but also the Vitamin content. Dandilion tastes better during spring and fall, also in winter in mild climate regions.
Dandilion is VERY RICH IN VITAMIN A!!! Dandilion plants may contain as much as 14 000 i.u. of Vitamin A per 100 grams. Eaten regularly, the leaves are a very strong Cancer preventative! The Juice extract can also be used to rebuild teeth and bones.
The sap of Dandilion contains rubber latex. One species Taraxium kok-sayghiz has even been cultivated in Russia for rubber production. Dandilion is among the richest of all sources of Potassium.
The roots are valuable in helping treat diabetes, hypoglycemia, hepatitis, gallstones and jaundice.
The flowers provide pollen for beneficial insects and the seeds are eaten by many birds. Wild and domesticated animals eat the nutrient rich foliage.
The are easy to grow on most soil in full sun. Propagation is from seed and it usually helps itself. The seed quickly germinates and has no dormancy requirement. Dandilion is very drought tolerant due to its deep taproot.
The Western World has been sold a lie. This lie feeds the profits of chemical companies. The truth is a clean, weed free lawn may be a sterile lawn, but it is certainly not a healthy lawn!
* photo of unknown internet source





Off Site Articles...

Increasing Cost of Oil makes Dandilion Rubber more Economical
http://www.economist.com/node/15172672?story_id=15172672

Thyme

Thymus
A genus of low, spreading, evergreen perennials that are great for walls, edging lan
Thyme contains thymol which is antiseptic and can be used as a wound herb treating skin diseases such as athletes foot.
Most species of Thyme prefer full sun on well drained soil.
Cut back all varieties often to renovate. Rabbit and deer resistant.
They can be propagated from seed sown during mid-spring for the species. Cuttings and division during early spring for cultivars.

* photos taken on July 13 2013 in Columbia, MD



Thymus caespitatius
A tight cushion forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 2.5 feet, that is native to the Azores, Portugal and Spain. Great for rock gardens.
The tiny, narrow leaves are intense emerald green.
The sparse pink or white flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Thymus cilicicus
A low perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 10 inches.
The aromatic leaves are narrow and hairy.
The profuse pink flowers are borne in clusters, up to 0.3 inches across.
Hardy zones 8 to 9

Thymus citriodorus ( Lemon Scented Thyme )
A fast growing, neat, bushy, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 + ( rarely over 0.5 ) feet. It is often considered to be the hybrid between Thymus pulegoides & T vulgaris. It is an excellent lawn substitute.
The attractive, brightly variegated, very fragrant, lemon-scented, oval leaves are up to 0.4 inches in length. The glossy deep green, lemon-scented foliage is evergreen to -20 F.
The lavender flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( 4 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Shear plants after flowering. Drought tolerant, deer and rabbit resistant.

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Archer's Gold'
Very vigorous and low growing, reaching only 2.5 inches in height, with foliage that is intense deep golden-yellow during spring and fall.

'Aureus' ( Gold Edge Thyme )
Reaches a maximum size of 1.3 x 3+ feet. with glossy foliage that is green and variegated with golden-yellow.
The lavender flowers are borne during late spring.

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Aug 3 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Golden King'
Bushy in habit, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 3 feet, with striking foliage that is golden-yellow variegated.

'Gold Lemon' ( Golden Variegated Thyme )
Bushy in habit, reaching up to 8 inches x 3 feet, with sweetly-scented, green foliage that is attractively margined yellow. The pink flowers are borne early to mid summer.

* photo taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD


'Mayfair' ( Lemon Carpet Thyme )
Reaches up to 10 inches in height, with foliage that colors very well during autumn and winter.
Hardier than most other cultivars, as far north as zone 4.

'Silver Edge' ( Silver Edge Lemon Thyme )
A bushy, upright perennial, reaching up to 12 inches, with sweetly-scented foliage that is gray-green and margined silver.
The pink flowers are borne during early summer.

* photo taken on June 4 2016 in Columbia, MD


Thymus doerfleri
A mat forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 3.3 feet.
The woolly leaves are gray-green.
The lilac-pink flowers are borne in clusters up to 0.3 inches across.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Bressingham Seedling'
Same except with bright pink flowers.

Thymus 'Doone Valley'
A low, creeping, mat-forming Thyme, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1.5 feet.
The deep green foliage develops bright golden-yellow tips during autumn and spring.
During winter the foliage turns bronze-red. The foliage is lemon-scented, even more so than Thymus citriodorus.
The lavender flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil.
Deer and rabbit resistant.

Thymus herba-barona ( Caraway Thyme )
A fast growing, stem rooting, low, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 3 + feet, that is native to the Mediterranean Islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
The caraway seed scented foliage is glossy deep green.
The lavender flowers are borne in clusters, up to 3.2 inches in length, during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Thymus inertus
A semi-prostrate, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum height of 10 inches, with very aromatic foliage.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Thymus ladjanuricus
A woody-based, mat-forming perenial, reaching up to 3 x 20 inches, that is native to the western Caucasus mountains. This excellent rock garden plant is evergreen in mild climates.
The leaves are tiny, up to 0.8 x 0.1 inches in size.
The pink flowers are borne during mid-spring. Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected sites ) in full sun on very well drained soils. It is very drought tolerant.

Thymus mastichina
An upright perennial, reaching up to 1 foot x 16 inches, that is native to Portugal and Spain.
The aromatic, elliptical leaves are hairy.
The creamy-white flowers are borne in clusters during summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Thymus nitidus ( Sicily Thyme )
Also called Thymus richardii nitidus. A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot, that is native to Sicily. The aromatic, ovate foliage is gray-green above, hairy beneath.
The very pale pink, tubular flowers are borne in clusters, up to 1.6 inches across, during late spring into early summer.

'Moonlight'
A bushy, mounding perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1 foot.
The foliage is gray and the profuse pale pink flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 on light, well drained soil.

Thymus pannonicus ( Savory-Scented Thyme )
Also called Hungarian Thyme. A mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 8 inches x 8 feet, that is native from eastern Europe to the Caucasus and southwestern Asia. The stems sometimes layer as they touch the ground.
The leaves, up to 0.8 x 0.25 inches, are luxuriant mid-green.
The abundant, pale pink flowers are borne during early summer. The nectar rich flowers attract honey bees.
Pharmacology: The leaves have anti-sectic properties.
Read very interesting article on this external site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thymus_pannonicus
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on dry, very well drained ( preferrably sandy or gravelly ) soil. Wet conditions, especially in winter can kill this plant.

Thymus praecox ( Wild Thyme of Europe )
Also called Thymus serpyllum. A very low, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 3.3 + feet, though rarely over 3 inches in height. Excellent for use in rock gardens as well as between stepping stones ( tolerating more foot traffic than other species of Thyme ). It is locally naturalized in eastern North America to as far north as northern Wisconsin, Tobermory and Haliburton, Ontario. It is sometimes found in dense, large patches in the wild.
The narrow foliage is deep green.
The flowers are borne in heads, up to 0.5 inches across, during late spring into early summer ( less commonly sporadically into early autumn ).
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on well drained soil. Drought tolerant and too much water can actually kill, it also does not enjoy climates that are very hot and humid during summer. Too much water on the foliage over an extended period can cause crown rot to occur rapidly - do not water established plants unless necessary.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on July 29 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on on July 18 2014 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Albiflorus' ( Creeping White Thyme )
Also called Thymus serphyllum 'Albus'. A mat forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 4 feet.
The foliage is luxuriant emerald green.
The pure white flowers are borne late spring into early summer.

* photos taken on May 24 2017 in Columbia, MD



'Coccineus'
A vigorous, long-lived, dense, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 4 feet, with tiny, glossy, very deep green, leathery foliage and deep red flowers borne during early to mid summer.
Great for planting in rock gardens and between stepping stones.
Heat and humidity tolerant for a Thyme.

'Doretta Klaber'
A very tight, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 8 inches.
The flowers are deep pink.

'Elfin'
A very tight, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 inches x 1 foot.
The minute foliage is green and the soft pink flowers are sparse.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Hall's Woolly'
A carpet-forming perennial, reaching a maximum height of 3 inches, with soft gray-green foliage and lavender flowers.

'Highland Cream'
A prostrate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 16 inches. The aromatic variegated foliage is golden-yellow and green.
The pale pink flowers are borne during summer.

'Latavin Lucy'
A mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum height of 3 inches, with luxuriant emerald green foliage and rose-purple flowers.

'Minor'
The tightest, lowest growing cultivar, reaching a maximum size of 0.5 inches x 1.5 feet. Excellent for mixing with flagstones.

'Ohme Garden Carpet'
Very vigorous ( reaching up to 3 inches x 3 feet ) and very heat tolerant, tolerating frequent temperatures above 100 F.
The bright yellow flowers are borne during early summer.

'Pink Chintz'
A vigorous, creeping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 3 feet.
The aromatic foliage is green.
The abundant, rich pink flowers are borne over a long season during summer.
It is among the first Thymes to come into bloom, often during spring.

* photos taken on Aug 12 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on May 7 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Pseudolanuginosus' ( Woolly Thyme )
Also called Thymus lanuginosus. A very vigorous, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 inches x 3 feet. It is great for planting between stepping stones.
The tiny, woolly foliage is silvery-gray.
The rosy-purple flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Purple Carpet'
A dense, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 3 feet, with very deep green foliage and purplish-pink flowers.

'Purple Dwarf'
A low, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 inches x 1.5 feet.
Excellent for mixing with flagstone.
The foliage is green and the flowers are intense scarlet-red.

'Reiter's Red'
A tough, vigorous, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 inches x 2.5 feet.
The wiry stems bear minute green leaves. The flowers are intense pink-red to red.
Thrives in sun or shade. Can be mowed after blooming.

'Roseum'
Forms a mat of deep green foliage and bright pink flowers.

'Ruby Glow'
A fast spreading, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6 inches.
The aromatic foliage is green and the flowers are scarlet-red.
Very drought and soil hardy.

Thymus pulegioides ( Lemon Thyme )
A moderate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 40 + inches, that is native to temperate Europe. It has naturalized locally in British Columbia to as far north as Kitsault.
The very aromatic foliage is bright green.
The purplish-pink flowers appear during early summer.
The square stems are deep red.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Thymus quinquecostatus
Among the showiest of all Thyme, forming low mats, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 20 inches, that is native to beaches, sand dunes and rocky slopes in eastern Russia, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan.
The narrowly-oblong leaves are up to 0.8 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The abundant, large, pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches long, appear during late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

'Alba'
Same except with white flowers.

Thymus richardii 'Peter Davis'
Forms a tidy bush, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 1.5 feet.
The small, aromatic leaves are deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Thymus vulgaris ( Culinary Thyme )
A low, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 3 + feet. It is great to grow between stepping stones, along paths and in wall gardens.
The aromatic, tiny, oval leaves are deep green.
The purplish-pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in clusters during most of summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( 4 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil. Cut back during early spring.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Argenteus'
Very similar except with foliage that is silver edged.

* photos taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD




'Compactus'
A dwarf form

'Silver Posie'
A dwarf, upright form, reaching a maximum height of 8 inches.
The pink stems bear tiny leaves is bright silver edged.
The flowers are lavender-pink.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014




SIMILAR PLANTS

Paronychia kapela ( Silver Nailwort )
A close relative of Thyme that is native to the Pyrenees Mountains in southern Europe and is exceptionally drought tolerant. It is also much more resistant to fungus's.
It reaches up to 1 inch x 1.5 feet, bearing white flowers during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Rabbit but not deer resistant.