Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Inula

Inula
A genus of moisture loving, tough, sturdy perennials with yellow, daisy-like flowers that actually are related to the Daisies. Easy to grow in full sun or light shade on any fertile, deep, moist soil, they are deer resistant. Older clumps can be divided during autumn or early spring.

* photo of unknown internet source


Inula acaulis
A rhizomatous, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 1.5 foot.
It makes an excellent plant for the rock garden or front of the border.
The narrow leaves are mid-green.
The stemless, yellow flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun, it does not enjoy the hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S.

Inula ensifolia ( Swordleaf Inula )
A rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to the Caucasus.
The linear leaves, up to 6.3 inches in length, are mid-green.
The yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid to late summer lasting up to 1.5 months.
It will often bloom the first year from seed.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Inula helenium ( Elecampane )
A fast growing to invasive, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 4 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to temperate parts of Eurasia though is now occasionally found in the wild on the east coast and in the Pacific Northwest in the U.S. It is locally naturalized around Cape Croker on the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada. It is found in open moist to wet woodland and roadsides in the wild.
The huge, toothed, wavy-edged, elliptical leaves, up to 30 x 8 ( rarely over 20 ) inches, are deep green.
The foliage is rough above, velvety white beneath.
The yellow, daisy-like flowers, up to 4 ( usually half that ) inches across, are borne during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.
A tea can be made from the roots. This tea is a strong anti biotic. This substance called Helenin kills bacteria in concentrations as low as 1 in 10 000 and the tea is great for external use in cleaning skin infections, sores and wounds. It is even known to kill antibiotic resistant MRSA ( Staphylococcus aureus ) infections.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo
* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Inula hookeri ( Hooker Inula )
A fast spreading to invasive, dense, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet. It is native to mountains in the Himalayas from Nepal to southwest China; south into Burma.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 1.5 inches in size, are hairy and deep green.
The intense deep yellow flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 preferring partial shade on moist, deep, fertile, well drained soil.

Inula magnifica
A spectacular, fast growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6.5 feet, that is native to the Himalayas. Great for the back of the border and next to water to add tropical effect.
The huge, elliptical leaves, up to 40 x 12 ( rarely over 28 ) inches in size, are deep green above, hairy beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne up to 20 per corymb during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected sites ) in full sun on moist to wet soil.

Inula orientalis ( Caucasian Inula )
Also called Inula grandiflora. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 feet, that is native to the Caucasus.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 6 inches in length, are deep green.
The orange-yellow flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

Inula royleana ( Himalayan Elecampane )
Also called Inula racemosum. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 4 feet, that is native to mountains meadows in the western Himalayas ( from Pakistan to Kashmir, Afghanistan and Tibet ).
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 20 x 8 inches in size, The hairy, leathery foliage is mid-green.
The orange-yellow flowers, up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) inches across, are borne late summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it does not enjoy excessive winter wetness or hot summers.

'Sonnenspeer'
Reaches up to 10 ( rarely over 7 ) feet with large yellow flowers borne during summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 in full sun.

Pasque Flower

Pulsatilla
A genus of perennials that are part of the larger Ranunculaceae ( Buttercup ) family.
Most species have both the ferny leaves and stems covered in soft hairs. They bloom in the spring. The plant is poisonous to ingest so no part should ever be eaten.
They all require fertile, very well drained soil and do not like root disturbance.
Pasque Flower does not like waterlogged soil! They can be used in planters but only if they are brought indoors to a heated porch or garage during winter to prevent freeze/thaw damage.
It is important to plant them out when very young and do not divide established clumps. It is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.
Propagation is from seed which should be sown immediately upon ripening from mid summer to early fall. It may take up to 2 years to germinate. Pasque Flower can also be propagated from root cuttings taken during early spring.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo


Pulsatilla alpina ( Alpine Pasque Flower )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 2 feet ( usually half that ), that is native to mountain meadows from central Europe to the Caucasus.
The ferny foliage is covered is deep green.
The white flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during early spring.
They are followed by attractive fluffy seed heads.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on deep, sandy, alkaline, well drained soil.

var sulfurea
The flowers are yellow and appear later; otherwise similar.

Pulsatilla halleri
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 1 foot, that is native to mountain meadows of central Europe. It is similar to Pulsatilla vulgaris.
The flowers range from lavender-blue to violet.

Pulsatilla occidentalis ( Western Pasque-Flower )
Similar to Pulsatilla alpina but reaches a maximum size of 2.5 feet x 15 inches and is native to moist subalpine meadows in western North America ( from Kitsault, British Columbia to Takla Landing, B.C. to Arcadia Valley, Alberta; south to central California to western Montana ).
The white or pink flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

* historical archive photos


Pulsatilla patens ( Prairie Pasque Flower )
A long-lived ( to 50 + years ) perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 ( rarely over 1 ) feet, that is native to prairies and dry open woods in western North America ( from far northwest Alaska to far northern Yukon to far northwestern Northwest Territories to far northeast Alberta to central Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario; south to Washington State to Colorado to northern Illinois to Michigan ). It is also native from northern Europe to Siberia; south to Kazakhstan to northern Xinjiang to Inner Mongolia & northeast China.
The heavy-textured, lightly hairy leaves, up to 3 x 4.5 inches in size, are less finely divided than other species.
The abundant, white to deep lavender flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during early to late spring. Older plants can produce up to 40 flowers.
They are followed by attractive airy seed heads.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on sandy, alkaline, well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

* historical archive photo


Pulsatilla turczaninovii
A perennial, reaching up to 10 inches in height, that is native to grasslands from Siberia to far eastern Russia; south to northern Xinjiang to northeastern China ).
The narrowly-elliptical, 3 pinnately-divided leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size.
The very abundant ( up to 50 per plant ), deep purplish-blue flowers appear late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

Pulsatilla vernalis ( Pasque Flower )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1 foot, that is native from northern Europe to Siberia.
The ferny foliage is silvery and covered in silky down.
The ourplish ( rarely white ) flowers, up to 2.3 inches across, are borne during early spring.
They are followed by attractive airy seed heads.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on sandy, alkaline, very well drained soil.
It does not enjoy winter wetness.

Pulsatilla vulgaris ( Pasque Flower )
Was historically incorrectly called Anemone pulsatilla. A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet, that is native from the British Isles to the Ukraine. It is great for both the landscape border and the rock garden.
The very finely-divided, ferny leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are covered in silky down. The foliage is silvery in color and remains attractive well into autumn.
The large, bell-shaped flowers, up to 3.5 inches across, are borne over a long season lasting early to mid spring.
They are typically violet-purple though sometimes white, pink or red.
They are followed by attractive silky seed heads.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun ( or less ideally partial shade ) on sandy, alkaline, very well drained soil.
Moderately drought tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Alba'
Pure white flowers, otherwise identical.

'Rosea'
Pink flowers, otherwise identical.

'Rubra'
Bright purplish-red flowers, otherwise identical.

Calamint

Calamintha
A small genus of perennials, that are part of the greater Labiatae family. They are closely related to the Mint but are not invasive.

Calamintha grandiflora ( Showy Calamint )
Also called Satureja grandiflora. A very vigorous, rhizomatous, spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to southern Europe.
The hairy, toothed, ovate leaves, up to 3.2 x 2.7 inches, are mid-green. The foliage is aromatic and can be used in cooking.
The pink or bright purple, tubular flowers, up to 1.3 inches in length, resemble that of Salvia and are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is easy to grow on just about any well drained soil. Heat and drought tolerant.

'Variegata'
Very vigorous, spreading, but upright bushy perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet. The foliage is variegated with creamy-white splashing.
The bright pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are somewhat sporadic.

Calamintha nepeta ( Lesser Calamint )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 5 feet, that is native to the British Isles and southern Europe. Great for the front of the border and edging pathways, it is not invasive. Makes an excellent groundcover.
The small, gray-green, ovate leaves, up to 3 ( often half that ) inches in length, are minty fragranced. The aromatic foliage is often used in italian cooking.
The profuse, pale lilac flowers are borne on upright stems over a long season from early summer to mid autumn. The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.
Drought tolerant. Powdery mildew may sometimes be a problem.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA


* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Blue Cloud'
Reaches a maximum size of 1.5 x 5 feet, bearing tiny, lavender-blue flowers; otherwise similar.

* photo taken on May 3 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD
* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


'Gottlieb Friedkund'
Reaches up to 2 x 2.5 feet with large, deep green leaves and deep lavender flowers borne over a long season.

subsp nepeta
Low and spreading, reaching up to 20 inches x 5 feet, with aromatic foliage and abundant, small, pale blue flowers borne on plumes from early summer to mid autumn.

* photos of unknown internet source



'White Cloud'
Reaches a maximum size of 1.5 x 5 feet, bearing white flowers; otherwise similar.

* photo taken on May 3 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

Monday, September 26, 2011

Adina rubella - China Buttonbush

A handsome large shrub typically reaching around 9 feet that is native to southern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 16 x 30 feet.
The very glossy, luxuriant deep green leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inch in size. There foliage often remains green until Christmas.
The flowers are up to an inch across and resemble that of the native Buttonbush. The very showy, fragrant white blooms are borne early summer until mid autumn.
Hardy zone 7 to 9 though it survives north to zone 5 as a dieback perennial.
Prefers full sun to partial shade and is soil tolerant though preferring fertile, acidic and well drained. It is also tolerant of flooding.

* photos taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Courtesy Leaf

Daphniphyllum

A family of 15 evergreen shrubs or trees native to Asia that can be grown for their very attractive foliage. They prefer partial shade and a site protected from excessive wind. Slightly acid, deep, moist well drained soil is preferred as it a layer of protective mulch. They are NOT eaten by deer.
Generally pest and disease free and reproduction is easy from stratified seed or also softwood cuttings or semi ripe cuttings in summer.

Daphniphyllum calycinum
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 13 x 13 feet, that is native to southern China, Japan and Vietnam.
The leaves, up to 6.5 x 3.5 inches, are bright green above, even brighter green beneath.
The bluish-black fruits are borne on female plants that are pollinated.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil. It is very heat and humidity tolerant and thrives in the southeastern U.S.

Daphniphyllum glaucescens
A very beautiful, vigorous, evergreen tree reaching up to 50 x 20 feet; that is native to central & southern China, south into Indonesia. It can reach up to 20 feet in 20 years and the largest on record is 100 feet. While rare; this extremely beautiful plant has much potential in both the Pacific Northwest and the southeast U.S.
The oval leaves are up to 7 x 2 inches in size. The luxuriant foliage is blue-green.
The blackish-purple fruits persist through the winter.
Hardy north to zone 7 to 9. An understory plant in the wild; it prefers moist shade when young however eventually may emerge into the tree tops into full sun.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* historical archive photo

subsp. 'Oldhamii'
New foliage extremely attractive bright orange to deep to purple red fading to green in summer.

Daphniphyllum humile ( Hokkaido Courtesy Leaf )
A slow growing, dense, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 4 x 6 feet, that is native to forest understory in far southeastern Russia, Korea and northern Japan. Some records include: 2 years - 15 inches; largest on record - 10 x 15 feet. It makes an excellent, dense, tall groundcover for shady sites.
The alternately-spaced, narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The tiny pale pink flowers appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

Daphniphyllum macropodium ( Courtesy Leaf )
A very beautiful, tropical looking, vigorous, dense, large shrub to medium-sized tree native of central to southeastern China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 65 x 50 ( rarely over 20 ) feet with a trunk diameter of up to 3.3 feet.
The large, thick, leathery, oval leaves, up to 9 x 4 inches in size, look like that of the Catawba Rhododendron. The waxy leaves are reddish at first, turning to very deep green above, dull gray below. They are carried on showy, red leaf stalks.
The tiny light green flowers borne during late spring are barely noticable.
They are followed by bluish-black berries, up to 0.5 inches in size, that can persist through the winter.
The stems are reddish-purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 9; heat tolerant and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic and southeastern U.S. Surprisingly cold tolerant for a plant of such tropical appearance, the Courtesy Leaf is very easy to grow. They make both a great specimen plant and screen, and tolerate salty ocean breezes well. It grows best in moist, well drained, acid soil and likes shelter and part shade though tolerant of full sun. It is not bothered by pests and diseases.

* photos taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum





* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Mar 8 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on May 7 2013 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Daphniphyllum teijsmannii
A rare, medium-sized, evergreen shrub that is native to Japan.
The leathery, narrow leaves are glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The smooth bark is yellowish-brown.
The berries are very dark purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating -10 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

'Variegated' ( Variegated Daphniphyllum )
A very rare, medium-sized, evergreen shrub. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3 feet.
The leathery, thick leaves are green and boldly edged in creamy-white.
The leafstalks and stems are red.
It makes a spectacular landscape plant.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating -10 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.