Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Sweet Cicely

Myrrhis odorata
A deep-rooted, mounding perennial, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet, that is a widespread native of moist woodlands and riverbanks in Europe including the British Isles.
The attractive, lacy foliage is bright green. The fresh leaves are edible and tasty.
The fragrant, white, starry flowers are borne on umbels up to 2 inches wide, during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, fertile, light, well drained soil. Cut back flowering stems after flowering unless seeds are desired for propagation ( which it often needs no help doing ).

* photos taken on May 21 2014 @ Hampton Ntl Historic Site, Towson, MD

* historic archive photos

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Navelwort

Omphalodes

Omphalodes cappadocica
A slow-spreading, clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1 foot in size, that is native to moist deciduous woodlands in northern Turkey.
The pointed, ovate leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size. The dull green foliage ranges from semi-evergreen to evergreen depending on climate.
The blue flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne early to mid-spring, however sporadic blooms may continue appear to late autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade on consistently moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is tolerant of alkaline soil. They are easy to grow in woodland conditions. Propagation is from division during early spring.

'Cherry Ingram'
Lance-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 2 inches in size, and abundant, large blue flowers.

'Starry Eyes'
Reaches up to 1 x 1.5 feet in size, bearing flowers that are deep blue variegated with a white edge.

Omphalodes verna
A perennial, reaching up to 8 inches x 3 feet, that is native to moist mountain forests from central Italy to Romania, though also naturalized in much of western Europe.
The cordate, ovate leaves, up to 8 x 2.3 inches in size, are bright green.
The pale-violet flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne during early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in shade on just about any moist, humus-rich soil.

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare ( Fennel )
A deeply-rooted perennial, reaching up to 7 x 3 feet, that is a widespread native of western and southern Europe as well as around the Mediterranean. The fine-textured foliage is aromaric. The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 1.2 inches in length. The greenish-yellow flowers are borne on umbels, up to 4.8 inches wide, during mid to late summer. It is suggested to deadhead old blooms as seedlings can be a nuisance. Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on fertile, well drained soil, though also very tolerant of dry, sandy soil.
Pharmacology: The body converts large quantities of Fennel into a type of Amphetamine causing hullucinations.
Aphids avoid it, it can be planted behind plants that may be prone to aphids as a natural defense.
* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


'Giant Bronze'
Similar to 'Purpureum' but very vigorous and larger.

'Purpureum' ( Bronze Fennel )
Bronze-purple foliage.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

Fritillaria

Fritillaria
A genus of bulbs native to western North America that require moist winters, spring moisture and dry summers. These bulbs require well drained soil and absolutely hate transplanting. Plant bulbs 4 times deeper than the width of the bulb. Divide bulbs at the same time as cutting back withered foliage. Grown from seed, they may take up to 7 years to bloom.

* photo of unknown internet source


Fritillaria acmopetala
Reaching up to 2 feet, it is a native of Asia Minor.
The linear flowers are blue-green.
The hanging flowers are olive green and marked / striped purple. They are borne during late spring
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on just about any well drained soil.

Fritillaria affinis ( Checker Lily )
Reaching up to 3 feet in height, it is a woodland native to western North America ( from southwest British Columbia to Prince George, B.C.; south to California ).
The lance-shaped leaves are mid-green.
The nodding flowers are usually grayish-purple and stipled with bright green but can be variable in color. The flowers appear during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on light, well drained soil. It prefers a mediterranean climate that is moist during winter and early spring then dry during summer.

Fritillaria assyriaca ( Purple Fritillary )
Reaches up to 20 inches, with nodding, purple ( yellow inside ) flowers that are borne on branched stems.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil..
Fritillaria biflora ( Black Fritillary )
Reaches up to 15 inches, with purplish ( edged in cream ) flowers during spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil.

Fritillaria camschatcensis (Kamchatka Lily )
Reaches up to 2 feet, and is native to western North America ( from the Aleutian Islands to central Alaska to Skagway, Alaska; south to Oregon ). It is also native to Kamchatka and northern Japan.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 inches in length.
The flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are deep purple ( rarely deep red or black ), borne during mid-spring. Up to 6 flowers may be borne per stem.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in light shade, requiring abundant moisture all year and humus-rich soil.

Fritillaria crassifolia var kurdica
A native of mountain plateau grasslands in western Asia, reaching only 4 inches in height.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil. It does not thrive where summers are wet.

Fritillaria davisii
Reaches up to 10 inches in height, with reddish-purple flowers.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil.

Fritillaria grandiflora
A rare native of the Caucasus, bearing very showy, brownish-purple checkered flowers, up to 2.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected sites ) in full sun on very well drained soil.

Fritillaria imperialis ( Crown Imperial )
A perennial bulb reaching up to 3 feet in height, that is native from Turkey to Kashmir. It is endangered in its native range.
The pointed, lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green. They are borne in whorls around the stem.
The stems are topped by large, orange flowers, up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun ( partial shade in warmer climates ) on fertile, very well drained soil. The bulbs should be planted 8 inches deep and 1.5 inches apart, during early to mid autumn.

* photo taken on Apr 16 2014 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


'Aureomarginata'
Variegated.

'Maxima Lutea'
Yellow flowers.

'Rubra Maxima'
Reddish-orange.

* photos of unknown internet source


Fritillaria involucrata
Reaching up to 1 foot in height, it is native to woodlands of southern Europe.
The mid-spring, nodding flowers are olive-green with purple mottling.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on very well drained soil. It sometimes self sows in the woodland garden.

Fritillaria lanceolata ( Checker Lily )
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches, that is native to western North America ( from British Columbia to Idaho; south to northern California ).
The checkered greenish-yellow and purple flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil.

Fritillaria meleagris ( Guinea Hen Flower )
A fast multiplying perennial bulb, reaching up to 15 inches in height, it is native to meadows in Europe.
The linear leaves are gray-green.
The nodding white and heavily mottled deep reddish-purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches in length, are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It thrives in the woodland environment.
Drought tolerant while dormant but requires consistent moisture during spring. The bulbs should be planted 5 inches deep and 6 inches apart during early autumn. Deer resistant.

* historic archive photos


'Alba'
White flowers; otherwise similar to species.

* historic archive photo


Fritillaria michailovskyi
A native to the Turkish mountains, it reaches up to 1 foot in height.
The very attractive, deep reddish-purple flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are tipped in yellow. Up to 5 flowers may be borne per stem during late spring.
The oblanceolate leaves are mid-green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4 on protected sites ) in full sun on very well drained soil.

Fritillaria pallidiflora
Reaching up to 18 inches in height, it is native to China.
The attractive, lance-shaped leaves are gray-green.
The showy, bright greenish-yellow, nodding flowers, up to 1.5 inches in length, are borne on clusters during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, deep, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil. This easy to grow bulbaceous perennial often self sows in the woodland garden.

Fritillaria persica ( Yellow Fritillary )
A long-lived perennial, reaching up to 3 feet x 8 inches in size, it is native to western Asia from Turkey to Iraq. It is endangered in its natural range. It looks best planted in groups.
The narrow, lance-shaped leaves are gray-green.
The fragrant flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are deep purple. The very abundant flowers may number up to 30 per stem.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on fertile, very well drained soil, it needs protection from late spring frosts and enjoys hot summers. The bulbs should be planted 6 inches deep and 1 foot apart during early to mid autumn.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Adiyaman'
Larger growing, reaching up to 4 feet in height.

Fritillaria pudica ( Golden Fritillary )
Reaches up to 9 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in height, it is native to mountains of the western U.S. ( from much of south-central British Columbia to southern Alberta to northeast Montana; south to northern California to northwest Colorado to central North Dakota ). It is only known to occur east of the Rockies in Canada in McLeod and Lethbridge, Alberta. It is endangered in Colorado and extinct in the wild in North Dakota.
The lance-shaped leaves are mid-green.
The fragrant, nodding, yellow to orange flowers, up to 0.7 inches long, are borne in clusters of 1 to 3 during early spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil.

* photo taken by Mary Winter @ CalPhotos


Fritillaria purdyi ( Purdy's Fritillary )
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, form a rosette. The foliage is grayish-blue. It is native to southwest Oregon and northern California.
The white ( striped reddish-brown ) flowers are borne on a stem up to 6 inches high. Up to 7 flowers may be borne per stem.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Fritillaria raddeana
Closely related to F. imperialis, it reaches up to 2.5 feet in height. It is native to northeastern Iran.
The fragrant, creamy-yellow flowers are borne during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, late spring freezes may be a problem.

Fritillaria recurva ( Scarlet Fritillaria )
Reaches up to 3 feet, and is native to the western U.S., from southern Oregon; south to northern California to nw Nevada.
The scarlet ( checkered yellow on the inside ) flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in light shade. Very hardy and adaptable, thriving in much of the U.S. and southern Canada.

Fritillaria thunbergii ( Thunberg Fritillaria )
A long-lived, fast spreading, upright perennial, reaching up to 2.6 feet, that is native to Kazakhstan and Tibet, though has naturalized on Honshu Island of Japan. The plants usually go dormant during early summer. The lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 1 inch in size, are bright blue-green.
The pale yellow ( spotted deep purple ) flowers are borne during mid-spring. Hardy zones 6 to 9 full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. It is very easy to grow, even thriving in the hot humid southeastern U.S..

Fritillaria uva-vulpis
Reaches up to 1.5 feet in height.
The narrow lance-shaped leaves are glossy gray.
The oval flowers are purple with yellow petal tips.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on fertile, very well drained soil.

Fritillaria verticillata
Reaches up to 2 feet in height and is native to forests in the mountains of central Asia.
The leaves are narrow and grass-like.
The flowers, up to 1.5 inches in length, are nodding and white to pale yellow. There is purple spotting on the inside.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on moist, well drained soil.

Lady's Slipper Orchid

Cypripedium

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Cypripedium acaule ( Pink Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 16 inches in height, that with ideal condition can form a large colony moderately fast. It is native to acidic pine woods over much of Canada as well as the eastern U.S. ( from northeast Alberta to Northwest Territories to Pickle Lake, Ontario to Cochrane, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Saskatchewan to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to eastern Kentucky to northern Georgia to North Carolina ). It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The paired, elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The flowers appear late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8. It requires partial shade on moist, very acidic, humus-rich soil. Pine needle mulch is recommended. Old clumps can be divided carefully during early spring.

* photo taken by R. Dale Sanders @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Cypripedium calceolus ( Yellow Lady's Slipper )
A long-lived, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 1.7 feet in height, that can eventually form a large clump. It is native from Europe to eastern Russia; south to Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan. It is found in moist grasslands and rocky forests in the wild.
The elliptical leaves, up to 6.5 x 2.8 inches in size, are deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 1.6 inches long, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. It requires partial shade ( with shade during hottest part of the day ) and fertile, alkaline, moist, well drained soil. Old clumps can be divided carefully during early spring.

* historical archive photo


Cypripedium candidum ( Small White Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, forming up to 60 stems that reach up to 1.3 feet in height. It is native to moist prairies in midwestern North America ( from southern Saskatchewan to southern Manitoba to southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Sauble Beach, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario to western New York State; south to central Nebraska to far northern Missouri to far northern Alabama to Maryland ). It is critically endangered in Canada having disappeared from Saskatchewan as well as Kent, Norfolk Counties and near Sauble Beach, Sarnia and Welland in Ontario. Small populations still remain in southern Manitoba as well as just 7 sites in Hastings and Lambton County in Ontario. It is extinct in Pennsylvania. It is critically endangered in Missouri and New Jersey. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 8 x 2 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Cypripedium japonicum ( Japanese Lady's Slipper )
A perennial, reaching up to 1.8 feet, that is native from central China to Japan. It is found in moist, fertile, mountain forests in the wild. It is critically endangered despite being formerly common.
The rounded to obovate leaves, up to 9 x 9 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 4 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est. )

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* link to excellent video found on youtube


Cypripedium kentuckiensis ( Kentucky Lady's Slipper )
A perennial, native to the Midwestern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to northeast Kentucky; south to eastern Texas to central Alabama to northern Georgia ). It is critically endangered in Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. It is found in deciduous forest and sandy river plains in the wild.
The elliptical leaves, up to 9.5 x 4 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The pale yellow flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est ).

Cypripedium macranthos
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches in height, that is naive from eastern Europe to eastern Russia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. It is usually found in alpine meadows in the wild.
The ovate or oblong leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The pink and purplish-white ( white forms exist ) flowers, to 4 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 on light, well drained soil.

Cypripedium parviflorum ( Greater Yellow Lady's Sliper )
Also called Cypripedium calceolus var pubescens. A clumping perennial, reaching up to 28 inches in height, that is native to much of Northern North America ( from Kotzebue, Alaska to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Rainbow Lake, Alberta to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan to The Pas, Manitoba to Norway House, Manitoba to Pickle Lake, Ontario to Fort Albany, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Washington State to Idaho to central Colorado to North Dakota to Missouri to northern Georgia to central North Carolina ). It is found in moist deciduous woods and mixed Hemlock forest in the wild. It is sometimes found on moist prairie in central Canada. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in Lasalle as well as the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s. It is endangered in Alberta and Saskatchewan. It often goes dormant during mid to late summer.
The alternately-arranged, ovate leaves are up to 7.5 x 3.5 inches in size.
The bright yellow ( with purplish-red lid ) flowers are borne over a long season from mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( possibly 2 with deep winter mulch ) on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It likes early spring sun so is ideal underneath trees that leaf out late.

* historic archive photos


Cypripedium passerinum ( Sparrow's Egg Lady's Slipper )
A perennial that is native to northern North America ( from northern Alaska to far northern Yukon to Great Bear Lake to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario; south to Juneau, Alaska to Banff National Park, Alberta to central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba to Wawa, Ontario ).
The foliage is bright green.
The flowers are white.
Hardy zones 1 to 4.

Cypripedium reginae ( Showy Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to wet woods and acidic larch / black spruce bogs, mostly in the boreal forest region of Canada but also more scattered over a larger portion of northeastern North America ( from east-central Saskatchewan to Hearst, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to North Dakota to Missouri to western North Carolina to Maryland ). It is uncommon in Ontario, threatened in Manitoba & Quebec, nearly extinct in Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, PEI & Newfoundland. Deer and habitat loss are furthering its decline.
The oval leaves, up to 11 x 6.5 ( rarely over 8 x 4 ) inches in size, are mid-green.
The pink ( with white petals and sepals ) flowers, up to 3.5 inches wide, are borne during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in partial shade on moist, acidic soil. Transplanting from the wild is illegal and reckless, since transplants rarely survive and re-establish.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* photo taken by Mike Homoya @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* historic archive photos


OTHER HARDY ORCHIDS

Dactylorhiza elata ( Robust Marsh Orchid )
A tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is native to southwestern Europe, Morocco and far northern Algeria.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The bright purple flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles, up to 8 inches in length, during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza foliosa ( Madeiran Orchid )
A tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is native to Madiera ( an island belonging to Portugal in the Atlantic ).
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The pink flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza fuchsii ( Common Spotted Orchid )
A vigorous, herbaceous, tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2.7 x 0.5 feet, that is a widespread native of much of Europe east into Siberia; south to Mongolia and northwest China. It has naturalized in parts of Ontario, Canada.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with purple spotting.
The purplish-pink flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring into early summer. Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. Tolerant of late summer drought. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza praetermissa ( Southern Marsh Orchid )
A herbaceous, tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is a widespread native of northern and central Europe.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The bright purple flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Moonseed

Cocculus carolininus ( Carolina Moonseed )
A fast growing, twining, semi-evergreen vine, reaching up to 15 feet, that is native to the midwest and southeastern U.S. ( from southwest Oklahoma to central Missouri to southern Indiana to Virginia; south to central Texas to central Florida ). It is great for covering a chain link fence. The leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green. The small, yellow-green flowers are borne during spring. The vines are smothered with showy, scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.25 inches, throughout autumn. The fruits are borne on hanging racemes up to 4 inches in length. Hardy zones 6 to 9 in sun or shade on just about any acidic well drained soil.

* photos taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Cocculus laurifolius ( Laurelleaf Snail Tree )
A fast growing, rounded,evergreen small tree, reaching up to 60 x 40 feet, that is native from the eastern Himalayas to southern Japan.
The leathery, smooth-edged, elliptical leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are glossy mid-green.. The rough bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in sun or shade on just about any well drained soil.

Cocculus trilobus ( Korean Moonseed )
A woody-based perennial vine, reaching up to 23 feet, that is native to woodlands of Korea.
The attractive lobed foliage is deep green, turning to yellow during autumn.
Showy black berries are borne on clusters during autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Horsetail

Equisetum

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 in Columbia, MD


Equisetum arvense ( Common Horsetail )
Abundant in the Windsor, Essex County, Lake Erie Islands and Ohio shoreline region before 1900. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. In Alberta, it is found throughout. It is a widespread native of North America ( from northern Alaska to the arctic islands to southern Greenland; south throughout most of the U.S. ).

Equisetum fluviatale ( Water Horsetail )
Deciduous, reaching up to 4 feet in height. Abundant in the Windsor, Essex County and Lake Erie Islands region before 1900. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is abundant on the Canadian Prairies. In Alberta; it is found throughout except for the arid southeast. It is a widespread native of North America ( from northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to Churchill, Manitoba to the shores of James Bay to Labrador; south through much of the U.S. ).
The nodes are up to 2 inches apart.
A true aquatic plant, this plant is often used in ponds. It prefers deep wet soil.

Equisetum hyemale ( Rough Horsetail )
Also called Scouring Rush. A fast spreading perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely 10 feet ) x 8 feet, that is native to Europe ( except southern coast ), Asia and most of North America ( as far north as central Alaska to central Yukon to Great Slave Lake to central Manitoba to Pagwa and Hearst, Ontario to Gaspe to Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia ). Abundant in the Windsor, Essex County and Lake Erie Islands region before 1900. It was especially common in sandy Juniperus virginiana savanna around Point Pelee. In Alberta; it is found throughout.
The stout upright, bamboo-like stems are gray-green with internodes 4 inches apart.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 2 & 3 for most northerly populations ) in partial shade on permanently moist to wet soils. Propagation is from division.

* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 in Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


var affine
Larger growing, up to 7 feet in height.

Equisetum robustum ( Giant Horsetail )
Reaches a maximum height of 8 feet. It was locally abundant on the Lake Erie Islands and Ohio shoreline before 1900; generally absent elsewhere in the Windsor/Essex County region.

Equisetum scirpoides ( Dwarf Scouring Rush )
Evergreen and spreading in habit, reaching up to 8 inches in height. It is a widespread native of North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to Churchill, Manitoba to northern Ontario to Newfoundland ). In Alberta; it is found throughout except for the arid southeast.
The thin leaves are deep olive-green. The nodes are up to 1.3 inches apart.

Equisetum sylvaticum ( Wood Horsetail )
Deciduous, reaching up to 2 feet in height. It is a widespread native of North America ( from Kotzebue, Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to far southwest Nunavut to northern Quebec and Labrador and south ). Moderately common in the Windsor, Essex County and Lake Erie Islands region before 1900. In Alberta; it is found throughout except for the arid southeast. It is found in wooded swamps in the wild.
The internodes are around 2.5 inches in length.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Equisetum telmateia ( Great Horsetail )
Deciduous, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height. It is native to western North America ( from Anchorage, Alaska to southeast British Columbia to northern Idaho; south into northern California ).
The internodes are about 3.5 inches in length.