Thursday, August 19, 2010

Blue Oat Grass

Helictotrichon sempervirens

A handsome, non invasive clumping, evergreen grass with stiff, light blue-gray foliage and golden oat like blooms in summer. It reaches up to 2 x 4 feet ( with flowers up to 4 feet in height ). Blue Oat Grass is native to mountains from southeast France to northern Italy. The foliage is fast to emerge in spring.
Prefers full sun in cool climates, partial sun in hot climates and is best in deep, alkaline to slightly acidic well drained soil. Hardy zones 3 to 8 and tolerant of drought, hail, heat, salt as well as wind & is not eaten by deer. Unfortunately excessive winter moisture can cause rot. Great for harsh climates, the Blue Oat Grass even grows in Winnipeg. Cut back before new growth begins during spring. New plants should be installed during early spring and kept moist until established.

'Robust'
Resistant to rust disease which sometimes occurs in hot humid climates.

'Sapphire'
Similar to species but faster, stronger growing and with wider leaf blades that are evem more intense blue. Reaches up to 5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet while in bloom ( foliage up to 17 inches in height ). It is resistant to leaf rust.
Looks great with burgundy colored foliage plants, esp. Heuchera.


* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario



* photo taken on August 5 2010 in Windsor, Ontario

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

Currants and Gooseberries

Ribes

A massive genus of around 150 species of shrubs native to northern temperate regions around the world. Many species are grown commerically for their fruit.
A tea can be made from boiling the leaves in 5 minutes. The newly emerging shoots during spring can be eaten raw.
The fruits of Currents are very rich in Pectin, Vitamin A, C, Calcum, Cooper, Iron and Potassium. Ssome of the better tasting species are good eaten fresh or in salads.
Cooking improves the taste of some types of Currents and they can be used in pies, muffins, juices, preserves and bread. A number of Ribes species are not self fertile and need to be planted in groups for good fruit production.
Currents prefer partial shade ( prefer light shade during the hottest part of the day ) on fertile, deep, cool, moist, well drained soil. Currents do not like hot soil and mulch is essential where soil bakes in the sun. Propagation is from seed, hardwood cuttings ( 10 inch lengths ) taken during autumn and layering. New plants should be installed during mid to late autumn or early spring while still dormant. Old leggy plants can be cut to the ground during early spring to renovate.
Many species are prone to a rust fungus that can also infect and kill species of White Pines. Due to Blister Rust disease, the Currents have been deliberately killed and in many places nearing extinction where White Pine is a commercial timber crop. The White Pine Blister Rust was accidently imported to North America during the early 1900s on shipments of White Pine seedlings that were interestinly grown in Europe. Close to 1.5 billion Currant plants have been destroyed over the past century in the panic to control White Pine Blister Rust. Some states still ban the cultivation of either all or certain species of Currants. Fortunately there are newer cultivars that are resistant to Blister Rust ( recommended article for Currant growers in New England...http://www.nhdfl.org/forest-health/white-pine-blister.aspx ).

* video found on internet

* photos taken on May 10 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD


Ribes alpinum ( Alpine Currant )
A deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet, that is native to Europe, Russia and far northern Africa. One 300 years old plant is a 15 foot tree.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 5 years - 44 inches; 9 years - 5.5 x 9.5 feet in Alberta; 10 years - 6.5 feet. Can be used for both sheared and natural hedging.
The 3-lobed leaves, up to 2.5 x 2 inches, are glossy bright green turning to mid-green during summer. The foliage appears very early in spring and turns to yellow during autumn.
The tiny, yellowish-green to bright yellow flowers are borne in erect racemes, up to 1.5 inches in length, during mid-spring. Can be used as a Forsythia substitute.
They are followed by bitter tasting, red fruits.
The purplish-red stems are smooth.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun or partial shade, thriving even in Alberta's and North Dakotas harsh climate. Very tolerant of deep shade, root competition, urban conditions and drought. Alpine Current is also deer resistant. Male plants are resistant to White Pine Blister Rust, female plants should not be used where White Pine grows nearby as they can be a host.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photos taken on July 18 2016 in Detroit, MI


'Aureum'
New foliage is bright yellow-green.

'Green Jeans'
Reaches a maximum size of 5 x 5 feet, with glossy green disease free foliage that persists later in autumn.

'Green Mound'
Reaches a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet, with disease free foliage, bearing no fruit. More resistant to leaf diseases than the species.


Ribes americanum ( American Black Currant )
A fast growing, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 4 feet, that is native to rich woodland in central and eastern North America ( from northern Alberta to southern Manitoba to Dryden, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Sault Ste Marie to Otter Rapids, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to Colorado to Iowa to central Illinois to Maryland ). It is critically endangered in Missouri, Kentucky and Virginia; extinct in Tennessee and Maryland. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The toothed & 3 or 5 lobed, rounded leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is yellowish-green turning to brilliant scarlet-red during autumn.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne in pendulous racemes up to 4 inches in length, during mid to late sping.
They are followed by black ( with green flesh ) fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide. The berries are of excellent quality.
The stems are thornless.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ). Unfortunately it is a host for White Pine Blister Rust disease limiting its use in many areas. It is tolerant of flooding and wet sites.

* photo taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 11 2017 in Columbia, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Ribes aureum ( Golden Currant )
An attractive, fast growing, bushy, upright, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, that is native to western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Kamloops, British Columbia to far southern Alberta to southern Saskatchewan to central South Dakota; south to southern California to New Mexico to central Texas to northern Arkansas ). Golden Currant is critically endangered in Saskatchewan. It has also naturalized in parts of eastern North America and thrives in the Ottawa Valley. It makes a great natural hedge or screen.
The coarsely-toothed, 3-lobed leaves are up to 2.5 x 2.7 inches in size. The leathery mid-green foliage turns golden-yellow to orange and persist very late during autumn.
The very fragrant, yellow flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne in pendulous racemes during late spring. They are attractive to hummingbirds.
They are followed by edible, purple-black berries up to 0.4 inches wide. The fruits are great for use in making jellies and are relished by birds.
The stems are thornless.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on humus-rich, well drained soil. Very drought, urban, salt and alkaline tolerant, surviving in climates with annual average rainfall as low as 24 inches. It also tolerates flooding. Golden Currant also tolerates hard pruning and will regenerate vigorously.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


var gracillimum
Fast growing, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6.5 + feet, often forming wide thickets. It is a widespread native of central and southern California, south to San Diego ( the straight species Ribes aureum is also found in California but further north and in colder mountainous regions ).
The coarsely-toothed, 3-lobed leaves are up to 2.5 x 2.7 inches in size. The glossy mid-green leaves turn red to purple and persist very late in autumn. In mild mediterranean climates, they are nearly evergreen to drought deciduous.
The unscented, bright yellow ( turning reddish with age ) flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne on pendulous racemes, are borne during mid-winter.
They are followed by edible, tasty, black berries up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating 0 F ), it requires regular moisture during winter ( flood tolerant ) and is very drought tolerant during summer however will look better with a monthly deep watering

Ribes bracteosum ( California Black Currant )
A deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 5 feet. It is native to the Pacific Northwest, west of the Cascade Mountains ( from Kodiak, Alaska to northwest California ).
The aromatic, large, 5 or 7 lobed, Maple-shaped leaves are up to 10 ( rarely over 8 ) inches across. The attractive foliage is glossy bright green.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne in erect inflorescences up to 8 inches in length.
They are followed by bitter tasting, black berries that are covered in white bloom.
The stems are not armed with thorns.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( 6 for coastal Alaskan seed source ) in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil.

Ribes californicum ( Hillside Currant )
A moderate growing, upright, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 8 x 6 ( rarely over 6 x 4 ) feet in size, that is native to the coastal and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges in California.
The rounded, 3 or 5 lobed leaves, up to 1.2 inches in length, are glossy bright green. The leaves often turn glowing red before falling. It is typically summer drought deciduous in warm mediterranean climates.
The bicolor deep red and white flowers are borne in clusters of 1 to 3 during early spring.
They are followed by spiny, edible, red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The stems are armed with spines, up to 1.2 inches in length, borne in axilliary clusters of 3.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in partial shad on just about any well drained soil. It is great in dry shade and is tolerant of pure sand and floodplain conditions.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes cereum ( Wax Current )
A fast growing, dense shrub reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to prairies and open woods in much of western North America ( from Lilloet to Kamloops to Vernon in British Columbia to northeast Montana to southwest North Dakota; south to southern California to New Mexico to western Oklahoma ).
The toothed, shallow-lobed, broadly-rounded leaves, up to 1 x 1.2 inches in size, are gray-green above, downy gray beneath. The foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn.
The clustered racemes contain 2 to 9 white to bright pink, tubular flowers up to 0.4 inches in length.
The are followed by edible, rounded, glossy bright red berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, ripening during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is drought tolerant. North Dakota seed source should be tested in zone 3.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by C. Kenneth Pearse @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Ribes cynosbati ( Eastern Prickly Gooseberry )
A small deciduous shrub, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet in height, that is native to sandy or rocky woodland in eastern North America ( from eastern North Dakota to International Falls to Wawa, Ontario to southern Quebec & New Brunswick; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Georgia to central New Jersey ). It is also locally native to Riding Mountain National Park in southwest Manitoba. It is endangered in Manitoba, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia and Maryland. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Point Pelee area, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The 3 or 5 lobed, rounded leaves, up to 3 x 3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The tiny greenish-white flowers are borne during late spring.
The deep red or purple, bristly, rounded berries are up to 0.5 inches wide.
The stems are armed with spines, up to 0.5 inches long, that are borne in singly or in clusters of 2 or 3 from the leaf nodes. The stems are gray and the spines turn reddish by winter. They stems are not bristly.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It even thrives on the Canadian Prairies.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Ribes davidii ( David Gooseberry )
A low, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3.3 feet ( much lower if not against a wall ) in height, that is native to cool cloud forests in the mountains of southwest and central China
The elliptic to obovate leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches in size, are clustered at the branch tips. The attractive, leathery foliage is glossy green, turning to red during autumn.
The bright yellow-green flowers are borne on racemes, up to 2.8 inches in length, during mid to late spring.
They are followed by purple fruit, up to 0.4 x 0.3 inches in size, during early summer.
The stems are not prickly.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, well drained soil. It does not tolerate hot humid summers in the east. Propagation is from seed or misted softwood cuttings taken during mid summer and planted on sandy mix.

Ribes divaricatum ( Black Gooseberry )
A fast growing, arching, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet in size, that is native to streambanks and forests of western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Bella Coola, British Columbia to extreme southwest Alberta; south to central California to eastern Washington State ). Some records include: 10 years - 7.5 feet. Most native populations are from the coastal ranges however there are separate native populations in Spokane County, Washington State as well as the Sierra Nevadas in California. It makes a great barrier hedge or screen. It often forms thickets due to the stems rooting where they touch the ground.
The toothed, 3 or 5 lobed leaves, up to 2 x 2.3 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, hairy beneath. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The bicolor purplish and white flowers are borne in hanging clusters of 1 to 4 during mid-spring.
They are followed by edible, abundant, glossy black berries, up to 0.4 inches wide. They are great both eaten raw or cooked.
The stems are armed with 1 to 3 thick spines at each leaf node.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( possibly 4 for inland northwest population as it thrives at Dominion Arboretum in the Ottawa Valley of Canada ) in full sun to partial shade on moist soil. It thrives where average yearly rainfall is from 26 to 55 inches and is tolerant of urban and floodplain conditions.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Ribes fasciculatum ( Clustered Red Currant )
A vigorous, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to temperate regions of China as well as Korea and Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 6 x 5 feet/
The toothed, 3 to 5 lobed, rounded leaves, are up to 3.2 x 4 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. The bright green foliage is downy at first.
The small yellow flowers are borne during mid to late spring. Only the female flowers are fragrant.
The persistent, smooth, scarlet-red fruits have yellow flesh. They often persist well into winter. Plants of both sexes are required to produce fruit.
Hardy zones 4b to 9 in full sun to partial shade. It thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada but is mostly unknown in North America.

var. chinensis
Larger leaves to 4 inches in length.

Ribes gayanum ( Chilean Currant )
A suckering, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6.5 feet, that is native to central Chile. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 6.5 feet.
The velvety leaves, up to 2 x 2 inches, are velvety bright green.
The fragrant, yellow, bell-shaped flowers are borne on short, dense inflorescences during early summer. They are followed by purplish-black fruits during late summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on moist, well drained soil. It requires 16 to 32 inches of average yearly rainfall.

Ribes glandulosum ( Skunk Currant )
A low, spreading, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 3.3 x 3.3 ( rarely over 2 x 3 ) feet in height, that is native to swamps and wet woods in northern North America ( from Bethel, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to Yellowknife, Northwest Territories to Nunavut to far northern Ontario to northern Quebec to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to British Columbia to central Minnesota to southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Kincardine, Ontario to Pennsylvania and northern New Jersey...south to western North Carolina in high mountains ). It previously occured in northeast Ohio but has become extinct in that state.
The toothed and 5 or 7 palmately-lobed, rounded leaves are up to 3.2 inches wide. The very attractive foliage is luxuriant glossy mid-green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The white to very pale pink flowers are borne in clusters of 6 to 15 during late spring.
They are followed by deep red, bristly, rounded fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, during mid to late summer. The edible berries taste great if eaten fresh.
The stems are not armed with bristles or prickles.
Hardy zones 1 to 5.

* photo taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* excellent photo link
http://www.sarkanperennataimisto.fi/kuvat/Ribes_glandulosum.htm

Ribes x gordonianum ( Gordon's Currant )
The hybrid of Ribes odoratum & R. sanguineum. A tough, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 8 x 8 ( rarely over 5 x 6 ) feet.
The toothed, 3 or 5 lobed leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are deep green, turning to orangish-yellow in fall.
The very showy, fragrant, yellowish-orange ( highlighted red ), drooping flower racemes, up to 3 inches in length, are borne mid-spring.
It is infertile and does not bear fruits.
The stems are not armed with thorns.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 ( possibly 4b as it grows at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada ) in full sun to partial shade ( partial shade where summers are hot ) on humus-rich, well drained soil. It is considered a host plant for White Pine Blister Rust and should not be planted in the eastern U.S.

Ribes grossularia ( Garden Gooseberry )
The hybrids between Ribes uva-crispa & the mildew resistant native Ribes hirtellum.
The tasty, succulent fruits are are great used in pies and cooking the fruits make the spines disappear.

* historical archive photo


'Downing'

* historical archive photo


'Houghton'
A disease resistant hybrid of Ribes hirtellum & uva-crispa.

* historical archive photo


'Pixwell'
Vigorous and sparsely thorned.
The mid-sized, pink fruits are borne in clusters.
Very hardy, originating in North Dakota. Mildew resistant.

'Poorman'
Vigorous, dense, upright and large; it is sparsely thorned.
The abundant early season fruit are very tasty, red and medium-sized. Mildew resistant.

'Tuxia'
Vigorous and sparsely-thorned.
The abundant, red fruits are borne late season.
Mildew resistant.

'Welcome'
Sparsely spined with large dull red fruits.
Very hardy, originating at the University of Minnesota. Mildew resistant.

Ribes henryi ( Henry's Currant )
A rare, semi-prostate, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet in 10 years, that is native to central China.
The unlobed leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are bright green.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne 5 to 10 on a cluster up to 2 inches long,, during early spring.
They are followed by deep red fruit, up to 0.7 x 0.4 inches in size.
The stems are bristly when young. They are thornless.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Ribes hirtellum ( Hairy Stem Gooseberry )
A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native from northern Alberta to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Montana to northwest Nebraska to northern Illinois to southern New Jersey ( West Virginia in mountains ). It is endangered in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, West Virginia and Connecticut. It is found in wet woodland and swamps in the boreal forest zone of North America.
The toothed, 5 to 7 palmately-lobed leaves are up to 2.3 x 2.3 inches in size. The glossy bright green foliage often turns deep red during autumn.
The small, greenish-white flowers appear during late spring.
They are followed by edible, smooth-skinned, rounded, reddish-purple berries up to 0.3 inches wide.
The stems are armed with 1 or 2 spines at each leaf node.
Hardy zones 2 to 6. It is resistant to Gooseberry Mildew disease which devastates Ribes uva-crispa even in Europe where accidentally introduced. It is therefore valuable in breeding commercial Gooseberry hybrids.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Ribes howellii ( Maple-leaf Currant )

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes hudsonianum ( Northern Black Currant )
An upright, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height, that is native to the boreal forest region of North America ( from northern Alaska to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Nunavut to far northern Ontario to central Quebec; south to northern California to Wyoming to northern Minnesota to northern Michigan to Kincardine, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario ). It is found in moist woods in the wild.
The aromatic, sharply-toothed, 3 ( rarely 5 ) lobed leaves, up to 5 x 5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size, are glossy bright to mid green above, hairy beneath.
The whitish flowers are borne on panicles up to 6.5 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by bitter tasting, glossy black berries, up to 0.5 inches in length, during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 it requires partial shade on permanently moist soil, similar to the moist woodland conditions it is found in the wild. It is a significant host of White Pine Blister Rust disease and should not be planted in North America where 5-needles pines are present.

* photo taken by Joe F. Duft @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora


Ribes inerme ( White-Stemmed Gooseberry )
A deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 7 feet, that is native to western North America ( from Alexis, British Columbia to Golden, B.C. to central Alberta; south to central California to central New Mexico...a separate population occurs near Atlin, British Columbia ).
The stems are very sparsely thorned.
The bluntly-toothed, 3 or 5 rounded lobed leaves are up to 2.5 inches across.
The greenish ( with white or pink petals ) flowers are borne in small clusters.
They are followed by edible, purplish-red fruits.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. Wetland flora

'Poorman'
Mid sized, tasty red fruits.
Hardy zones 3 to 7. Blister Rust resistant.>

Ribes 'Jostaberry'
A vigorous, thornless hybrid between Black Currant and Gooseberry. It forms an upright, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height.
The flowers appear during mid-spring. It is self fertile.
The Vitamin C rich, bluish-black, large berries are borne on dense clusters. They are great raw or used for juices and jellies. They also freeze well.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is resistant to mildew, leaf spot and blister rust. Propagation is from cuttings only.

Ribes x koehneanum
An attractive flowering shrub that is the hybrid between Ribes multiflorum & R. silvestre.
The leaves are up to 2.5 inches across.
The light brown ( heavily flushed pink-red ) flowers are borne in racemes up to 4 inches in length. The fruits are red.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Ribes lacustre ( Bristly Black Current )
A deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 4 feet, that is native to wet woods in northern North America ( from King Salmon, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to far northeast Northwest Territories to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to central Quebec to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Oregon to Colorado to central Saskatchewan to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to Owen Sound, Ontario to Markham, Ontario to Massachussets ). It is endangered in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Massachussets; extinct in Connecticut. It occurred locally on the Ohio shore at Cedar Point during the 1800s. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet.
The deeply-cut, rounded leaves that are shaped like that of the Silver Maple are up to 3 x 3 inches in size. The glossy bright green foliage often turns to bright red during autumn.
The deep red flowers are borne on inflorescences during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by bristly, glossy black fruit.
The slender stems are armed with brown bristles and spines.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 in partial to full shade on cool, moist soil. It is tolerant of wet swampy sites.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Ribes laurifolium ( Laurel-Leaved Currant )
A spreading evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to mountains in western China. Some records include: 5 years - 3.5 x 5 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, narrow elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2.5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is deep green.
The drooping, bright greenish-yellow, tubular flowers are borne in clusters up to 2 inches in length during late winter.
They are followed by edible, downy, reddish-black fruits borne on female plants only. Male plants are needed to pollination to produce berries.
The orangish-red twigs are smooth.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun or partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. It is slow to establish after transplanting.
Remove spreading branches during early spring to encourage more upright habit if necessary. Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

Ribes malvaceum ( Chaparral Currant )
A very beautiful, fast growing, multi-stemmed, upright, vase-shaped to rounded, deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 12 feet, that is a widespread California native.
The double-toothed, shallowly 3-lobed, Maple-like leaves, up to 3 inches wide, are rough and luxuriant bright green. It is summer drought deciduous in mild climates.
The fragrant, pink to rosy-red flowers are borne on hanging clusters up to 6 inches in length. Up to 25 flowers are borne in a cluster. It typically blooms after the first autumn rains. They are followed by deep purple berries up to 0.25 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( some seed source only 7+ ) in sun or shade. It requires a mediterranean climate and is very drought tolerant.

Ribes menziesii ( Canyon Gooseberry )
A semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet, that is native to the Pacific Coast from central Oregon to central California. It is found in wooded canyons in the wild.
The leaves, up to 1 inch wide, are 3 to 5 palmetely-lobed. The foliage is mid-green
The showy, purplish-red and white, fuchsia-like flowers appear during late spring. They are attractive to hummingbirds.
They are followed by rounded, reddish-purple berries, up to 0.5 inches wide.
The stems are armed with spines, up to 0.7 inches long.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, it is very tolerant of drought. While the occasional deep watering during drought may improve growth, frequent watering or lawn irrigation during summer can cause root rot.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes montigenum ( Mountain Gooseberry )
An arching to rounded shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet, that is native to high mountain forests in western North America ( from southeast British Columbia to northeast Montana; south to central California to southern Nevada to central New Mexico ).
The 5-lobed leaves are up to 1.5 inches long. The foliage turns to intense golden-yellow during autumn.
The flowers are bright yellowish-green.
They are followed by scarlet-red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, that are covered in soft bristles.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in partial shade on well drained soil.
* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes nevadense ( Mountain Pink Currant )
A fast growing, multi-stemmed, sprawling to semi-erect shrub, reaching up to 6 feet, that is native to streambanks in mountains in the western U.S. ( from southwest Oregon to far northwest Nevada; south to southern California ). It often forms thickets in the wild.
The crenate-toothed, 3-lobed leaves are up to 3 inches long. The foliage is bright green.
The fragrant, soft pink to pinkish-red flowers are borne in dense, drooping clusters, up to 6 inches long, during late spring into early summer. A single cluster may contain up to 20 flowers.
They are followed by edible, blue berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. It is tolerant of swampy conditions but is only moderately drought tolerant.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes nigrum ( European Black Currant )
A fast growing, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 feet.It blends well into the landscape and can even be used as an informal hedge. It is a widespread native from Europe to central Siberia; south to far northern Mongolia.
The attractive, 3 or 5 lobed leaves, up to 4 x 5 inches in size, are deep green above, light green and downy beneath.
The downy, yellow-green ( and red centered ) flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne 4 to 10 on pendulous racemes that are up to 2 inches in length. They appear during early summer.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.6 ( rarely over 0.4 ) inches wide, during mid-summer. Rare in the U.S., this is the best tasting of all the Currents and the fruit make excellent jam or can be used to flavor juices. The anti-oxident rich fruits are among the most potent in Vitamin C of all fruits.
The seed of this species only contains gamma linolenic acid, an essential ingredient in commercially sold Evening Primrose Oil.
The stems are downy when young.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( protected sites north of 5 ) in full sun to partial shade. Some of the hardiest seed source has potential for interior Alaska or even Newfoundland. Use varieties resistant to White Pine Blister Rust only in areas where White Pine is present. Due to White Pine Blister Rust, Black Currant cultivation is banned in some areas where White Pine is a major forest tree.
* link to excellent article on black currant's for the Great Plains
http://albertafruittrees.tripod.com/id12.html

* videos found online







* photos of unknown internet source


* historical archive photos


'Apiifolium'
Deeply-cut foliage.

'Ben Connan'
High quality fruit.

'Ben Lomond'
Large fruit borne late.

'Blackcomb'
Resistant to White Pine Blister Rust. It also bears more abundant, tastier fruit than the species.

'Blacksmith'
Very vigorous and dense. Abundant, moderately tasty berries borne on long strings.

'Champion'
An upright large shrub that is a late season bearer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* historical archive photo


'Coloratum'
Foliage is variegated, otherwise similar.

'Consort'
Blister rust resistant. It was developed by the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario.

'Crusader'
Very vigorous, needs cross pollination.
Resistant to blister rust and was developed by the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, Ontario.

'Jet'
Large dark colored fruit.

'Tahsis'
Resistant to White Pine Blister Rust. It also bears more abundant, tastier fruit than the species.

'Titania'
Abundant, great tasting berries on a Blister Rust Resistant shrub. 'Crusader' and 'Consort' are recommended pollinators.

'Xanthocarpum'
Fruits are white or yellow.

Ribes niveum ( Snow Currant )
A dense, domed, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 10 feet, native to the western U.S. ( from northeast Washington State to northern Idaho; south to south-central Oregon to central Nevada to southeast Idaho ). It is also native to high mountains in central Colorado and central New Mexico and is endangered in both those states.
The 3 to 5 lobed, broadly-ovate to rounded leaves are up to 2 inches wide. The foliage is bright to mid green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The abundant, small white flowers appear during early spring.
They are followed by deep blue to purple berries up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possibly 4b as it survives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada ).

Ribes odoratum ( Buffalo Currant )
Also called Missouri Currant. A fast growing, attractive, arching, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 ( averaging 6 x 6 ) feet, that is native to the central U.S. ( from central Missouri to northwest Minnesota; south to central Colorado to central Texas to central Arkansas ). It has also naturalized in much of the eastern U.S. Buffalo Currant makes a great natural hedge or screen.
The spicy aromatic, toothed, 3 or 5 lobed leaves, up to 4 x 3.2 inches, are blue-green, turning to deep red during autumn. The attractive foliage is mildew resistant.
The sweetly-fragrant, showy, intense yellow flowers are borne 5 to 10 on pendant racemes during mid to late spring. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
The abundant, edible, purplish-black fruit are tasty and cultivars bred for superior fruiting do exist. The berries are produced during mid-summer on female plants only.
The very large berries are great for making jam.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil except pure sand or wet clay. Tolerant of heat and drought, insect and disease resistant. Propagation is easy from softwood cuttings ( 4 to 8 inches long ) taken during summer then stuck into moist sand in light shade.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


'Crandell'
Very large, sweet, black berries that are extremely rich in Vitamin C. It is otherwise very similar to the species.

'Xanthocarpum'
Orangish-yellow berries.

Ribes oxycanthoides ( Mountain Gooseberry )
A small, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 3 feet, that is native to Canada and the northern U.S. ( from central Alaska to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to Nunavut to far northern Ontario to Newfoundland; south to far northwest Montana to central Saskatchewan to far northern Minnesota to Wawa, Ontario ). It is usually found on moist sites, rocky or sandy shores in the wild. It can make a good groundcover once it grows thick enough to block out the weeds.
The deeply 5-lobed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 2 x 2 ( rarely over 1 ) inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The single or paired, small, greenish-white to pale purplish-pink flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by edible, purplish-red berries.
The bristly slender stems are armed with thorns up to 0.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 1 to 5

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'James Prairie'
Reaches up to 5 feet in height and is resistant to leaf spot and rust having healthy lush foliage all summer long.
The berries are tasty and deep red in color.
Potential as commerical fruit crop on northern Great Plains.

Ribes rotundifolium ( Appalachian Gooseberry )
A medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height, that is native to mountain woods in the eastern U.S. ( from Ohio to Massachusetts; south to the Smoky Mountains of eastern Tennessee to western South Carolina, it is absent from the coastal plain south of central New Jersey ).
The 3 or 5 lobed, rounded leaves, up to 1.6 inches wide, are glossy mid-green.
The greenish-purple flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne on hanging clusters of 1 to 3 during late spring.
They are followed by a smooth, purple, rounded fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, during mid-summer.
The dark brown stems are armed with spines, up to 0.2 inches in length, borne from the leaf nodes.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 in partial shade on well drained soil. It is a host of Cedar Apple Rust and should not be used near Apple orchards.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Ribes rubrum ( Red Currant )
Also called Ribes silvestre. An upright, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to western Europe ( from Netherlands & Belgium to Poland; south to Portugal to northern Italy ). It is locally naturalized in eastern North America to as far north as Sault Ste Marie and Tobermory, Ontario. Red Currants are good looking landscape plants and are the epitome of edible landscaping.
The pointy, 5 lobed leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length.
The yellowish-green flowers are borne in racemes, up to 3.2 inches in length, during spring. They are quickly followed by edible, translucent, scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.5 inches across, during mid to late summer. Each cluster contains from 3 to 10 berries. A single plant can produce up to 7 pounds of berries in a season. The plants are self pollinating so a single lone plant will bear fruit.
The stems are smooth and unarmed. The fruits are rich in Antioxidents, Vitamin B1, Vitamin c, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium. They can be eaten fresh, dried and are great used in jams, jellies, juices, sodas and tart fillings. Currant jelly can even by used as an antiseptic for cuts and burns.
Cultivars of Ribes rubrum make up most of the commercially grown Red Currents grown today. Birds also like the berries and netting may be necessary to protect your crop.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil with a preferred PH of 5.5 to 6.8. It is recommend to plant during early spring or autumn while dormant and mulch deeply during the first winter to protect from frost heaving.
Plants generally take about 4 years to fully establish and bear fruit heavily.
Pruning is generally to keep the plants compact and thin out enough to prevent leaf fungus, esp. mildew. Ribes rubrum is prone to White Pine Blister Rust and it may be illegal to plant it in areas where White Pine are commercial timber crops or a large part of the urban forest canopy.
Propagation of cultivars is from softwood and hardwood cuttings ( take cuttings during autumn, stick them in the ground, and they root by the following spring - very easy ). Another option is taking foot long cuttings of dormant wood during late winter, dipping in rooting hormone and potting in ordinary potting soil. The cuttings root quickly. Layering is also an option.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* video found on internet


'Blanca'
Abundant, tasty, yellow, late season fruits borne on long clusters. Hardy zones 3 to 7.

'Cherry Red'
Very profuse ( up to 20 pounds per year on a plant ), larger fruits that are earlier ripening. Grown commercially in the Pacific Northwest. Mildew resistant. 'Fay'

* historical archive photo


'Hinnomaki Red'
Originated in Finland, reaches up to 4 x 6 feet with abundant, large, deep red, deliciously sweet berries.

'Jewel'
Attractive and disease resistant, with profuse crops of unique intensely flavored orangish-red berries.

'Macrocarpum'
Large fruits

'Red Lake'
Vigorous in habit, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 5 feet.
The attractive foliage is deep green. The abundant, deep red berries are borne in large clusters over a long season during mid-summer. The large, tasty berries are great for use in muffins and jellies.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, pest and disease resistant.

'Rovada'
Abundant, striking, long racemes of very large, beautiful translucent red, sweet tasting berries. A single plant may bear up to 20 pounds of fruit in a year.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

'White Grape'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet in size.
The smooth foliage is mid-green.
The light green flowers are borne on hanging clusters.
The translucent pale yellow fruits are borne on long bunches during early summer. They are sweeter tasting than most Red Currents and are great for use in jellies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* historic archive photo


'White Pearl'
Attractive and upright in habit, with translucent berries. A "White Currant".

'Wilder'
A moderate growing, dense, columnar, long-lived shrub, reaching up to 6 x 5 feet in size.
The foliage is deep green.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne on hanging clusters.
The abundant, deep red, mid-sized fruits are borne in large clusters over a long season during mid-summer. The fruits are great for use in jellies and jam.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

* historical archive photo


Ribes sanguineum ( Flowering Currant )
Also called Winter Currant. A very fast growing, vase-shaped to arching, large, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 17 ( typically around 9 ) feet, that is native to open woodland in western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Quesnel, British Columbia to near Jasper National Park, Alberta; south to northern California to northern Idaho ). Commonly planted in Europe and British Columbia, rare in eastern North America for some unknown reason. Some records include: 5 years - 6 x 6 feet; fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
The 3 to 5 lobed, cordate, rounded leaves, up to 5 x 4 inches, are deep green above, white downy beneath. The aromatic foliage turns intense orange and red during autumn.
The pink to deep rose-red, tubular flowers, up to 0.3 inches, are borne on pendulous racemes up to 4 inches in length, late winter to mid spring. Up to 30 flowers may appear in a cluster. The flowers are borne on wood from the previous year.
The flowers are attractive to hummingbirds.
They are followed by bitter, deep bluish-black fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, that is covered in white bloom.
The twigs are downy at first, later turning reddish-brown. The stems are not armed with spines.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -30 F ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil, thriving best in the Pacific Northwest and western Europe. Drought tolerant. Old plants can be cut back hard during late winter to renovate.
Propagation is from hardwood cuttings taken during winter.

* historical archive photo

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


'Brocklebankii'
More compact than species, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in 5 years, eventually up to 8 feet.
The foliage is bright golden-yellow.
The pale pink flowers are borne on large clusters.
Protect from hot afternoon sun. Hard pruning during late winter is recommended for best foliage displays.

'Elk River Red'
Reaches up to 15 feet, with very early, bright rose-pink flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Gibsons Wood'
Upright in habit with deep pinkish-red flowers.

var glutinosum
Fast growing, multi-stemmed and vase-shaped, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 8 feet. Unlike regular Ribes sanguineum, this subspecies is drought deciduous.
The smaller ( less downy ), shallowly 3 to 5 lobed leaves, up to 3.3 x 3 inches in size, are deep green.
The pink to red flowers are borne on hanging clusters up to 8 inches in length. Cultivar 'Barrie Coate' has very deep pink to red flowers...possibly hardy to zone 5; 'Claremont' is very vigorous with bright pink flowers. 'Inverness White' has white flowers on large clusters. 'Spring Showers' has abundant bright pink flowers borne on long racemes. 'Tranquilon Ridge' has rosy-pink flowers.
The flowers are followed by deep blue berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 10. Very tolerant of clay and summer drought though looks better with a deeply monthly watering during summer.

'King Edward VII'
Compact and upright in habit, reaching a maximum height of 8 x 7 feet, with intense deep red flowers. Some records include: 5 years - 6 x 5 feet; 10 years - 8 x 6.5 feet.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* video found on internet


'Plenum'
Similar to species except with double red flowers.

'Pokey's Pink'
Reaches up to 8 x 6 feet, with bright pink flowers in drooping clusters.

'Pulborough Scarlet'
Similar to species, except very fast growing, bushy and upright with deep green foliage and abundant deep red flowers borne on very long clusters. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 6.5 feet.

'Spring Showers'
Bright green foliage and pink flowers.

'Tydeman's White'
Pure white flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Variegatum'
Reaches up to 8 ( rarely over 5 ) feet with foliage that is green and variegated with creamy-white.
The flowers are scar-let-red.

'White Icicle'
Fast growing and compact in habit, reaching up to 8 x 7 feet.
The large white flowers are borne on pendulous clusters up to 5 inches long.

Ribes saxatile ( Rock Currant )
Also called Ribes cuneatum. A low, spreading shrub, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to central Asia ( from Altai to Novosibirsk region of Siberia; south to Kazakhstan to Xinjiang Prov in China.
The shallowly trilobate leaves, up to 1 ( rarely over 0.6 ) inches wide are blue-green.
THe greenish flowers are borne on clusters, up to 2.2 ( rarely over 1.2 ) inches long, during late spring.
They are followed by bitter tasting, dark red berries up to 0.3 inches wide, during late summer.
Hardiness zones 3 to 7 ( est ).

Ribes sericeum ( Lucia Gooseberry )
An erect, medium-sized shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 7 feet, that is native to the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey and San Louis Opispo Counties in coastal central California. A separate natural population is found in Santa Barbara County. It is endangered in the wild.
The toothed, 3 or 5 lobed, rounded leaves, up to 1.6 inches in length, are glossy bright green above, hairy beneath.
The bicolor red and white flowers are borne in clusters of 2 or 3 during late spring.
They are followed by bristly, purple, rounded fruits, up to 1 inch wide.
The densely bristly stems are also armed with axilliary clusters of 1 to 3 thorns up to 0.5 inches long.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in partial to full shade on moist, well drained soil. It is found in coastal ecosystems in the wild and does not tolerate extreme heat. It is tolerant of pure sand and resistant to browsing from deer. Lucia Gooseberry requires 24 to 60 inches of average yearly rainfall.

Ribes speciosum ( Fuchsia-Flowered Gooseberry )
A moderate growing, upright, bushy, large, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 14 x 17 ( average is 10 ) feet, that is native to California. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 5 feet.
The toothed, 3 to 5 lobed leaves are up to 1.5 inches in length. The foliage is smooth and glossy mid to deep green.
The very attractive, abundant, hanging, bright red, fuschia-like flowers ( with long red stamens ) up to 1 inch in length, are borne single or in 2s or 3s. They are followed by small, bristly red fruits, up to 0.3 inches in length.
The stems are spiny.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in sun or shade preferring a cool maritime climate. Tolerant of sand, clay and temperatures as high as 105 F. Very drought tolerant.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Ribes triste ( Swamp Red Currant )
A creeping to upright, small shrub, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to the boreal forest region of northern North America ( from northern Alaska to far northwestern Northwest Territories to southern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to central British Columbia to North Dakota to central Michigan to northeast Ohio to northern New Jersey ).
The 3 or 5 shallowly palmately-lobed leaves are up to 4 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, whitish beneath; turning to orange-red during autumn.
The small, pale purple flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne 6 to 13 on hanging racemes, up to 3.5 inches in length, during early summer.
They are followed by smooth, rounded, scarlet-red berries, up to 0.4 inches wide.
The attractive bark is exfoliating.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 in partial shade on permanently moist to wet soil.

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Ribes uva-crispa ( Gooseberry )
A long-lived, dense, thorny, small, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4 feet, that is native from Europe to the Caucasus as well as far northern Africa. Long lived, a Gooseberry shrub can live up to 60 years of more. Some records include: growth rate - 20 inches.
The rounded-toothed, 3 or 5 lobed, heart-shaped leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is lightly downy beneath.
The flowers are tiny and green.
They are followed by bristly fruits, up to 1 inch across, that are green turning to yellow then red as it ripens. A single plant may bear up to 12 pounds of fruit in a year. The fruit is great for pies, jams and pastries, they are also great eaten raw if very ripe.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ) preferring partial shade and humus-rich, well drained soil that is mulched to keep the roots cool. In parts of North America, mildew can be a problem and disease resistant cultivars should be used instead.
Planting is recommended during very early spring or autumn ( autumn best in zones 5 to 9 ) with the tops cut back to 6 to 10 inches upon planting.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Nov 4 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* videos found on internet



'Fredonia'
Moderate growing, with attractive, very large, tasty red berries.

'Hinnomaki Yellow'
Has pale yellow berries and mildew resistant foliage.

'Pixwell'
Similar to species, with tasty fruits that are green, finally ripening to pink.

'Thornfree'
Branches bear no thorns. Hardy north to zone 2.

'Whitesmith'

* historical archive photo


Ribes velutinum ( Desert Gooseberry )
A large, xerophytic, desert shrub similar to R. speciosum, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 14 feet, that is native to pine-juniper-oak forest and sagebrush in dry parts of the western U.S. ( from central Oregon to southeast Washington State to western Montana; south to southern California to northwest Arizona ).
The thick, leathery, 5-lobed, rounded, small leaves, up to 0.8 inches long, are very luxuriant deep green.
The pale yellow flowers are borne 3 to 5 on a raceme.
They are followed by an edible berry, up to 0.3 inches wide, that ripen to yellow, later turning to reddish-purple.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( depending on seed source ) in full sun on very well drained soil.

Ribes viburnifolium ( Catalina Currant )
A moderate growing, medium-sized, evergreen or deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 12 ( usually half ) feet, that is native to southern California and the Baja Peninsula.
The aromatic, slightly-scalloped, oval to rounded leaves, up to 2 x 1.5 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The foliage is aromatic.
The deep pink to red flowers are borne in small erect racemes, up to an inch in length.
They are followed by red fruits.
The stems are smooth and red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( 6 on very protected sites ), tolerating as low as 15 F as an evergreen with no winter leaf burn. Plants become deciduous at 10 F, killed to the ground at 8 F and die entirely at 0 F or colder if mulched. It is very tolerant of dry mediterranean climate summers and is deer resistant. Cut stem tips to encourage denser habit. Older plants can be cut to near ground to renovate. Propagation often occurs naturally as the drooping branches touch the ground and self layer.

'Spooner'
Much larger leaves.

Ribes viscossimum ( Sticky Current )
An upright, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet in height, that is native to woodland and sagebrush in western North America ( from Smithers, British Columbia to Prince George, B.C. to far southwest Alberta to north-central Wyoming; south to southern California to northern Arizona to northwest Colorado ).
The thick, aromatic, toothed, 3 or 5 lobed, rounded leaves, up to 4 x 3.2 inches in size, are hairy, glossy mid-green. The leaves are broadly rounded lobed.
The white to pale yellow flowers are borne on drooping racemes of 4 to 15 during early summer.
They are followed by bluish-black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide. The berries are edible but taste terrible.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.