Sunday, February 28, 2010

Fraxinus ( Ash )

A large and variable family of trees related to the Mediterranean Olive that are generally fast growing and have winged fruits ( samaras ) in autumn. The Ashes can be either deciduous or evergreen. Many are excellent urban shade and street trees.
Most Ashes prefer moist fertile soil however many are drought tolerant. Most Ashes also tolerate heat, pollution, heavy clay and wind as well as alkaline soil which they often prefer. Ashes are greedy feeders with extensive, deep roaming fibrous root systems. They are easily transplanted from container or root pruned field grown trees.
Pruning for most Ash consists of pruning to a single leader and feathered when young. It is important to space limbs and gradually remove lower limbs for a sturdy shade tree as the Ash matures. Pruning is done in fall.
Propagation is typically from seed sown in autumn. The seed will sometimes take 2 years to germinate.
During the summer of 2000 I was sitting on the back porch of my parents house overlooking the deeply forested Canard River Valley south of Windsor, Ontario. A shiny green beetle landed on the coffee table. I never seen such an insect before but didn't think much of it then my mom says that she seen a few of these lately and doesn't remember ever seeing them before. Unknown to us or the scientific community, this insect would soon become one of the worst epidemics in North American forestry history. The Emerald Ash Borer was already feasting and populating on the White, Green, Pumpkin, Black and Blue Ash all which grew on the family farm and many of which formed the canopy of Essex Counties largest continous tree covered area following River Canard out to the Detroit River. At the same time this insect little known at the time was already breeding within the monoculture of Green Ash in the west end of Windsor which replaced the many Elms which died from Dutch Elm Disease in the 1950s ( which is exactly why I advocated DIVERSITY in urban forestry ).
Just 4 years after this accidental introduction which likely came in on a shipment of imported lumber the counties trees started to die. By now it was too late to stop. Ashes were also starting to die in a pattern spreading southeast to Leamington and beyond. The Emerald Ash Borer which absolutely does fly, also crossed the Detroit River and Ash were dying in southeast Michigan in a pattern moving inland from the Detroit River and southwest to Ohio. On the Canadian side was a panic, and millions after millions were spent on cutting Ash in Essex and Kent Counties trying to contain this infestation. Unfortunately once Ashes start to die the insect has already moved on far to colonize new land. Now among the most abundant trees on the North American continent are in danger of extinction. Only individual trees treated with systemic insecticide are spared and survive the now massive part of the midwest that has been infested. On untreated trees, this insect tunnels in the wood until the sap flow is cut off and the tree chokes to death. Death of the tree usually takes around 2 years with the first year the tree may try to sucker and recover as the insect inflicts more damage. D shaped holes are found in the trunk where the Emerald Ash Borer bores into the wood. Hopefully some kind of natural preditor can be brought from Asia for contain this insect, until then I have decided to not offer Ash to any of my clients due to survivability issues. I also recommend everyone NOT to travel with firewood especially that is Ash. As of 2010 this insect has almost reached the Atlantic Ocean. During a photo shoot at the U.S. National Arboretum late this spring, while walking close to the Anacosta River I once again seen the now familiar shiny green insect.
More than 7.5 billion ash trees are threatened with destruction. Almost 114 million board feet of ash saw timber with a value of $25.1 billion U.S. is grown in the eastern U.S. yearly. Currently 40 + million ash trees are dying or are dead in the United States. It generally takes 2 to 3 years for an infested tree to die.

Worst Forestry Epidemics in North American History

Emerald Ash Borer - 7.5 billion trees threatened
Chestnut Blight - 3.5 billion trees
Dutch Elm Disease - 200 million

All species of Ash native to the U.S. are threatened with extinction.
The original range of the emerald ash borer is eastern Russia, northern China, Korea and Japan. A tiny parasitic wasp from Asia called Tetrastichus planiplennisi lays its eggs in the borers larvae and may hold promise in controlling the borer population and saving the Ashes.

* photos of unknown internet source



* photos of Emerald Ash Borer damage taken on Aug 2 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos of Emerald Ash Borer damage taken May 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo of Emerald Ash Borer taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD


Fraxinus americana ( White Ash )
A large spreading columnar tree reaching up to 80 feet or more that is native to eastern North America ( from northern Minnesota to Batchewana, Ontario to Petawawa, Ontario to southern Quebec to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). It has been reported further north near Cochrane and Haileybury in Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern Essex County as well as the Ohio shore; uncommon elsewhere including Detroit during the 1800s. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 6 years - 24.5 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 inches; 10 years - 44 x 33 feet; 20 years - 50 x 40 feet; 40 years -trunk diameter of 3 feet; largest on record - 200 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.5 feet; longest lived - 500 years.
90% of its yearly growth increase occurs in the month after it leafs out in spring.
The pinnate leaves up to 12 or rarely 18 inches in length are composed of 7 ( less often 5 to 13 ) sparsely toothed, papery, elliptical leaflets up to 6 x 3 or rarely 8 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, blue-green and smooth beneath in summer turning to orange, red and purple in autumn.
The very small purple flowers are borne in clusters up to 2.5 inches in early spring before the foliage.
The fruits are pale brown, winged keys up to 3.5 x 0.5 inches that often persist on the trees into January. The winter leaf buds are dark brown and the bark is light brown with deep narrow ridged and wide flat interlacing ridges.
Strong wooded
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun preferring very fertile, deep, light, well drained soil. The deep roots like lots of nitrogen. Heat tolerant however does not tolerate flooding to the extent of some other Ash such as Green Ash. It can be prone to borers including ones other than the Emerald Ash Borer and since the 1920s has been prone to Mycoplasma Death shown by decline from 2 to 10 years until death.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on July 2009

* photos taken on April 23 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD




* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on June 6 2010 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washinton, D.C.

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on Mar 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 2 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 in Columbia, MD


Seedless varieties include:

'Autumn Applause'
Compact and very vigorous in habit.
The very shiny, leathery foliage turns dark red in autumn and lasts 2 weeks later than average in autumn.

'Autumn Blaze'
More drought tolerant than usual making it an excellent tree for the northern Great Plains including the Canadian Prairies. Foliage turns purple in autumn and color lasts up to 4 weeks.

'Autumn Purple'
Foliage turns intense deep crimson in autumn, lasting over a long period.
It is a male clone not producing seed.
Hardy north to zone 2

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Chicago Regal'
Oval in shape with a symmetrical and uniform branching habit. The large foliage is deep green. Hardy north to zone 4

'Empire'
An extremely fast growing, unusually narrow upright pyramidal form with a straight sturdy trunk and strong central leader. It is seedless and its foliage turns orange-purple in autumn. Hardy north to zone 4

'Northern Gem'
Is actually a hybrid between Fraxinus americana & F. manshurica. Growing very vigorously to very large sizes, it is hardy north to zone 2 and has glowing yellow autumn foliage.

'Northern Blaze'
Similar to 'Autumn Blaze' but hardier, north to zone 2 even thriving in Manitoba. The folige turns deep maroon red in autumn.

'Rose Hill'
Rapid growing with a strong leader.
Foliage is luxuriant deep green above and paler green beneath, turning fiery red in autumn.
A male clone, it does not produce seed.

'Royal Purple'
Exceptionally hardy, north to zone 3 with purple autumn color.

'Sparticus'
Pyramidal with purple long lasting autumn color.

Fraxinus angustifolia ( Narrow-leafed Ash )
A large ascending vigorous tree reaching up to 70 feet that is native to western Asia and the Mediterranean region and is closely related to Fraxinus excelsior.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 17 feet; 15 years - 40 x 40 feet; largest on record - 120 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet.
The pinnate leaves up to 10 inches in length are arranged in whorls of 3 unlike the similar Fraxinus excelsior. They are composed of 7 to 15 sharply-toothed, pointed, narrow leaflets up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is smooth and glossy bright green above.
The winter buds are larger than Fraxinus excelsior and dark brown.
The bark is gray-brown, ridged and furrowed. The buds are dark brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Flood tolerant.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* excellent photo link
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/images/angustif_tree1.jpg
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/images/oxycarpa-tree.jpg
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/images/angustif_lvs2.jpg

var 'pallisiae'
Nearly identical to Fraxinus angustifolia but native to southeastern Europe ( Romania & Bulgaria to Turkey ) and has densely hairy twigs and leafstalks. The foliage is also hairy at first.
It also reaches up to 100 feet or rarely as much as 120 feet.

* excellent photo link
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/pallisiae.html

'Pendula'
A handsome slightly weeping tree.

subsp. syriaca
Very similar but smaller and bushier, reaching a maximum height of 60 feet and is native from Turkey to Syria to Iran. It is fast growing.
The leaves are arranged in whorls of 3 or 4 and are usually composed of only 3 r 5 leaflets. The bright green foliage turns to deep red during autumn.
The twigs are very stout and knobby.
The bark is blackish.
Hardy north to zone 5a. Well adapted to semi-arid climates.

* photos taken on July 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Fraxinus anomala ( Singleleaf Ash )
A moderate growing, small tree reaching up to 30 x 15 feet that is native to the mountains of the western U.S. from central California to central Nevada, Utah to southern Wyoming; south to central Arizona and New Mexico. It is endangered in Wyoming. Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet. Reported to grow 72 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches in Ireland.
The leaves are often single up to 3 x 3 inches but sometimes are pinnate with 3 or 5 leaflets. The broadly oval leaves are long stalked and are either smooth margined or toothed above the middle. The foliage is glossy deep green above, smooth light green beneath.
The flowers appear in late spring after the tree is in late and are followed in fall by broad winged samaras up to an inch in length.
The deeply-ridged bark is gray. The twigs are 4-angled like that of the Blue Ash.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -23 F ) and is moderately drought tolerant and also tolerates salt and soil PH from 6.5 to 9. It can grow at very high elevations in the southwest.

* photo taken by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


subsp 'lowellii' ( Lowell Ash )
Also called Fraxinus lowellii. Very similar except that is ranges along watercourses in northern and central Arizona. The leaves are pinnate, up to 4.5 inches in length with 3 to 7 leaflets.
The bark is gray and scaly.

Fraxinus apertisquamifera
A deciduous, small tree that is native to the mountains of central Honshu Island in Japan.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 5 to 9 toothed, broadly lance-shaped leaflets. The foliage is bright green above; paler green beneath.
The white flowers are borne on terminal panicles during late spring or very early summer.
The smooth bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 6 & 7 ( may prove hardier with additional testing ).

Fraxinus berlandieri ( Berlandier Ash )
A very rapid growing, rounded medium size tree native to riverbanks in southern Texas and Mexico. Some records include: 3 years - 12 x 10 feet; 26 years - 33 feet or more; largest on record - 75 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The Berlandier Ash makes an excellent street tree and leafs out earlier in spring and holds its foliage later in fall than most Ash.
The leaves up to 7 inches in length are composed of 5 to 11 leaflets up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The narrow keys are up to 1.3 inches in length.
The gray twigs have pointed brown buds.
Hardy north to zone 6. Rot resistant.

Fraxinus biltmoreana ( Biltmore Ash )
A natural hybrid between Fraxinus americana & F. pennsylvanica that is sometime found in the eastern U.S. It is a tall narrow crowned tree reaching a maximum height of 162 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves are composed of up to 11 smooth to scallop edged leaflets. The foliage is deep green above and downy blue-green beneath turning yellow or maroon red in autumn.
The fruit is winged and has a slight notch at the tip.
Hardy zone 4 to 9

Fraxinus bungeana ( Bunge Ash )
A fast growing small tree reaching up to 27 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot that is native to northern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet.
The leaves up to 15 inches in length are composed of up to 7 finely scallop-edged leaflets up to 7 x 4.5 inches. The bright green foliage reddens during autumn.
The white, downy flowers are borne on showy panicles, up to 3 inches across, during late spring.
They are followed by narrow winged fruits.
The new shoots are finely hairy.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* historic archive photo


Fraxinus caroliniana ( Carolina Ash )
A fast growing, medium-size tree native to swamps of southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Texas and Arkansas to Virginia; south to the Gulf Coast and central Florida ). It is endangered in Maryland where it is native to Prince Georges & Worchester Counties only. Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet ( average ); largest on record - 116 x 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.6 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 16 ( rarely over 12 ) inches in length are composed of 5 or 7 long stalked, coarsely-toothed, ovate to oblong leaflets up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, blue-green beneath.
The tiny early spring flowers are followed by winged samaras up to 3 x 1 inches in size in autumn.
The light gray bark is scaly.
The wood is light, up to 22 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( possibly 4 & 5, further testing needed ) on acidic soil in full sun to partial shade. Tolerant of extended flooding, especially in winter.

* photo taken by E.R. Mosher @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Fraxinus chinensis ( Chinese Ash )
A large tree native to eastern Russia, Sakhalin, northern China and Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 80 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 14 inches in length are composed of up to 8 oval leaflets up to 7 x 3 inches.
The foliage is yellowish at first turning to deep green above and slightly downy beneath turning yellow or purple during autumn. The foliage remains healthy and attractive all summer long.
The flowers are borne on terminal panicles, up to 3 inches across, on the new growth.
They are followed by winged fruit in summer.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( some seed source may be hardier ). Grows well in England. It may have invasive potential in the eastern U.S. however should also be studies for borer resistance.
Prone to leaf scab defoliation in late summer. Heat and drought tolerant.
Extremely rare in the U.S., it grows at U.S. National Arboretum and Lafayette Park in the nations capital.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


subsp. 'rhynchophylla'
Similar but erect and vigorous and also having a terminal leaflet that is much larger ( to 7 x 3.5 inches ) than the other leaflets.
Hardy to zone 4b as it has thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada where it has reached 35 feet and will most likely grow larger.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* historic archive photo


Fraxinus cuspidata ( Fragrant Ash )
A fast growing, small tree native to the southwest U.S. from southern Nevada & Arizona to El Paso, Texas and south into northern Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 80 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The pinnate leaves up to 7 inches in length are composed of 3 to 7 ovate long stalked, narrow, pointed leaflets up to 3 x 1 inches in size.
The very fragrant, showy, white-( 4 )petalled flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne in clusters up to 4 inches in length in mid spring with the foliage. In bloom the whole tree is covered in a blanket of white.
The twigs are red-brown with scattered lenticals.
The bark on older trees is gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, heat, drought and heavy clay tolerant. Seeds have a high germination rate.

Fraxinus dipetala ( Two-petal Ash )
An upright, usually multi-trunked small tree native to riverbanks and open woodland in the southwestern U.S. ( from northern California to southwest Utah; south to southern California to northern Arizona ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 50 x 34 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It makes a great screen or patio tree.
The leaves up to 7.5 inches in length are composed of 3 to 7 ( usually 5 ) thick, sharply-toothed, oval leaflets up to 3 x 1 inch. The foliage is glossy deep green, turning to golden-yellow or orange-purple during autumn. During severe drought, the leaves may drop during mid-summer.
The non-fragrant, showy, creamy-white, 2-petalled flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne in drooping clusters, up to 6 ( rarely over 4.5 ) inches in length, during mid spring with the foliage. The furrowed bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic to neutral soil. . It is among the most heat and drought tolerant of all the Ashes and is also tolerant of temporary flooding.

Fraxinus excelsior ( European Ash )
A very large, dome-canopied tree reaching up to 100 feet that is a widespread native to Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 3 years - 8 feet; 5 years - 17 feet; 8 years - 24 feet; 20 years - 82 x 53 feet; 35 years - 100 feet; largest on record - 170 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet; largest in Maryland - 70 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet; largest in U.S. - 70 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet @ the U.S. Capital, D.C.; longest lived - 411 years. A massive pollarded tree with a trunk diameter of 18 feet was recorded in 1764 and a smaller but still gigantic pollarded tree with a diameter of 13 feet was recorded in 1794 in Galway, Ireland.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 or very rarely 16 inches in length, are composed of 9 to 13 sharply-toothed, pointed oblong leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches. The foliage appears late in spring, is deep green in summer turning to bright yellow early in autumn.
The foliage generally remains healthy and attractive all summer long.
The tiny flowers are borne in panicles in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The winged pendent pale brown fruits up to 1.5 inches in length remain on the trees into winter.
The twigs are gray with prominent black buds.
The bark is very light gray and smooth when young, later becoming fissured.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 preferring a deep, cool, moist soil. Very drought tolerant. It even grows in Winnipeg's harsh climate. Should not be planted near buildings due to invasive root system. Very prone to borers ( and not just the Emerald Ash borer ) in the U.S. limiting its use.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washinton, D.C.


* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photos

* excellent photo link
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/excelsior1.html

'Aurea Pendula'
Golden weeping branches, reaches up to 23 feet.

'Diversifolia'
Reaches up to 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet.
The leaves are not pinnate, there is only 1 "leaflet" up to 8 x 5 inches in size.

'Diversifolia Pendula'
Pendulous branches and foliage similar to that of 'Diversifolia'

'Eureka'
Serrate edged, bright green leaves.

'Hessei'
Extremely vigorous with toothed, leathery, single leaves up to 8 x 5 inches in size.
The foliage is shiny deep green lasting late in autumn and is free of disease. It would be among the highest rating Ashes in the Midwest if it wasn't for Emerald Ash Borer.

subsp 'hookeri'
A subspecies native to the western Himalayas, especially in moist, fertile valleys in northern Pakistan where it is now endangered. It forms a fast growing, large, deciduous tree, exceeding 100 feet.
The pinnate leaves up to 14 inches in length are composed of 5 to 9 slightly-toothed, pointed oblong leaflets up to 6 x 2.3 inches. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath. While exact hardiness is unknown ( likely zones 8b to 10 ), it prefers a cool mountain climate without the extreme winters of it's European counterpart.

'Jaspidea' ( Golden Ash )
The very attractive foliage is intense golden-yellow in spring and fall. The stout colorful shoots are yellow with black leaf buds in winter. Very vigorous.
Largest on record - 105 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Pendula' ( Weeping Ash )
Weeping in habit. Very rarely as much as 90 x 52 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photo


'Pendula Wentworthii'
Reaches up to 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.

'Pendulifolia Purpurea'
Spreading habit and bronze new foliage.

'Westhof's Glorie'
Upright and vigorous with glossy deep green foliage.

Fraxinus floribunda ( Himalayan Manna Ash )
A fast growing, large tree reaching up to 100 feet that is native to the Himalayas. Some records include: 4 years - trunk diameter of 1.7 inches; 24 years - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches; largest on record - 135 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The pinnate leaves up to 15 inches in length are composed of up to 9 leaflets up to 6 inches in length.
The white flowers are borne in showy clusters up to 12 inches in width.
This is considered a "Flowering Ash"
Variably in hardiness however some clones are hardy as far north as zone 7. Tolerant of wind and pollution.

Fraxinus goodingii ( Gooding Ash )
A small tree reaching up to 20 ( rarely 25 ) feet that is very similar to Fraxinus gregii but native further west from southeast Arizona, south into neighboring parts of Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 22 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches.
The more often evergreen leaves are up to 2 inches in length with 4 to 9 leafelts, up to 0.5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, pale and slightly hairy beneath.
The keys, up to 0.7 inches in length are very wide and flat tipped.
The somewhat slender, woolly grayish twigs have gray buds.

Fraxinus greggii ( Gregg Ash )
A small tree native from El Paso to Brownsville, Texas and south into Mexico. Some records include: 5 years - 10 x 6 feet; 10 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 40 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The semi-evergreen, pinnate leaves up to 3 inches in length remain on the trees until spring flowering time and have a winged rachis. They are composed of 3 ( sometimes 5 to 7 ) obovate, leathery leaves up to 1.3 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and pale green marked with black dots beneath.
The spatulate winged samaras are up to 0.8 inches in length. The fruits hang beneath the twigs in small clusters.
The bark is light brown and smooth.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very heat and drought tolerant. While native to the southwest, it may also thrive in the hot humid southeast as well as southern Arizona. The seed germinates much better after a soaking in 95% sulfuric acid so soften the exceptionally hard seed coat.

* historic archive photo


Fraxinus griffithi
A fast growing, medium size evergreen tree native to southeast Asia.
Some records include: 24 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 66 x 40 feet.
The leaves up to 12 inches in length have up to 8 pairs of pointed oval leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches.
The foliage is glossy deep green above and hairy, silvery beneath.
The white flowers are borne in showy panicles in spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 on deep loamy soil and preferring mild dry climates. Moderately salt tolerant.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Fraxinus holotricha ( Balkan Ash )
Also called F. pallisae. A fast growing, long lived, rounded, large tree reaching up to 50 x 40 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet; largest on record - 100 x 57 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 14 x 10 inches, are composed of 5 to 13 toothed leaflets up to 2.8 or very rarely 5 inches in length. The foliage is shiny deep green above, downy beneath, turning to golden-yellow in autumn.
The shoots are velvety. The deeply ridged bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it has survived in zone 4b at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada but was reduced to being a large shrub there due to occasional winter dieback for many years before finally toughening up and becoming a multi-trunked tree.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Moraine'
Non-fruiting

Fraxinus lanuginosa (Japanese Ash )
A medium-size deciduous tree reaching a maximum height of 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 23 feet. Moderately long-lived, it is known to persist as long as 300 years.
The pinnate leaves are in opposite pairs, up to 6 inches in length and composed of, 3 to 7 finely serrate margined, broad oval leaflets up to 3 x 1.5 inches.
The dark gray bark is smooth.

* photo of unknown internet source



Fraxinus latifolia ( Oregon Ash )
A rapid growing, large tree closely related to Fraxinus pennsylvanica, reaching up to 80 feet that is native to the west coast of North America ( from far southwest British Columbia and Seattle, WA to southern California ). It is also a very valuable timber tree ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; 20 years - 60 x 20 feet; largest on record - 160 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet; largest in England - 80 feet @ Kew; longest lived - 600 years.
The pinnate leaves up to 16 inches in length are composed of 7 ( 5 to 9 ) smooth to finely-tooth margined, pointed, oval leaflets up to 7 x 1.5 inches. The late appearing foliage is deep green above and downy light green beneath, turning to bright yellow early in autumn. May be semi-evergreen in mild climates.
The flower panicles are borne in early spring on previous years wood.
The elliptical winged keys are up to 2 inches in length.
The shoots are rough and red-brown.
The bark is red-brown and fissured with wide ridges. The high quality timber also makes great firewood.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 and thrives on most soils. Tolerates both drought and extended flooding during the winter season.

Fraxinus longicuspis ( Siebold Ash )
Also called Fraxinus pubinervis or Japanese Ash. A dense, deciduous, large tree, that is native to cenral & southern Japan. Some records include: tallest on record - 100 x 72 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The pinnate leaves are composed of up to 7 toothed, broadly lance-shaped leaflets up to 4 inches in length. The deep green foliage turns reddish in autumn.
The showy white flowers are borne on panicles during late spring with the opening foliage.
The smooth bark is pale grayish-brown.
Hardy north to zone 5 ( est )

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Fraxinus mandschurica ( Manshurian Ash )
A large deciduous tree reaching around 80 feet that is native to northern Asia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 3 years - 10 x 5 feet; largest on record - 120 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. Long-lived, Manchurian Ash is known to live for as long as 1000 years though rarely does this happen. It is closely related to Fraxinus nigra.
The leaves up to 24 inches in length are composed of up to 11 coarsely toothed, ovate leaflets up to 8.5 x 4.5 inches in size. The foliage is hairy matt green above and downy beneath. The foliage emerges early and may be prone to frost in some areas.
The flowers are borne in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The bark is gray-white and fissured.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 reported to be hardy to as low as -60 F thriving in Alberta and even Fairbank, Alaska's harsh climates. Manchurian Ash is flood, pollution and urban tolerant. Tolerates soil PH as high as 8.4. Death rates from Emerald Ash Borer in Midwest has been far that of Green & White Ash. This tree prefers continental climates and grows poorly in maritime climates such as the British Isles.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


Fraxinus mariesii ( Chinese Flowering Ash )
A small tree native to China that reaches up to 20 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 27 x 15 feet in size.
The leaves, up to 7 inches in length are composed of 5 to 7 nearly stalkless, toothed, elliptical leaflets up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is purplish at first turning to deep green above, silvery-white beneath.
The flowers are borne on very showy creamy-white panicles during early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Fraxinus multinervis
A fast growing tree. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet.
The leaflets are up to 5 x 2.5 inches.

Fraxinus nigra ( Black Ash )
A tall, upright deciduous tree reaching around 70 feet that is native to swampy woods in northern North America ( from southern Manitoba to Lansdowne House, Ontario to Cochrane, Ontario to central Quebec to Prince Edward Island & Newfoundland; south to central Iowa to southern Indiana to northern Virginia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was sporadic along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands, the Ohio shore as well as at Detroit during the 1800s. Some record include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 14 x 6 feet ( Alberta ); largest on record - 160 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 111 x 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet in Lancaster Co.; largest in North Dakota - 66 x 35 feet; longest lived - 320 years.
The attractive pinnate-compound leaves up to 20 inches in length are composed of 9 ( sometimes 7 to 13 ) stalkless, finely tooth-edged, lance to oblong shaped leaflets up to 6 x 3 inches. The leaflets have downy brown veins above and the edges are curled upwards. The foliage is very deep green above and pale green beneath and turns to purple and golden-yellow in autumn. The foliage appears late in spring and drops early in autumn.
The winged oblong samaras are up to 2 x 0.3 inches in size.
The twigs have black winter buds.
The bark is light gray; smooth on young trees, later with large plates and papery scales.
Hardy zones 2 to 6, seed source from east of Lake Superior does poorly on the northern Great Plains. Very flood tolerant. Was not typically bothered by pests or disease until the Emerald Ash Borer appeared.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario


* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photo taken by R.S. Homer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Fallgold'
A vigorous non-fruiting tree with long lasting yellow autumn color ( 2 weeks later than regular Fraxinus nigra ). The foliage is healthy and disease resistant.
Fast growing, reaching up to 12 x 4 feet in 5 years.
Extremely cold hardy, thriving even in Alberta.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Major's Gold'
Similar except for foliage which emerges golden-yellow during spring, turning to yellowish-green then brilliant golden-yellow during autumn.
The very showy twigs are an attractive orangish-yellow color during winter.
Hardy zones 3a to 8

'Northern Treasure'
Actually a vigorous hybrid, especially recommended as a street tree on the northern Great Plains especially in Alberta where it can reach up to 17 x 9 feet in just 5 years. Excellent golden-yellow autumn color.

Fraxinus ornus ( Manna Ash )
A dense, spreading, round-headed, leafy, medium-size tree reaching up to 60 feet that is native from southern & eastern Europe to southwestern Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 13 feet; 15 years - 33 x 33 feet; largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves up to 12 inches in length are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets. The sharply-toothed, taper-pointed, ovate to oblong leaflets are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and slightly hairy and paler beneath; turning to vibrant orange, burgundy and purple in autumn.
The fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne in very showy, pyramidal, fluffy, dense panicles, up to 8 inches in length, from the leaf axils during late spring with the young foliage.
They are followed by narrow winged fruit up to 1.5 inches in length that are borne in clusters.
The winter leaf buds are dark gray.
The bark is gray, beech-like and oozes a sugar sap when cut.
Hardy zones 4 to 9; in zones 4 to 6 use hardy Hungarian strains. Prefers mulched, deep soil. Flood tolerant. Unfortunately very prone to borers ( not just Emerald Ash Borers ) in the U.S. Washington, D.C. tree hunters can find it at the National Zoo.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery<br />

* historical archive photo


Fraxinus oxycarpa ( Turkestan Ash )
A fast growing, large tree very similar and closely relaed to Fraxinus angustifolia, that reaches up to 70 feet and is native from southeast Europe through the Caucasus region in Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 80 x 70 feet.
The foliage is very similar to that of Fraxinus angustifolia except that the pinnate leaves have only 5 or 7 leaflets each up to 3 inches in length. The deep green foliage turns to red late in autumn, often in December. The fall color is spectacular even in mild climates.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Extremely heat tolerant however trunk scald can be fatal on sites with reflected sun in the desert southwest.

* historical archive photo


'Lentiscifolia'
Similar except with leaflets spaced more widely along a longer common stalk.
Very fine textured foliage. Maximum height is 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.

'Raywood'
Vigorous, erect, dense and oval in habit. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - feet; 5 years - 17 feet; 15 years - 40 x 40 feet ( record ) or 30 x 20 feet ( average ); largest on record - 110 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.4 feet.
The delicate textured foliage is deep green turning to wine red in autumn.
Hardy zones 5 +.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


Fraxinus papillosa ( Chihuahua Ash )
A small tree reaching up to 25 x 10 feet that is native from Arizona to western Texas and neighboring parts of northern Mexico.
Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The leaves, up to 4.5 inches in length, are composed of 5 to 9 stalkless, smooth, narrow elliptic leaflets up to 2.5 x 1 inch in size. The foliage is deep green above, whitish beneath.
Hardy north to zone 7 ( reports of zone 5 ) and is very heat and drought tolerant.

Fraxinus paxiana
A very fast growing handsome tree similar in appearance to the Ailanthus that is native to China. Some records include: 2 years - 4 feet; largest on record - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 14 inches in length are composed of up to 9 or rarely 11 leaflets up to 7 x 2.5 inches. The foliage turns golden-yellow early in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in panicles up to 6 inches in length. This is considered a "Flowering Ash".
Hardy north to zone 5

* excellent photo link
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/paxiana.html

Fraxinus pennsylvanica ( Green Ash )
An extremely large, hardy, very popular shade and street tree reaching up to 70 feet that is native to much of central and eastern North America ( from central Alberta to central Manitoba to the north shore of Lake Superior to Blind River, Ontario to southern Quebec to the Gaspe and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas and northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley as well as the Great Swamp of northern Essex County but sporadic elsewhere during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet x 0.5 inch diameter ( sucker sprout ); 1 st year - 24 inches; 5 years - 16 x 14 feet ( Alberta ); 10 years - 36 feet; 20 years - 57 x 33 feet; 27 years - 78 feet; 40 years - trunk diameter of 3 feet; 65 years - 116 feet; largest on record - 175 x 145 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.6 feet; largest in North Dakota - 70 x 74 feet. The Green Ash generally matures in 40 years and can live as long as 150 ( record is 300 ) years.
The pinnate leaves up to 12 inches in length are composed of 5 to 9 ( rarely 11 or 13 ) slightly-toothed, pointed, oval leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches that can have either smooth or tooth edged margins. The foliage is olive to glossy deep green above, pale green beneath, turning to yellow early in autumn.
The very small purplish flowers are borne in clusters produced on old wood in early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by winged fruits up to 2.5 x 0.5 inches. The light brown samaras hang in clusters and hang on the trees as late as January.
Young shoots are downy and the buds are brown. The scaly light brown bark is lightly furrowed with interlacing narrow ridges.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Flood, salt and wind tolerant. Some trees may be prone to anthracnose and loose their foliage during late summer. In areas anthracnose is a problem careful selection of cultivar is important. This Ash may also be prone to Mycoplasma Death however this is not widepsread or common unlike the new killer - Emerald Ash Borer.
Young trees should also be protected from damage caused by rodents.
Do not use trees of northern seed source in the south as they may be less adapted to extreme heat.

* photo taken in Amherstburg, Ontario before the Emerald Ash Borer invasion

* photo taken on July 1990 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo of unknown source on internet

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo on August 2 2010 in Goderich, Ontario


* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario


* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario





* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photos


'Aucubifolia'
Yellow speckled foliage.

'Bergeson'
An extremely hardy, very fast growing, upright clone that forms a shapely tree with deep green foliage that turns intense yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 2a to 6

'Brendans Seletion'
An extremely hardy, vigorous clone that is especially well adapted for use as shade and shelterbelt in Alberta. Some records include: 5 years - 15.5 x 8 feet.

'Cardan'
text coming soon

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


'Cimmaron'
A seedless form with a strong central leader.
The lush deep green foliage turns flame-orange and red during autumn.

'Dakota Centennial'

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Foothills Seedless'
An extremely hardy, seedless, upright, oval clone that grows especially well in Alberta and the northern Great Plains. Some records include: 3 years - 13 x 7 feet; 5 years - 18.5 x 12 feet.
Hardy to -40 F or even colder.

'Georgia Gem'
Finally a seedless Green Ash for the Deep South. It is vigorous, upright and oval in habit reaching up to 50 x 35 feet in 20 years.
The leaves are huge for an Ash and are very glossy deep green turning to yellow very large in autumn. The leaves often persist into early November however sometimes don't color at all if early frosts occur.
Hardy north to zone 6 and heat tolerant.

subsp. 'lanceolata'
Smooth shoots and thicker leaflets.

'Marshall's Seedless'
Non fruiting vigorous tree with very shiny, very deep green foliage that is generally free of disease.

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Patmore'
Strongly erect in habit producing an oval crown. Some records include: 7 years - 13 x 10.5 feet.
It has glossy deep green foliage and is non fruiting. The foliage turns yellow and persists later than the species during autumn. It is not bothered by leaf diseases.
Exceptionally hardy, it is well adapted for use in the northern Great Plains.

* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


'Prairie Dome'
A vigorous clone that is especially well adapted for use as a landscape tree on the northern Great Plains including Alberta. Some records include: 5 years - 21 x 8 feet.
The foliage turns intense yellow during autumn.

'Prairie Spire'
A narrow, pyramidal form that is exceptionally hardy, making it an excellent urban tree for the northern Great Plains incl. Alberta. Some records include: 4 years - 15.5 x 5.5 feet; 5 years - 18 x 10.5 feet. It grows columnar with a strong central leader.
The deep green foliage turns attractive golden-yellow during autumn.

'Purpurea'
Shiny deep green foliage turns purplish in mid summer then vivid red in autumn generally 2 weeks later than average for Green Ash.

'Summit'
Young trees are pyramidal, later becoming upright and oval in habit. Fast growing, it is known to reach up to 43 feet in 21 years.
The glossy mid-green foliage turns to deep yellow during autumn.

* photo taken on June 27 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Urbanite'
Fast growing with a dense pyramidal canopy of luxuriant glossy dark green foliage.
The thick, very leathery foliage turns red or bronze in autumn. This cultivar is by far drops its foliage the latest during the autumn.

Fraxinus platypoda
A large tree reaching a maximum height of 90 feet that is native to China.
The pinnate leaves up to 12 inches are composed of up to 11 leaflets up to 6 x 1.5 inches. The flowers are borne in clusters up to 12 inches in length.
This is considered a "Flowering Ash"
Hardy north to zone 5

Fraxinus profunda ( Pumpkin Ash )
A rapid growing, narrow-crowned, tall tree reaching up to 120 feet that is native mostly to swamps of the Mississippi and Ohio Valley however can be found scattered over a much wide range in eastern North America ( Missouri to southern Michigan to southern Ontario to western Pennsylvania to New Jersey..not in Appalachian Mtns; south to Louisiana to Savannah, GA ). It is critically endangered in Canada where it is only found between Windsor and Long Point on the north shore of Lake Erie as well as locally in Hamilton. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was moderately common along the Canard River Valley and the Great Swamp in northern Essex County during the 1800s. Pumkin Ash was abundant on the Ohio shore during that time. It is often found with Carolina Ash in the wild. Some records include: 20 years - 40 + feet; largest on record - 200 x 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.8 feet; longest lived - 160 years ( possibly more )
The leaves are the largest of any native Ash, up to 20 inches in length. They are composed of 7 or 9 smooth-margined or toothed, elliptical, very hairy leaflets up to 10 x 7 ( rarely over 8 x 3 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, hairy bright green beneath and sometimes turns bronze-red to purple in autumn.
The twigs are hairy.
The bark is brown-gray and scaly; furrowed and ridged on very old trees. The base of the tree is often very swollen.
The tiny early spring flowers are followed by winged samaras up to 3 x 1 inch in autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 this tree thrives on wet swampy soils. It prefers a soil PH from 4.5 to 6, hates shade and is not drought tolerant.

* photo taken in Canard River Valley near Amherstburg, Ontario - one of the
very few places Pumpkin Ash grew in Canada before getting wiped out by Emerald Ash Borer


* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on May 18 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo

* photo taken on Apr 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Fraxinus quadrangulata ( Blue Ash )
A large tree reaching up to 80 feet that is native to the U.S. Midwest and Canada ( from eastern Kansas to southeast Iowa to southern Wisconsin to southern Michigan to southern Ontario; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Alabama to far northwest Georgia ). It is critically endangered in Canada where it is only found in the wild from Courtright ( on St. Clair River ) to near London, Ontario and south to Lake Erie to as far east as Port Burwell... though there is also a report of it north of Toronto. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant on the Lake Erie islands and the Sandusky peninsula, uncommon at Point Pelee and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It likely also previously occurred around Long Point. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 33 ( avg ) feet; largest on record - 155 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
It was already rare in the U.S. and endangered in Canada before the Emerald Ash Borer appeared. Before the Emerald Ash Borer appeared it was considered an excellent shade tree and was increasingly being planted.
The pinnate leaves from 8 to 15 or rarely 22 inches in length are composed of 7 to 11 coarsely-toothed, lance to oblong leaflets up to 6 x 3 inches that are borne on short stalks. The foliage is smooth and glossy deep green above during summer and turns to yellow or sometimes purple in autumn. The foliage of the Blue Ash is among the most beautiful of all the native North American Ash.
The flowers are produced on panicles that appear before the foliage emerges in spring.
They are followed by winged oval fruits up to 2 x 0.5 inches that are scalloped at the tip and often persists into February.
The corky young shoots are 4-angled and squared with red-brown buds.
The scaly, shaggy bark is light gray with large plates.
The wood is similar to that of the White Oak.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it is very drought as well as very alkaline soil tolerant.
It is also tolerant of heat ( though foliage yellows ), ice and salt. An excellent shade and street tree for the northern Great Plains and even Winnipeg. Was not often prone to pests or disease until the Emerald Ash Borer appeared.
Tree hunters in Washington, D.C. can find it at the Potomac Side of the Tidal Basin. More resistant to Emerald Ash Borer than Green or White Ash but still gradually dies.

* photos of unknown source on internet




* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario







* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario



* photo taken by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Southampton, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Goderich, ON

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'True Blue'
Foliage does not yellow during hot summers unlike that of regular Blue Ash.

'Urbana'
Whitened bark

Fraxinus retusa ( Oriental Ash )
A fast growing, medium-sized tree, native to central China as well as southern Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The leaves, up to 15 inches in length, are composed of 3 to 5 ( rarely 7 ) leaflets.
The oblong leaflets are up to 5 x 1.8 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, whitish beneath; turning to bright yellow during autumn.
The showy, white flowers are borne on panicles up to 12 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by red samaras that later dry to brown and persist into winter.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is tolerant of floodplain conditions.

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Fraxinus sieboldiana ( Siebold Ash )
Als called Longi Ash. A dense, medium size tree reaching around 40 feet that is native to eastern China and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.3 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves up to 10 inches in length are composed of 5 to 7 lance-shaped leaflets up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The deep green foliage turns to red-purple during autumn.
It is a "Flowering Ash" with fragrant, white flowers that are borne in showy clusters during late spring.
The bark is smooth and beige.
Hardy zones 4b to 9 and is flood tolerant. It thrives Ottawa, Canada making it obviously slightly hardier than the zone 5 status it is often given.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Fraxinus sikkimensis ( Sikkim Ash )
A very fast growing handsome rounded tree similar and closely related to Fraxinus paxiana but with much larger flowers and being native further west in high mountains of western China and northeast India. Some records include: 2 years - 4 feet; largest on record - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The leaves resembling Sambucus - Elder, up to 14 inches in length are composed of up to 9 or rarely 11 leaflets up to 7 x 2.5 inches. The foliage turns golden-yellow early in autumn.
The yellow-white flowers are borne in panicles up to 12 inches in length. This is considered a "Flowering Ash" and it the showiest among them all.
The 4 angled, silvery-green shoots have attractive purple-brown buds that are often large.
Hardy north to zone 5

Fraxinus sogdiana ( Tianshan Ash )
Also called Fraxinus potamophila. An endangered medium size tree native to the central Asian country of Turkestan. Some records include: 8 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 82 x 42 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet ( Chicago ).
The pinnate compound leaves up to 12 inches in length are composed of up to 11 or rarely 13 heavily toothed, oval leaflets up to 5 x 2 inches.
The flowers appear in spring before the foliage. They are followed by oblong fruits.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Fraxinus spaethiana
A pyramidal, large tree to 100 feet that is native to Japan where it is often found on floodplains. Some records include: 30 years - 48 feet; largest on record - 120 x 40 feet.
The very attractive foliage appears like that of Fraxinus nigra - Black Ash. The pinnate compound leaves up to 18 inches in length are composed of 7 to 9 toothed, pointed, lance shaped to oblong leaflets up to 9 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and sparsely hairy beneath; turning intense deep yellow during autumn.
The petal-less white flowers are borne in large panicles during spring.
They are followed by winged fruits up to an inch in length.
The leaf buds are very dark brown. The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and requires hot summers.

Fraxinus texansis ( Texas Ash )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, medium-size tree reaching up to 30 feet or more that is native to limestone hills in Oklahoma and central Texas. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 80 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Grown from seed it can become a 1 gallon size plant in 1 year and a 15 gallon size plant in 3 years. The Texas Ash prefers hot summers but is known to have reached 8 feet in 6 years in England. The Texas Ash is an excellent street tree.
The leaves, up to 8 inches in length are composed of 5 ( sometimes 7 ) long stalked, tooth edged, obovate leaflets up to 3.5 x 2 inches. The foliage is glossy, very deep green in summer turning to glowing orange, red and purple in autumn.
The tiny flowers are borne as the foliage emerges in spring and are followed by winged samaras up to an inch in length in autumn.
The bark is similar to that of the White Ash.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. It is hardy far north of its native range, growing as far north as Ottawa, Ontario.
Very drought, heat and very lime soil tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source


Fraxinus uhdei ( Evergreen Ash )
Also called Shamel Ash. It is a large, dense, rounded, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree native to Mexico and Central America. Some records include: 5 years - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 inches; 9 years - 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches; 20 years - 60 feet; 23 years - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; 37 years - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; 54 years - trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest on record - 170 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.3 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves up to 8 inches in length are composed of up to 7 toothed, oblong leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is smooth, very glossy, deep green above and lighter and smooth beneath.
The flowers are borne in densely packed panicles up to 8 inches.
They are followed by very narrow keys.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 11, if prefes warm moist conditions and is both very drought as well as flood tolerant.

'Majestic Beauty'
Forming a dense, rounded crown, it is equal to the species in regard to incredible vigor and size.

Fraxinus velutina ( Velvet Ash )
A very fast growing, medium size tree to 60 feet or more that is native to the southwest U.S. and northern Mexico ( incl, s CA, s NV, sw UT, AZ ( most ), NM ( most ), w TX ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet; largest on record - 100 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.9 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves are composed of up to 5 ( sometimes 3 or 7 ) thick, leathery, finely-toothed, elliptical leaflets up to 6 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is dull medium green above and felted and hairy beneath. It turns to golden-yellow in autumn.
The obovate winged samaras are up to an inch in length.
The twigs are also velvety. The silvery-gray bark is ridged and furrowed.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and prefers a soil PH from 5.8 to 7.5. Tolerant of extreme heat, drought, floods and alkaline soil.
An excellent street tree in the western U.S. Unfortunately it can be prone to borers and not just the Emerald Ash Borer.

* photo taken by Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Fan Tex'
Very fast growing shapely tree reaching a maximum height of 100 feet. The larger, very dark green foliage appears early in spring and turns to golden-yellow late in autumn.
It is non-fruiting and the bark is whitish.

'Modesto'
Prone to anthracnose disease. Not as appealing as some other newer cultivars, it is still known for long lasting fall color.

'Rio Grande'
Fast growing. Tends to be resistant to native borers other than the Emerald Ash Borer.

'Van Ormi'
A vigorous seedless tree with narrow leaves.

Fraxinus xanthyloides ( Afghan Ash )
A slow growing, deciduous, large shrub or small tree, rarely even reaching just 7 x 7 feet during the first 8 years. Some records include: largest on record - 56 feet with a trunk diameter of 25 inches. One year coppice shoots can reach up to 3 feet. It is native to Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and northern India.
The pinnate leaves up to 5 inches in length are composed of 5 to 11 toothed, narrowly-ovate leaflets up to 2 inches in length.
The flowers are borne on dense bunches during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5b to 8 preferring a deep, fertile soil. It is drought tolerant and can survive in climates with as little as 10 inches of yearly rainfall.

* excellent photo link
http://www.oleaceae.info/fraxinus/xanthoxyloides.html