Thursday, February 4, 2010

Rhaphiolepis

A genus of 10 species of evergreen shrubs or trees that are closely related to the Photinia. They are often called Indian Hawthorn, a name that is misleading because they do not have thorns. They are tolerant of hard pruning and make excellent hedges.
They prefer full sun and just about any well drained soil though preferring fertile and light, acidic or alkaline. Salt tolerant and moderately drought tolerant, they are tolerant of seashore conditions and are an excellent plant for such environments.
Mulch should be applied to the root zone since they do not like root disturbance and raking, hoeing, and digging over the shallow root zone will harm growth.
Deer do like to eat the foliage during winter, due to this it must be restricted to urban or fenced in yards in areas that deer are abundant. Netting may be a temporary solution for the deer. Leaf spot may also defoliate some species and cultivars by late summer.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer, layering and seed.


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


Rhaphiolepis x delacourii ( Hybrid Indian Hawthorn )
The hybrids between Rhaphiolepis indica & R. umbellata.
Hardy zone 8 to 11

'Ballerina'
Reaches up to 3 x 6 feet in 5 years.

'Bonfire'
A fast growing, rounded form, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet.
The foliage is reddish-purple at first, turning to deep green, giving a Poinsettia effect all season long.
The flowers open pink and later fade to pinkish-white.
Hardy zones 7b to 10.

'Calisto'
A moderate growing, dense, dwarf form, reaching only 3 x 4 feet in 10 years, eventually to 4 x 5 feet.
The attractive, twisted foliage is glossy deep green, turning to deep red during winter.
The showy deep pink flowers are borne during mid to late spring.
They are followed by purplish-black fruit.
Hardy zones 7 to 10. Highly leaf spot resistant.

'Eleanor Taber'
A vigorous but dwarf, rounded form, reaching up to 3 x 5.5 feet in 5 years; eventually up to 4 x 7 feet. It makes a great low hedge.
The large foliage is bright orangish-red at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The semi-double, bright pink flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by bluish-black fruits that persist through the winter.
Hardy zones 7 to 10. Highly leaf spot resistant.

'Eskimo'
Moderate growing, compact and mounded in habit, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 feet.
The foliage is purplish at first, turning to glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The flowers are pink at first, later fading to white. They appear during spring.
They are followed by bluish-black berries during summer, persisting into winter.
Hardy zones 7b + ( tolerating as low as -3 F ). It is highly leaf spot resistant.

'Majestic Beauty'
A fast growing, upright strongly branching large shrub to small tree ( if trained as such ) reaching a maximum size of 25 x 16 feet. It is a bigeneric hybrid between Rhaphiolepis umbellata & Eriobotrya japonica.
The leathery, large leaves are up to 6 inches in length.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep green. In cold climates the leaves turn red in fall and mostly fall. In mild regions, it is evergreen.
The masses of fragrant, soft pink flowers, are borne in huge clusters up to 10 inches across during spring, fall and winter.
Hardy zones 7b to 10. Drought tolerant and leaf spot resistant.

'Olivia'
Moderate growing, dense and mounded in habit, reaching up to 3 x 6 feet in 5 years; eventually up to 5 x 7 feet.
The large, leathery leaves are glossy deep green, turning to bronze during winter.
The fragrant, pure white flowers are borne during mid-spring.
They are followed by deep blue berries.
Hardy zones 7 +. It has superior leaf spot resistance.

'Pink Dancer'
Moderate growing, dense, compact and rounded, reaching up to 6 x 5 ( rarely over 4 x 4 ) feet.
The foliage is bronze-red at first, turning to glossy bright green. The foliage turns to deep red during winter.
The abundant, rosy-red flowers are borne on clusters during spring.
They are followed by small, deep blue berries.
Hardy zones 8 +. It has superior disease resistance.

'Pink Lady'
Moderate growing, dense, spreading, large shrub reaching up to 6 x 8 feet in size. It makes a great screen.
The leathery foliage is reddish-purple at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The abundant, fragrant, deep pink flowers are typically borne during the spring, though may appear most of the year in mild climates.
They are followed by bluish-black fruits.
Hardy zones 8 to 11.

'Pink Pearl'
Reaches up to 4.5 x 7 feet in 4 years.

'Rosalinda'
A fast growing and upright, large shrub, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet in 5 years, eventually to 15 x 12 feet.
The large leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are bright bronze-red at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The fragrant, large, deep pink flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne on large clusters during late spring into early summer.
It is sterile, therefore producing no fruit.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, it has superior disease resistance.

'Snowcap'
A moderate growing, very dense, compact, domed shrub, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet.
. The deep green leathery foliage turns to deep red during winter.
The flowers are pink in bud, opening to pale pink, later turning to white.
They are later followed by bluish-black fruits.
Hardy zones 7 to 10. It is highly disease resistant.

Rhaphiolepis ferruginea
A small tree reaching up to 33 feet, that is native to milder parts of Asia. It is the largest in the genus but is not known in cultivation in North America.

Rhaphiolepis indica ( Indian Hawthorn )
A moderate growing, evergreen medium-sized shrub to rarely a small tree that is native to southern China.
Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 20 feet.
The tooth-edged, somewhat narrow, pointed leaves, are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
The leathery foliage is pinkish-brown at first, turning to deep green above, olive-green beneath.
The white tinted with pink flowers borne in clusters at the branch tips, during spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. Considerable foliage damage occurs below 5 F. Clones from Chollipo, South Korea may even be hardy on exposed sites in zone 6a where they may recover quickly from winter damage during the spring.




* photo of unknown internet source


'Springtime'
A dense, rounded, medium-sized shrub, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The abundant, fragrant, large, deep pink flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in clusters.
They are followed by deep purple fruits.
Hardy zones 7 +. It is unfortunately prone to leafspot.

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


Rhaphiolepis umbellata ( Yeddo Thorn )
A slow growing, mounded, dense, bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree ( if trained ) that is native to coastal parts of southern Japan and also Korea.
Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 17 feet.
The smooth, recurved-margined, round-tipped, broadly-oval leaves, are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The thick foliage is downy gray-green at first, turning to glossy grayish-green, then finally purplish during winter.
The very fragrant, small, white flowers borne in terminal clusters, up to 3 x 3 inches, during spring and summer, then often repeating in mild climates into the following winter.
They are followed during autumn by persistent, blue-black, pear-shaped berries, up to 0.5 inches across, which are often eaten by birds. The fruits often persist through the winter.
Hardy zones 7b to 11, it is killed at -3 F though one clone 'Ovata' from Chollipo, South Korea may be much hardier. It thrives in full sun to partial shade. Very tolerant of drought and salt and will adapt to tough growing conditions. Protect from excessive winter wind in colder parts of its range.

'Bay Breeze'
A dwarf, mounded form, reaching up to 2 x 5 feet in 5 years; eventually 3 x 6 feet.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green. The foliage turns back to bronze during winter.
The flowers are bright pink.
They are followed by purplish-black fruit.
Hardy zones 7a +; it is moderately leaf spot resistant.

'Minor'
An upright but dwarf form, reaching up to 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, with smaller foliage that is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green, then back to bronze during winter.
Hardier, north to zone 7a.

* excellent video found on Youtube


'Southern Moon'
A compact, mounding form, reaching up to 4 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually 6 x 8 feet.
The attractive glossy deep green foliage is disease resistant.
The abundant, white flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 7 +.

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