Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Lady's Slipper Orchid

Cypripedium

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Cypripedium acaule ( Pink Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 16 inches in height, that with ideal condition can form a large colony moderately fast. It is native to acidic pine woods over much of Canada as well as the eastern U.S. ( from northeast Alberta to Northwest Territories to Pickle Lake, Ontario to Cochrane, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Saskatchewan to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to eastern Kentucky to northern Georgia to North Carolina ). It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The paired, elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The flowers appear late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8. It requires partial shade on moist, very acidic, humus-rich soil. Pine needle mulch is recommended. Old clumps can be divided carefully during early spring.

* photo taken by R. Dale Sanders @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Cypripedium calceolus ( Yellow Lady's Slipper )
A long-lived, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 1.7 feet in height, that can eventually form a large clump. It is native from Europe to eastern Russia; south to Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan. It is found in moist grasslands and rocky forests in the wild.
The elliptical leaves, up to 6.5 x 2.8 inches in size, are deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 1.6 inches long, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. It requires partial shade ( with shade during hottest part of the day ) and fertile, alkaline, moist, well drained soil. Old clumps can be divided carefully during early spring.

* historical archive photo


Cypripedium candidum ( Small White Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, forming up to 60 stems that reach up to 1.3 feet in height. It is native to moist prairies in midwestern North America ( from southern Saskatchewan to southern Manitoba to southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Sauble Beach, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario to western New York State; south to central Nebraska to far northern Missouri to far northern Alabama to Maryland ). It is critically endangered in Canada having disappeared from Saskatchewan as well as Kent, Norfolk Counties and near Sauble Beach, Sarnia and Welland in Ontario. Small populations still remain in southern Manitoba as well as Hastings and Lambton County in Ontario. It is extinct in Pennsylvania. It is critically endangered in Missouri and New Jersey. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 8 x 2 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Cypripedium japonicum ( Japanese Lady's Slipper )
A perennial, reaching up to 1.8 feet, that is native from central China to Japan. It is found in moist, fertile, mountain forests in the wild. It is critically endangered despite being formerly common.
The rounded to obovate leaves, up to 9 x 9 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 4 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est. )

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* link to excellent video found on youtube


Cypripedium kentuckiensis ( Kentucky Lady's Slipper )
A perennial, native to the Midwestern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to northeast Kentucky; south to eastern Texas to central Alabama to northern Georgia ). It is critically endangered in Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. It is found in deciduous forest and sandy river plains in the wild.
The elliptical leaves, up to 9.5 x 4 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The pale yellow flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est ).

Cypripedium macranthos
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches in height, that is naive from eastern Europe to eastern Russia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. It is usually found in alpine meadows in the wild.
The ovate or oblong leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The pink and purplish-white ( white forms exist ) flowers, to 4 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 on light, well drained soil.

Cypripedium parviflorum ( Greater Yellow Lady's Sliper )
Also called Cypripedium calceolus var pubescens. A clumping perennial, reaching up to 28 inches in height, that is native to much of Northern North America ( from Kotzebue, Alaska to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Rainbow Lake, Alberta to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan to The Pas, Manitoba to Norway House, Manitoba to Pickle Lake, Ontario to Fort Albany, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Washington State to Idaho to central Colorado to North Dakota to Missouri to northern Georgia to central North Carolina ). It is found in moist deciduous woods and mixed Hemlock forest in the wild. It is sometimes found on moist prairie in central Canada. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in Lasalle as well as the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s. It is endangered in Alberta and Saskatchewan. It often goes dormant during mid to late summer.
The alternately-arranged, ovate leaves are up to 7.5 x 3.5 inches in size.
The bright yellow ( with purplish-red lid ) flowers are borne over a long season from mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( possibly 2 with deep winter mulch ) on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It likes early spring sun so is ideal underneath trees that leaf out late.

* historic archive photos


Cypripedium passerinum ( Sparrow's Egg Lady's Slipper )
A perennial that is native to northern North America ( from northern Alaska to far northern Yukon to Great Bear Lake to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario; south to Juneau, Alaska to Banff National Park, Alberta to central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba to Wawa, Ontario ).
The foliage is bright green.
The flowers are white.
Hardy zones 1 to 4.

Cypripedium reginae ( Showy Lady's Slipper )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to wet woods and acidic larch / black spruce bogs, mostly in the boreal forest region of Canada but also more scattered over a larger portion of northeastern North America ( from east-central Saskatchewan to Hearst, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to North Dakota to Missouri to western North Carolina to Maryland ). It is uncommon in Ontario, threatened in Manitoba & Quebec, nearly extinct in Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, PEI & Newfoundland. Deer and habitat loss are furthering its decline.
The oval leaves, up to 11 x 6.5 ( rarely over 8 x 4 ) inches in size, are mid-green.
The pink ( with white petals and sepals ) flowers, up to 3.5 inches wide, are borne during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in partial shade on moist, acidic soil. Transplanting from the wild is illegal and reckless, since transplants rarely survive and re-establish.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* photo taken by Mike Homoya @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* historic archive photos


OTHER HARDY ORCHIDS

Dactylorhiza elata ( Robust Marsh Orchid )
A tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is native to southwestern Europe, Morocco and far northern Algeria.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The bright purple flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles, up to 8 inches in length, during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza foliosa ( Madeiran Orchid )
A tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is native to Madiera ( an island belonging to Portugal in the Atlantic ).
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The pink flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza fuchsii ( Common Spotted Orchid )
A vigorous, herbaceous, tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2.7 x 0.5 feet, that is a widespread native of much of Europe east into Siberia; south to Mongolia and northwest China. It has naturalized in parts of Ontario, Canada.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with purple spotting.
The purplish-pink flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring into early summer. Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. Tolerant of late summer drought. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

Dactylorhiza praetermissa ( Southern Marsh Orchid )
A herbaceous, tuberous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 0.5 feet, that is a widespread native of northern and central Europe.
The lance-shaped leaves are glossy bright green with brown spotting.
The bright purple flowers are borne on dense terminal panicles during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. It is not difficult to grow and can be increased by dividing during early spring.

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