Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Random Plant Photos



Aginalis purpurea
Also called Gerardia purpurea. Native to moist, sandy prairies in southwestern Ontario. It is endangered in Ontario. It was widespread but uncommon on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Aleurites fordii ( Tung-Oil Tree )
Also called Vernicia fordii

* historic archive photo


Androsace lanuginosa

* historic archive photo


Annona glabra ( Pond Apple )

* historic archive photo


Antennaria neglecta

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Antennaria parlinii ( Smooth Pussytoes )

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Arcotis x hybrida
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet.
The foliage is silvery.
Hardy zones 7 +.

Argyranthemum frutescens

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* historic archive photo


Astelia 'Silver Shadow'
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 4 feet.
The flowers are white and are followed by red berries.
Thrives in full sun on well drained soil.
Drought and wind tolerant. Excellent for seaside gardens.

Astragalus canadensis ( Carolina Milk Vetch )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit at that time.

Avicennia germinans ( Black Mangrove )

* historic archive photos


Bidens

* photos taken on Sep 24 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD
Brassica oleracea ( Ornamental Cabbage & Kale )

* photos taken on Jan 5 2016 in Columbia, MD


Byrsonima lucida

* historic archive photo


Calathea



Calibrachoa
A vigorous spreading annual, reaching up to 6 x 24 inches, that is related to Petunia but produces an abundance of much smaller flowers. Calibrachoa usually self shed their old flowers unlike Petunias.
The ovate leaves are hairy and bright green.
The bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch wide, appear early summer until autumn frosts. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 as a perennial ( annual in cooler climates ) in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, well drained soil.

* photos taken on May 8 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


Carica papaya ( Papaya )

* historic archive photo


Castilleja coccinea ( Indian Paintbrush )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor and Detroit during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time. This annual or biennial, reaching up to 2 feet, that is native to moist prairie in central and eastern North America ( from southeast Saskatchewan to Manitoba to southern Ontario to northern New York State to southern Maine; south to eastern Texas to central Alabama to central South Carolina ). It is endangered in Saskatchewan, New York State, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, South Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi; extinct in the wild in Louisiana, Delaware, Massachusetts and Maine.

* historic archive photos


Castilleja miniata

* historic archive photo


Ceiba pentandra ( Kapok )

* historic archive photos


Cephalocereus deeringii

* historic archive photos


Cephalocereus keyensis

* historic archive photos


Cinnamomum camphora
A large tree.
The foliage is glossy green above, whitish beneath.
The berries are black.
The furrowed bark is deep brown.

* historic archive photo


Cinnamomum japonicum
A medium-sized, evergreen tree.
The smooth bark is reddish-brown.

Citrus ichangensis
The hardiest Citrus, hardy zones 9a +.

Citrus sinensis ( Orange )

* historic archive photos


Coccoloba diversifolia

* historic archive photo


Coccoloba uvifera ( Sea Grape )

* historic archive photo


Conocarpus erectus

* historic archive photo


Coprosma 'Black Cloud' ( Black Cloud Mirror Bush )
A small, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that makes a great foundation plant or low hedge.
The small leaves are glossy purplish-black.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.



Coronilla

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2016 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historic archive photo


Cynanchum ascyrifolium

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Decodon verticillatum ( Water Willow )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant in marshland around Point Pelee as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Desmodium

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD


Desmodium bracteosum ( Large-Bracted Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common in southern Essex County as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Desmodium canadense ( Showy Tick Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was widespread and locally abundant in Essex County as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Desmodium canescens ( Hoary Tick Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was found on open sand in southern Essex County including Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore where abundant during the 1800s.

Desmodium dillenii ( Dillons Tick Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in dry woods in southern Essex County incuding Point Pelee as well as the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s.

Desmodium illinoensis ( Illinois Tick Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was only known from the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Desmodium paniulatum ( Panicled Tick Trefoil )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in dry meadows and open woods at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Dichondra argentea
A groundcover, reaching up to 3 inches x 6 feet.



Dichorisandra thyrsiflora

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 @ the Smithsonian, Washington, DC


Distylium 'Emerald Heights'
Upright in habit, with glossy deep green foliage.
The maroon-red flowers are borne late winter to early spring.
Thrives in sun or partial shade in full sun to partial shade.

* photos taken on Aug 30 2012 in Columbia, MD


Dracaena draco
* historic archive photo


Fern - Acrostichum

Acrostichum excelsum

* historic archive photo


Fern - Nephrolepis

Nephrolepis biserrata

* historic archive photo


Nephrolepis exaltata

* historic archive photo


Garrya
Garrya elliptica ( Wavyleaf Silktassel )
Some records include - largest on record - 30 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.3 feet.
The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, paler beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 8 in full sun or shade on just about any well drained soil. Tolerant of pollution and drought. It intensely dislikes root disturbance and should be planted out when very young.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com
* historic archive photo


'James Roof'
Male clone with very long flower catkins up to 12 inches long.

Garrya flavescens
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 12 feet, that is native to the southwestern U.S. ( from California to southwest Utah; south to Mexico to western Texas ).
The elliptical leaves, up to 2.8 inches long, are gray-green.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it is very drought tolerant.

Garrya fremontii ( Fremont Silk Tassel )
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 15 x 10 feet, that is native from Washington State to California.
The leaves, up to 2.3 x 1.6 inches in size, are obovate in shape. The attractive foliage is glossy bright green.
The pale yellow, hanging flower catkins, up to 6 inches long, appear during winter.
They are followed by purple berries up to 0.25 inches wide.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Garrya wrightii ( Wright Silktassel )
Some records include - largest on record - 17 x 19 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 feet.

Habenaria fimbriata

* historic archive photo


Helichrysum



Houstonia caerulea

* historic archive photo


Hymenoxys acaulis ( Sundancer Daisy )
A perennial, reaching up to 15 x 15 inches.
The attractive, fine-textured foliage is thread-like.
The yellow daisies are borne late spring through autumn. The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun. Drought tolerant. Rabbit and deer resistant.

Hymenoxys scaposa ( Thrift Leaf Perky Sue )
A perennial, reaching up to 5 x 10 inches.
The foliage is evergreen.
The golden-yellow, daisy-like flowers are borne over a very long season.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun. Heat and drought tolerant and prefers to have a gravel mulch. Propagation is from seed and it often seeds itself.

Hypoestes phyllostachya ( Polka Dot Plant )

* photo taken on July 12 2015 in Columbia, MD


Hyptis emoryi ( Desert Lavender )
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet, that is native to the desert southwest.
The finely-toothed, rounded leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are woolly white.
The fragrant, pale to deep violet flowers are borne on terminal panicles, up to 3 inches in length, during spring then randomly throughout the year.
Extremely drought tolerant.

Iriolirion tataricum
A bulbous perennial, reaching up to 16 inches in height.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on hot sunny sites. Drought tolerant. Deer and rabbit resistant.

Isotoma fluviatilis ( Blue Star Creeper )
A very low, dense, mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 3 x 10 inches.
It is great for using between stepping stones.
The small, rounded leaves are mid-green.
The starry, bright blue flowers are borne late spring through the summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on both moist or dry soil. It is very soil tolerant and also tolerant of heavy foot traffic.





Jubaea
* photos taken on Jan 2007 in Chile, SA

* historic archive photo


Justicia americana
Native to the north shore of Lake Erie and along the St Lawrence River in Ontario where it is considered endangered.

Linnaea borealis ( Twinflower )
A trailing evergreen vine that can reach lengths as long as 7 feet. It is found nearly throughout Alberta, except for the arid southeast. It is found throughout Ontario to as far south as Grand Bend to London to Long Point. It is found in moist, mossy, acidic, coniferous or mixed woodland and stream banks.
The oppositely-arranged, smooth-edged, oval or rounded leaves are up to 0.8 inches long.
The pale pink, bell-shaped flowers appear during summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 5.

* historical archive photos


Lycopodium

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Lyonothamnus
A medium-sized tree, reaching up to 60 x 40 feet.



Mattiola incana
A woody-based perennial, that is native from southwestern Europe to the Middle East.
The fragrant, pink to purple, 4-petal flowers are borne on spikes during summer.

Medicago sativa ( Alfalfa )
The leaves ( dried or fresh ) can be made into a mineral rich tea though not very strongly flavored and often mixed with mint.
The seeds are eaten by many birds.
Alfalfa prefers somewhat neutral, deep, well drained soil and is drought tolerant. In Alberta; it can be grown as far north as Rainbow Lake and Fort McMurray.
Propagation is easily done from seed soaked overnight and planted in moist soil.
The roots contain nodules that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen. An acre of Alfalfa may fix up to 200 or more pounds of nitrogen in a year. Alfalfa is often planted as a cover crop to improved depleted soils or also as a green manure. Being a perennial, it may be allowed to grow for a few years while it improved the soil while also providing hay and nectar which is valuable in honey production.
Alfalfa leaves, either dried or fresh, can be used as a garden fertilizer as they contain abundant nitrogen as well as a growth stimulant called Triacontanol.
A related plant called Medicago lupulina ( Black Medick ) is also commonly found in North America. It can be grown in all of Alberta except the extreme north.

Melilotus alba ( Sweet Clover )
The flowers are an excellent source of nectar for honey bees.
Sweet Clover prefers somewhat neutral, deep, well drained soil and is drought tolerant. In Alberta, it can be grown in all but the extreme north.
Propagation is easily done from seed soaked overnight and planted in moist soil.
The roots contain nodules that contain bacteria that fix nitrogen. The roots reach deep into the soil bringing minerals to the surface. This plant produces more organic matter per acre than any other abundant green manure plant.
This plant contains blood thinner anticoagulant chemicals that have been used for rodenticides. They do not arouse suspicion in rodents since they die later from hemorrhaging after ingesting it.

'All Gold'
Golden-yellow foliage.

Melilotus officinalis ( Yellow Sweet Clover )
A biennial, reaching up to 6.5 feet, that is native to Eurasia though naturalized over most of southern Canada and the U.S.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 finely-toothed, oval leaflets, up to 1 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is yellowish-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on clusters up to 4.5 inches in length, during summer.
This plant contains blood thinner anticoagulant chemicals that have been used for rodenticides. They do not arouse suspicion in rodents since they die later from hemorrhaging after ingesting it. It is not edible for human consumption and moldy hay with Yellow Sweet Clover mixed in it has been known to kill cattle.

Metopium toxiferum ( Florida Poisontree )

* historic archive photo


Molina longifolia

* historic archive photo


Neem Tree

* video found on Youtube




Nelumbo

Nelumbo lutea ( American Lotus )
A perennial, that is native to marshes, slow moving rivers and shallow harbors in eastern North America ( from central Nebraska to southern Minnesota to central Wisconsin to southern Michigan to far southern Ontario to northern New Jersey; south to central Texas to southern Florida ). It is found in marshes and riverbanks in the wild. It is endangered in Ontario however is locally abundant between Amherstburg and Point Pelee. It was abundant in Sandusky Bay along the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It occurred locally in Detroit at River Rouge along the Detroit River, at Lasalle as well as abundantly around Monroe during the 1800s. A single popuation of Lotus at Sandusky harbor during that time exceeded 100 acres.
The leaves can measure up to 26 inches across and are borne on stalks up to 9 feet long.
The shelled seeds can be roasted as a snack or cooked in soup.
The Lotus thrives in full sun in shallow water, up to 2 feet deep, whether in lakes or slow moving streams.
To propagated, take the seeds, file them then soak in water to allow water to penetrate, then roll them in balls of clay or mud to sink them in the water to germinate in their permanent position. They are also propagated from root division.
Well established Lotus can spread rapidly.

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


Nelumbo nucifera ( Sacred Lotus )
A related species that is native to Asia ( from Iran to far southeast Russia; south to India to Indonesia ) where it is sometimes cultivated for food.
The leaves are up to 20 inches wide.
The flowers appear mid to late summer.

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photos


Nicotiana

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* historic archive photo


Nicotiana glauca
A large shrub to small tree. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.6 feet.

Nicotiana longiflora
An annual, reaching up to 4 feet in height.
The leaves are up to 8 inches in length.
The flowers, up to 6 inches in lenght, are borne mid-summer to early autumn. Nicotiana sylvestris
An annual, reaching up to 6 feet in height.

* photos taken on Aug 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA


Nigella

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


WATERLILIES

Brasenia schreberi ( Water Shield )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in marshland around Point Pelee, rare on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is known to occur at Cedar Point on the Ohio shore but was never abundant there.

Nuphar advena ( Large Yellow Pond Lily )
It is found in marshes and riverbanks in the wild. It is endangered in Ontario. It was abundant on the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Nuphar lutea ( Yellow Waterlily )
A perennial with floating leaves that is found on open water from 3.3 to 5 feet deep. It is found north to Fort Francis, Ontario and Haliburton. In Alberta, it is found only in the far northeastern part. It also occurs in central Saskatchewan. It is found in small lakes and slow moving rivers in the wild.
The cordate leaves are up to 7 x 5 inches in size.

Nuphar microphylla ( Small Yellow Pondlily )
A perennial with floating leaves that is found north to Dryden, Ontario. Endangered in Ontario; it is found in ponds and slow moving rivers.

Nuphar variegata ( Yellow Waterlily )
A perennial with floating leaves that is found north to Moosonee, Ontario. In Alberta, it is found in the northeast and central part of the province. It is a widespread North American native ( from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to The Pas, Manitoba to Moosonee, Ontario to Gaspe; and south ). It is found on lakes, bays and slow moving rivers from 3.3 to 6.5 feet deep. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was found at Sandusky Bay along the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Nymphaea

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Nymphaea advena ( Large Yellow Pond Lily )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in marshlands at Point Pelee as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Belle Isle in Detroit during that time. It is found on slow moving streams from Alberta to Manitoba on the Great Plains.

* historic archive photo


Nymphaea odorata ( White Waterlily )
Found north to Ignace in Ontario. It is native to western North America ( from southwest British Columbia to western Montana; south to Oregon ). It is also native to eastern North America ( from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to southern Quebec to Newfoundland; and south ).
It is found on lakes, bays and slow moving rivers from 3.3 to 6.5 feet deep.

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


Nymphaea tuberosa ( White Waterlily )
Also called Castalia tuberosa. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in marshland around Point Pelee; rare on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Nymphoides

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Nymphoides cordatum ( Floating Heart )
Native to as far north as Haliburton, Ontario to southeast Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is found on quiet waters of bays and ponds.

Ocimum basilicum 'Dark Opal'

* photo taken on Jun 24 2016 in Ellicott City, MD


Oemleria cerasiformis ( Oso Berry )
A fast growing, deciduous, large shrub, reaching up to 20 feet. It is found in the wild west of the Cascades from British Columbia to California. It makes a great screen.
The oval leaves are up to 5 inches long. The bright green foliage turns to yellow during early autumn. The foliage appears early during spring.
The greenish-white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne 5 to 10 on hanging clusters during early spring. The male and female flowers are borne on separate plants and insects such as bees are required for pollination.
They are followed by edible, purple berries during early summer. The berries are relished by birds. The fruits were eaten by the natives who ate them fresh or dried them for later use.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( possibly 5 ) in partial to full shade ( tolerates full sun where summers are cool ) on moist, sandy to loamy soil. It is tolerant of urban pollution. Propagation is from seed or half-ripened cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com
Oplismenus hirtellus ssp. undulatifolius ( Wavy leaf basket grass )
A noxious weed causing severe damage to forest ecosystems in parts of the eastern U.S. It is native to eastern Asia.

* photos taken on Sep 19 2015 in Columbia, MD


Oplopanax horridus ( Devil's Club )
A large shrub, reaching up to 13 feet, that is native to western North America ( from King Salmon, Alaska to Talkeetna, Alaska to southwest Northwest Territories to central Alberta; south to southern Oregon to western Montana ). It is also native to the north shore of Lake Superior. In Ontario it is only found east of the Sibley Peninsula near Thunder Bay. It is found in moist coniferous or mixed woods in the wild. It makes an excellent privacy barrier that gives a stunning tropical appearance.
The 5 to 13 palmetely-lobed, rounded, very large leaves are up to 16 inches wide.
The greenish-white flowers are borne on cylindrical panicles up to 8 inches long.
They are followed by bright red berries, up to 0.3 inches long.
The papery bark is light grayish-brown. The stems are extremely bristly and spiny making thickets of Devil's Club almost inpenetrable.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial to full shade on moist to swampy acidic soil.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* historic archive photo


Orchis

Orchis latifolia

* historic archive photo


Orchis maculata * historic archive photo

Ornithogalum nutans
Reaches up to 2 feet in height.

* photo taken on May 9 2015 in Columbia, MD


Ornithogalum umbellatum ( Star of Bethlehem )
In the Windsor/Essex County region; it is only noted as occurring on the Lake Erie Islands during the 1800s. The linear leaves are up to 0.2 inches wide.
The foliage is toxic to livestock.

Palm - Caryota

Caryota urens

* historic archive photo


Palm - Chamaerops

Chamaerops humilis ( European Fan Palm )
A small tree, that is native to sandy soils in the western Meditteranean region of Europe.
The palmate leaves, up to 3.3 feet wide, are gray-green to blue-green.
The rounded fruits, up to 1.8 inches wide, are yellow to brown.

Palm - Coccothrinax

Coccothrinax argentea

* historic archive photo


Palm - Cocos

Cocos nucifera ( Coconut Palm )

* historic archive photo


Palm - Pseudophoenix

Pseudophoenix vinifera

* historic archive photo


Palm - Roystonia ( Royal Palm )

* historic archive photo


Roystonea borinquena ( Puerto Rican Royal Palm )

* historic archive photo


Roystonia regia ( Florida Royal Palm )

* historic archive photo


Palm - Trinax

* historic archive photos


Thrinax microcarpa

* historic archive photos


Thrinax parviflora
* historic archive photo


Pandanus utilis

* historic archive photo


Paradisea liliastrum
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 2 feet.
The grassy leaves are mid-green.
The white flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any fertile, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed or division done during spring.

Pardancanda norrisii
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3.5 feet.

Pardancanda norrisii ( Blackberry Lily )
A perennial, reaching up to 3 feet.
The flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun.

Pedicularis canadensis
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.

Pedicularis canadensis ( Wood Betony )
It occurred sporadically on the Lake Erie islands but was not known on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.

Pedicularis lanecolata ( Swamp Lousewort )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Detroit River and in southern Essex County during the 1800s. It was uncommon on the Ohio shore during that time.

Pelargonum

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Pelargonum graveolens

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD



Phyllodoce



Phyllodoce caerulea
A spreading heath-like shrub, reaching up to 8 inches in height. It is native to the tundra in far northern North America ( from Alaska to Labrador, Newfoundland and Greenland as well as Iceland; south to the Hudson Bay shoreline of far northern Ontario to high mountains of New Hampshire and Maine, the Gaspe Region of Quebec and Nova Scotia ). It is endangered in Ontario only currently occurring at the mouth of the Sutton River at Hudson Bay through other populations likely exist and have not been observed.
The linear leaves are up to 0.4 inches long.

Phyllodoce empetrifolia ( Red Heather )
In Alberta, it is native only to Jasper National Park. It is native to western North America ( from Dawson, Yukon to southwest Northwest Territories; south to Banff National Park, Alberta; south to northern California to central Wyoming...with a separate population in north-central Arizona ).
The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
The flowers are mid-pink.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

* historical archive photos


Phyllodoce glanduliflora ( Yellow Mountain Heather )
Native to western North America ( from Homer, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to far southwest Yukon to southwest Northwest Territories to Banff National Park, Alberta; south to central Oregon to northwest Wyoming ).
The foliage is bright green.
The flowers are creamy-yellow.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

* historical archive photo


Piscidia piscipula

* historic archive photo


Platanthera ciliaris ( Orange Fringed Orchid )
A perennial, reaching up to 2 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from northeast Illinois to central Michigan to northern New Hampshire; south to central Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Michigan and extinct from Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was found on sandy ground near Windsor and near Leamington during the 1800s.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 12 inches in length.
The bright orange flowers are borne on a raceme up to 8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Platanthera flava
In the Windsor/Essex County region; it is only known to occur on Cedar Point on the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s.

Pogonia ophioglossoides ( Rose Pogonia )
Moist meadows. In the Windsor/Essex County region; it was abundant in the Windsor area during the 1800s.

* historic archive photo


Polygala chamaebuxus
A suckering, evergreen subshrub, reaching up to 0.5 x 2 feet or more, that is native to western Europe.
The lance-shaped leaves are leathery deep green.
The yellow flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, very well drained soil.

Polygala paucifolia ( Fringed Polygala )
A perennial, reaching up to 5 inches tall, that is native to northern North America ( from Alberta to central Saskatchewan to Manitoba to Tobermory, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to southern Michigan to Maryland...south to northern Georgia in mountains ). It is found in sandy deciduous or coniferous forests in the wild. It is endangered in Saskatchewan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Georgia and South Carolina. It is extinct in Delaware.
The elliptical leaves are up to 0.8 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy bright green.
The bright pink flowers are up to 0.8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 on acidic soil only.

Polygala polygama
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically on dry ground around Windsor during the 1800s.

Polygala sanguinea ( Purple Milkwort )
In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common in the Windsor area and at Point Pelee during the 1800s. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore during that time.

Polygala rugelii ( Yellow Milkwort )

* historic archive photo


Polygala senega ( Seneca Snakeroot )
A perennial, reaching up to 1.7 x 1.7 feet, that is native to prairies and open woods in central North America ( from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Fort McMurray, Alberta to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan to Winnipeg, Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to New Brunswick; south from Calgary, Alberta to northeast Wyoming to northeast Nebraska to northeast Oklahoma to northern Georgia to central North Carolina ).
The smooth-edged, lance-shaped leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.3 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy mid-green.
The white flowers are borne on oblong spikes up to 1.6 inches long.

Polygala verticillata ( Whorled Milkwort )
An annual reaching about 4 ( rarely 16 ) inches in height, that is found on moist prairie in the wild.. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common from Lasalle to Amherstburg as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time. It is found on dry open ground in the wild. It is critically endangered in Saskatchewan where it is only found in the extreme southeastern part of the province.
The linear leaves, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne in whorls of 2 to 5. The foliage is bright green.
The greenish-white flowers are borne in axillary clusters up to 0.5 inches long.

Phaseolus coccineus

* photo taken on Sep 1 2016 in Columbia, MD


Pseudopanax laetus 'Kiwi Gem'
An attractive, moderate growing, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 9 x 9 feet.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of oblong leaflets. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The purplish-green flowers are borne in clusters during late summer into early autumn.
They are followed by showy, purplish-black berries on female plants.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on Aug 26 2016 in Elkridge, MD


Ramonda pyrenaica

* historic archive photo
Rhizophora mangle ( Red Mangrove )

* historic archive photos


Sagittariaa

* historic archive photo


Sagittaria latifolia
Abundant on the Great Plains from Alberta to Manitoba and south.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Scaveola plumieri
* historic archive photo


Schefflera brevipedunculata
A multi-stem, small tree, reaching up to 15 x 15 feet, that is native to the mountains of Vietnam.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of narrowly-ovate to elliptical leaflets. The attractive deep green foliage is variegated with a greenish-white to bright green midrib.
The flowers appear during mid-summer.
They are followed by purple berries.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Schefflera taiwaniana 'Yuan Shan'
Originating from the highest mountain in Taiwan and introduced by Dan Hinkley. It is an upright small tree, reaching up to 15 x 15 feet.
The palmate compound leaves are composed of long lance-shaped leaflets.
The flowers appear late summer into early autumn. Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

* video link found on youtube


Schizandra chinensis
A deciduous vine native to southeast Russia, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
The elliptical to obovate leaves are up to 4.2 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant bright green.
The pale yellow flowers, up to 0.3 inches long, appear early to mid summer.
They are followed by edible red fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy at least to zone 3 in the Amur River basin.

Schizandra glabra ( Magnolia Vine )
A high climbing, deciduous, woody vine.
The alternately-arranged, ovate leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
The scarlet-red flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
They are followed by fruits up to 0.25 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on fertile, moist, well drained soil. It is tolerant of floodplain conditions.

Scuttellaria suffruticosa
A perennial, reaching up to 8 x 22 inches in size.
Scuttellaria suppina 'Lambert's Blue'
A perennial, reaching up to 8 x 10 inches in size.

Selaginella braunii
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches in height, that is native to western China.
The foliage resembles that of Thuja.

Selaginella canaliculata

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD
Selaginella krussiana
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


'Aurea'
A perennial, reaching up to 6 inches x 2 feet.

Selaginella uncinata ( Peacock Moss )
A perennial, reaching up to 6 inches x 3 feet.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( 5 with winter protection ).

* photo taken on Aug 25 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Shortia galacifolia ( Oconee Bells )
A slow growing, low mat-forming perennial that is native to wooded stream banks in just 6 counties in southern Appalachian Mountains ( from eastern Tennessee to western North Carolina; south to far northern Georgia to western South Carolina...also an isolated report from Amherst County in the mountains of Virginia ). It is critically endangered with extinction in the wild. It makes a stunning groundcover and can be used in the shady rock garden.
The scalloped, rounded leaves are up to 6 inches in length The foliage is glossy mid-green turning to glossy reddish-purple during winter.
The white to pinkish-white flowers appear during very early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic, well drained soil. it requires 55 + inches of yearly rainfall. It can be propagated from division. It can also be propagated from seed however seed is only set if cross pollination occurs between plants of different clones. Oconee Bells does not enjoy transplanting and is slow to establish.

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


Silybum

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Smilax

* photo taken on Aug 23 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Smilax aspera

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


Smilax glauca ( Cat Greenbrier )
A vine native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southern Illinois to southern Ohio to New York City; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is similar to Smilax rotundifolia except for having foliage that is bluish-white beneath.

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo


Smilax herbacea ( Carrion Flower )
A tendril-climbing, herbaceous perennial vine, reaching up to 8 feet in height, that is native to open rich woodland in eastern North America ( from southern Wisconsin to southern Michigan to southern Ontario to southeast Quebec to New Brunswick; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Alabama to northern Georgia to southeast Virginia ). It is endangered in Michigan though it occurred sporadically in Detroit before 1900. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant throughout as well as the Lake Erie islands and Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 3.5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is mid-green. The stems are not armed with thorns or prickles.
The rounded, deep blue berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne on rounded clusters.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* photos taken on May 6 2015 @ Cypressmeade Park, Ellicott City, MD


* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD


Smilax hispida ( Prickly Greenbriar )
Native north to Tobermory to Haliburton to Kingston in Ontario. It is found on riverbanks as well as both upland and swampy woods. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.

Smilax lasioneura ( Blue Ridge Carrionflower )
A tendril-climbing, herbaceous perennial vine, reaching up to 8 feet in height, that is native to central North America ( from central Saskatchewan to Cape Croker on the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario; south to central Oklahoma to central Alabama to northern Georgia ). It is found in rich woods and thickets in the wild.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 3.5 x 2.5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is dull bright green.
The bright green flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in rounded, axillary clusters, up to 1.2 inches wide.
The rounded, deep blue berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne on rounded clusters.
The stems are not armed with thorns or prickles.

Smilax rotundifolia ( Common Greenbrier )
Also called Catbrier. A tendril-climbing, thorny, deciduous to semi-evergreen woody vine, reaching up to 13 feet that is native to open woods and streambanks in eastern North America ( from southeast Missouri to southern Michigan to Grand Bend, Ontario to Niagara Falls, Ontario to southern Vermont to southern Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Canada having disappeared from much of its original range in Ontario though the remaining populations in Nova Scotia are more secure. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common in the Canard River Valley, around Leamington-Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s.
The leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The rounded, bluish-black berries are up to 0.4 inches wide.

* photo taken on May 6 2015 @ Cypressmeade Park, Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photo of unknown internet source


Smilax smallii
An attractive high climbing, evergreen, woody vine that is native to bottomland forest. It originated from a crown of huge rhizomes.
The alternately-arranged, smooth-edged leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy green.
The stems are armed with sharp prickles.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial to full shade.

Solanum


* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Solanum erianthum
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 24 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches.

Solanum jasminoides

* historic archive photo


Solanum quitoensis

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Little Oranges'

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Solanum rantonetti
A fast growing, semi-evergreen shrub.
The violet flowers are borne all year in mild climates.
Hardy zones 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Solanum wendlandii

* historic archive photo


Solanum xanti ( Purple Nightshade )
A dense, bushy perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to the southwestern U.S. ( from western Oregon to far western Nevada; south to southern California to central Arizona ).
The leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are gray-green to deep green.
The rich purple ( with yellow center ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne during winter and spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It requires 16 + inches of yearly rainfall and prefers a mediterranean climate. It is clay tolerant and moderately deer resistant.

Spiranthes cernuus 'Chadd's Ford'
A perennial orchid, reaching up to 2 feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. On ideal sites it can reproduce rapidly from seed and rhizomes.
The evergreen foliage is luxuriant bright green.
Up to 50 fragrant, small, yellow-white flowers are borne on a spike up to 2 feet high, during early to mid-autumn, often continuing until autumn frost.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial shade ( full sun is fine where summers are cool ) on very moist to wet, humus-rich, light or sandy soil. Mulch with 2 inches of leaf compost during late autumn which at the same time removing the old flower stalks. North of zone 8 it should be planted during early spring to give it a good chance to establish before getting hit by a severe winter. Spring or autumn is good in zone 8 to 9. It is rarely bothered by insects other than aphids and is very disease resistant.

Stauntonia hexaphylla
An evergreen vine native to Korea as well as central and southern Japan.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 5 to 7 leaflets up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The pale yellow ( pale purple inside ) flowers appear mid to late summer.

* historic archive photo


Swietenia mahagoni

* historic archive photo


Synadenium grantii

* photo taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Wash., DC


Tetrazygia bicolor

* historic archive photos


Thalia dealbata ( Powdery Thalia )
A perennial, reaching up to 8 x 5 feet.
The leaves are up to 2 feet in length. The Canna-like foliage is bright blue-green.
The flowers are borne mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

Tibouchina

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Tomatoes
* photos taken on July 13 2012 in Columbia, MD




Trientalis ( Star Flower )
Native to woods from Lake Manitoba east.





EDIBLE WEEDS

Garlic Mustard ( Alliaria petiolata )

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD



Plantain ( Plantago major )
A clumping weed, reaching up to 8 x 14 inches in size.
The leaves are up to 8 x 4.5 inches in size.
The greenish flower spikes is up to 8 inches tall.
The leaves are tasty cooked when they are soaked for 5 minutes in salt water then boiled in a covered pot until tender.

Wintercress ( Barbarea vulgaris )
A weed, reaching up to 28 inches in height, that is native to Europe but naturalized in eastern North America ( from Minnesota to Nova Scotia; south to Missouri to South Carolina ). It is mostly found on roadsides and abandoned fields in the wild.
The leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage can be harvested and eaten during early spring in the same way as lettuce. Once the flower stalk appears, the leaves become bitter however can be boiled to improve the taste.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on pyramidal clusters mid-spring into early summer.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo of unknown internet source


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