Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Raspberries and Blackberries

Rubus

Most prefer full sun to partial shade ( unless otherwise stated ) on moist, fertile, acidic to neutral, well drained soil.
Many Raspberries are great eaten fresh and can also be made into a drink as well as a syrup made from boiling the fruits with honey and water. The fruits of all members of the Rubus genus are edible.
Most Rubus are most vigorous when cut or mowed to the ground every 5 years for renovation ( will loose a seasons worth of fruit however )
PROPAGAION:
All: Seed sown in spring. However Rubus hybridize freely and cultivars will not come true from seed. Divided suckers during mid to late autumn or early spring will also work.

Evergreen Species: hald-hardened cuttings.

Deciduous Species: hardwood or softwood cuttings ( approx 4 inch lengths ), layering will also work.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Rubus allegheniensis ( Allegheny Blackberry )
An arching deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 10 feet, that is native to open woods and thickets in eastern North America ( from northern Minnesota to Mine Centre, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to Manitoulin Island to Mattawa, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; south to central Oklahoma to Tennessee to Virginia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The palmate leaves are composed of 3 to 5 ( 5 on vigorous shoots ), double-toothed leaflets, up to 9 x 4 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green above, furry beneath. The foliage turns to red and purple during autumn.
The white to pale pink, 5-petalled flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne in long racemes, up to 12 x 4 inches in size, during early summer.
They are followed by edible, black, elongated berries, up to 1 x 0.6 inches in size, during late summer. Where native, its fruits are often used to make wine, jellies and pie.
The deep red stems are armed with hooked prickles.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

* photo taken by Barry C. Park @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Sep 30 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2015 in Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on Sep 19 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD


Rubus amabilis
A deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 10 feet, that is native to western China.
The pinnate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of up to 11 toothed, oval leaflets, up to 2 x 1 inches.
The solitary, white flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during summer.
They are followed by conical red fruits.
The stems are armed with small bristles.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Rubus arcticus ( Arctic Bramble )
A slow growing, subshrub groundcover, reaching up to 1 x 5 ( rarely over 0.5 x 4 ) feet in size, that is native to arctic and boreal regions of northern North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to southern Nunavut to Winisk, Ontario to northern Quebec to Labrador to Greenland; south to Washington State to Montana to Winnipeg, Manitoba to Minnesota to northern Ontario to Newfoundland ). It is also native to northern Europe ( Norway, Sweden and Finland to Estonia ), Russia, northern Mongolia, Manchuria and Korea. It is found on the tundra and also cold spruce bogs further south.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 broadly-lobed, rounded leaflets that are up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green, turning to deep red during autumn.
The purplish-pink flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, during early summer are followed by tasty, edible, small, red berries during mid to late summer. The berries are used in the making of jellies and liquor.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil.

'Kenai Carpet'
A form selected for landscaping use in interior Alaska.

Rubus argutus ( Sawtooth Blackberry )
Also called Cloudberry. A very fast growing, arching, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 feet, that is native to thickets and woodland edge in the eastern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to northern Illinois to Ohio to Massachusetts; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Ohio and Pennsylvania. It is not native to Hawaii however has become invasive there.
The leaves are composed of 3 to 5 ( 5 on vigorous shoots ) very sharply-toothed, oblong leaflets, up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, velvety grayish-green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne 5 to 20 on clusters, up to 6 inches in length, during early summer.
They are followed by red ( later ripening to black ), rounded fruits, up to 0.7 x 0.4 inches in size, during late summer.
The stems are armed with straight or slightly armed prickles, up to 0.4 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( also 5 for northern Illinois seed source ) in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil.

* photo taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Rubus baileyanus ( Bailey's Dewberry )
Native to eastern North America ( from far southeast Minnesota to far southern Michigan to southeast Ohio to southeast New York State; south to southern Illinois to eastern Tennessee to central Maryland ). It is endangered in the wild. It was abundant in dry woods in Detroit during the 1800s but has since become extinct in all of Michigan except for 2 counties in the far southwest of the state.

Rubus biflorus ( Ghost Bramble )
A fast growing, erect, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 13 feet, that is native from the Himalayas to China.
The pinnate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of 3 to 7 leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, white downy beneath.
The large, pure white flowers, borne in a small clusters or singly during late spring to early summer.
They are followed by yellow edible fruits.
The showy white stems are prickly.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil.
Propagation is from layering or division during spring.

* historical archive photo


Rubus BLACKBERRY HYBRIDS
Generally requires similar care to that of Raspberries. They are not really fussy, usually happy with any site that is full sun on fertile, well drained soil. Old canes should be cut to 6 inches from ground during very early spring.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on June 9 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Arapaho'
Thornless canes reach up to 8 feet in height. The sturdy, upright canes are self-supporting and do not need trellising.
Considered to be 'Early Season', the large, shiny fruits ripen about 10 to 12 days earlier than 'Navaho'.
hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on June 24 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 20 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Black Butte'
Largest fruit of any Blackberry, up to 2 inches in length.

'Chester'
The thornless canes produce very abundant, late-season berries that are long-lasting and very tasty.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

'Kiowa'
Thorny upright canes which are preferrably trellisted.
It produces the largest fruit of any Blackberry, up to 3 inches in length or 10 times larger than ones on wild plants. It often produces their trademark juicy, tasty fruits for up to 1.5 months.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it was developed at the University of Arkansas.

'Navaho'
Thornless, upright canes reach up to 8 feet in height. The canes should be topped at about 5 feet twice during each growing season.
The attractive white flowers are fragrant.
The abundant, mid-season, tasty, high quality, glossy black fruits ripen over a 1.5 month period. They are great for preserving and freezing. 'Navaho' is self-fertile. It is a late season fruiter.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photos taken on on July 30 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Triple Crown'
An excellent cultivar specifically bred for fruit production. A single plant may bear up to 30 pounds of the sweet, juicy, large, glossy black berries per year. Very vigorous but the stems are not very sturdy so trellising is required. Considered to be 'Mid-Season'. It is self pollinating.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photo taken on July 18 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 6 2015 in Columbia, MD


Rubus caesius ( European Dewberry )
A perennial, creeping, groundcover shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 12 feet, that is native to northern Eurasia.
The aromatic, trifoliate leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are composed of 3 toothed and 2 - 3 lobed leaflets. The luxuriant mid-green foliage is somewhat downy.
The white flowers are somewhat large. They are followed by edible black fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Tolerant of alkaline soil.

* photo taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Rubus calycinoides
Also called Rubus pentalobus. An excellent fast growing, evergreen groundcover, reaching up to 1 x 7 + feet in size, that is native to Taiwan. Very fast spreading, as much as 3 feet per year in each direction has been recorded. The stems self layer or root as they touch the ground. It can be used over large area as a lawn substitute.
The wrinkled, 3 to 5 lobed, scalloped leaves are up to 1.5 x 1.5 inches in size.The foliage is glossy deep green and rough above, woolly bluish-white beneath; turning very attractive deep red during autumn.
The solitary white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne during late spring into summer.
They are followed by tasty but small, rounded, orangish-yellow to red fruits.
The stems have a few curved small prickles.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( protected site north of 6 ) in full sun or partial shade on just about any fertile, well drained soil. Moderately drought tolerant if in partial shade.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



'Emerald Carpet'
Similar to species, forming a fast spreading green carpet, up to 5 feet across in just 3 years, eventually more.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park


* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Roribaccus'
Vigorous with showy blooms and larger than average fruit.

Rubus canadensis ( American Dewberry )
Also called Smooth Blackberry. An erect, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 13 ( rarely over 8 ) feet, that is native to northeastern North America ( from Beardmore, Ontario to Marathon, Ontario to Temagami, Ontario to Leamington, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to central Michigan to northern New Jersey...to far northern Georgia in high mountains only ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was found sporadically on dry, sandy ground around Point Pelee and the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. It was abundant on the Lake Erie shore and at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The leaves are composed of 3 to 5 sharply-toothed, ovate leaflets, up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The white flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne on woollys racemes of up to 25 during early summer.
They are followed by edible, rounded, black fruits, up to 0.8 x 0.5 inches in size, during mid to late summer.
The stems are either smooth ( especially among some high mountain clones ) or very sparsely prickled.
The stems are purplish.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun to partial shade.

Rubus cockburnianus ( White-Washed Bramble )
A fast growing, upright, vase-shaped, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 ( rarely over 8 ) feet. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 8 feet.
The leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of up to 9 oval leaflets, up to 2.5 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green above, furry white beneath.
The pale purple, saucer-shaped flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne on racemes during early summer.
They are followed by black berries that are unfortunately not very tasty.
The bloomy white stems are prickly.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating -20 F ) in partial shade.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Golden Vale'
Similar with golden-yellow foliage. Looks great with Black Mondo Grass planted underneath.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Rubus crataegifolius ( Korean Raspberry )
A shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 5 feet, that is native to China and Korea.
The stems are biennial, fruiting in the second year, then dying to be replaced by new stems.
The leaves, up to 12 inches across, are 3 to 5-lobed and shaped like that of the Physocarpus - Ninebark. The attractive foliage turns to deep red during autumn.
The flowers are small and white.
They are followed by juicy, large, scarlet-red fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 9
It is very resistant to pests and diseases and has been hybridized with Rubus idaeus to produce many of our commercial Raspberries.

Rubus cuneifolius ( Sand Blackberry )
An erect, deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum height of 10 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from central Mississippi to south-central Tennessee to southwest Virginia to central Pennsylvania to the Upper Hudson River of New York State to New Hampshire; south to southeast Louisiana to southern Florida ). It is endangered in New Hampshire, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. It is extinct in New York State. It is usually found on sandy or rocky prairies or savanna in the wild.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 ( rarely 5 ) toothed, obovate leaflets that are up to 2.5 x 1.6 inches in size. The attractive deeply-veined, thick foliage is glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath.
The flowers are white.
They are followed by berries that turn to red then finally black.
Hardy zones 5 to 10.

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


Rubus deliciosus ( Rocky Mountain Raspberry )
An arching deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, that is native to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. ( from western Colorado to southeaast Wyoming to far western South Dakota; south to southwest New Mexico to far northern Texas Panhandle ). It is endangered in South Dakota, Oklahoma and Texas.
The 3 to 5-lobed, rounded to kidney-shaped leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are bright green above, white sparsely-hairy beneath.
The white flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne solitarily during late spring.
They are followed by purple fruits.
The stems are not armed with prickles.
Hardy zones 3b to 7, it is rarely seen in the east but is noted to thrive at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

* historical archive photos


Rubus discolor ( Himalayan Blackberry )
Also called Rubus armeniacus and Rubus procerus. A very fast growing, semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 10 feet in height. A potential noxious weed, growing like Kudsu all over the Pacific Northwest. The stems root where they touch the ground forming inpenetrable thickets. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 20 feet ( length of individual canes ). It is actually native to western Europe and not the Himalayas.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 3 to 5 broadly-oval to rounded leaflets up to 3 inches long. The foliage is mid-green above, whitish to pale green beneath.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne on broad clusters.
They are followed by tasty, edible, glossy black berries up to 1 inch long.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


'Lochness'
Spineless.

Rubus flagellaris ( Northern Dewberry )
A low, trailing, groundcover shrubby perennial, that is native to eastern North America ( from northern Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to southeastern Quebec to Maine and Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to far northern Florida ).
The leaves are composed of 3 to 5 leaflets.
The berries are black.
The stems are sparsely armed with recurved thorns.
Hardy zones 3b to 9.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Rubus henryi ( Bamboo Bramble )
A very fast growing, scrambling to semi-climbing, evergreen shrub, reaching around 10 feet, that is native to western and central China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 12 feet; largest on record - 20 x 20 feet ( with support ).
The toothed, 3-lobed leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are glossy green above, white hairy beneath.
The pale pink flowers, up to 0.7 inches in width, are borne in racemes of 6 to 10 during early summer.
They are followed by glossy, black berries, up to 0.3 inches across.
The downy stems are only sparsely prickled.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

'Bambusarum'
Leaves composed of narrow lance-shaped leaflets. The stems are prickly.

Rubus hispidus ( Bristly Dewberry )
A spreading groundcover perennial, reaching up to 8 inches tall, that is native to moist woods, swamps and bogs in northeastern North America ( from northeastern Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Marathon, Ontario to Petawawa, Ontario to southern Quebec to Newfoundland; south to eastern Iowa to far northern Mississippi to northern Georgia to central South Carolina ). In northern Ontario, it is mostly found on the shores of the Great Lakes, Lake Nipissing as well as along the Ottawa River. It is endangered in Iowa, Alabama and Mississippi. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan and locally common on the Ohio shore during that time.
The leaves are composed of 3 obovate leaflets, each up to 2.5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath; often turning to red or purple during autumn.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 1 to 8 during early summer.
They are followed by reddish-purple fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

* photo taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD


Rubus idaeus ( European Red Raspberry )
An erect to arching deciduous shrub that reaches a maximum size of 8 ( rarely over 4 ) feet. It is native to much of Europe to central Russia; south in mountains to central Asia.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 3 or 5 ( rarely 7 ) toothed to lobed, oblong leaflets, up to 6 x 4.5 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
The white flowers, borne in axilliary and terminal racemes during late spring into summer. The flowers attract hummingbirds. They are followed by tasty, edible, red drupes during autumn. Plants will bear fruit lightly during the second season and bear full crops during the third season.
The stems are bristly and prickly.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( some seed source may survive in zone 2 interior Alaska ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, slightly acidic, well drained soils. Waterlogged soil especially involving heavy clay can cause root rot. Where root rot is a problem, it can be planted in raised beds, even ones contructed of old truck tires. Cut back nearly to the base 2nd year stems only during autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Sep 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* photos of unknown internet source

* photo taken on July 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario


'Amity'
Bears large deep red berries during June and again from late August to autumn frost.

'Anne'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet, with soft, sweet-tasting, yellow berries that are late ripening. The fruits are too soft to ship so they are not seen in grocery stores.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Unlike many other cultivars, this one is very easy to prune - cut the entire plant to ground during early winter. It will resprout rapidly during spring and fruit the same season.

'Aureus'
Bright golden-yellow foliage and yellow fruit on a low growing shrub. It makes an attractive groundcover.

'Boyne'
Vigorous, thornless, erect and sturdy ( trellising not needed ) in habit, reaching up to 5 feet in height.
The juicy, deep-red, medium-sized berries are tasty and great for freezing.
A very productive, extremely hardy form ( zone 3 to 7 ) originating in Manitoba. It is highly disease resistant.

'Caroline'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet. The abundant, sweet-tasting berries are borne mid season.
The berries are great fresh, made into jam or frozen for later use.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Unlike many other cultivars, this one is very easy to prune - cut the entire plant to ground during early winter. It will resprout rapidly during spring and fruit the same season.

'Cuthbert'
Sweet tasting, medium-size fruit.
This form is extremely hardy, surviving even in interior Alaska.

'Fallgold'
Large yellow fruits borne over a long season during summer. Excellent eaten fresh.

'Goldie'
An everbearer with great quality fruits that turn ripen to orangish-yellow ( sometimes reddish-orange when over-ripe ).
Hardy zones 5 to 7 and is very hardy.

'Glen Moy'
Red fruits during summer.

'Heritage'
An everbearer, fast growing, sturdy and upright, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet, bearing crops late season into early autumn.
The very abundant, large, sweet-tasting berries. This variety is self fertile, thus not requiring a pollinator. They are great fresh, made into jam as well as frozen for later use. "Heritage' is among the most commonly planted Raspberries.
The foliage turns to yellow or orange during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, thriving over a wide swath of North America. It is very tough and resistant to root rot. Unlike many other cultivars, this one is very easy to prune - cut the entire plant to a few inches from the ground during early winter. It will resprout rapidly during spring and fruit the same season.

* photos taken on June 22 2014 in Howard Co., MD


'Himbo Top'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet and is highly productive. The tasty, large berries are great fresh and are easy to freeze. They are also easy to pick - easily pulling off the bush.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Unlike many other cultivars, this one is very easy to prune - cut the entire plant to ground during early winter. It will resprout rapidly during spring and fruit the same season.

'Jewel'
Thorned but produces abundant, great quality, tasty, large, glossy black berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is very tough and resists most diseases which affect other Black Raspberries.

'Killarney'
Sturdy and upright ( trellising not needed ), with very attractive foliage and very abundant, tasty, large, red fruits. It is self fertile, thus needing no other Raspberry plants nearby in order to get fruit.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Latham'
Thornless and vigorous, bearing late spring berries that are of great quality and very tasty.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it is very disease resistant.

'Royalty'
Very abundant, sweet-tasting, large fruits that ripen to deep red then finally purple.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 and is very hardy.

'Williamette'

* photo taken on Dec 3 2016 in Columbia, MD


Rubus illecebrosus
A creeping, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet, that is native to Japan.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 5 to 7 toothed, lance-shaped leaflets, up to 3 x 1 inches. The foliage is downy beneath.
The white flowers, up to 2 inches across, borne in clusters of 1 to 3 during early summer.
They are followed by red, rounded fruits, up to 1.3 inches across.
The very prickly stems are sharply-angled.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Rubus leucodermis ( Western Raspberry )
Also called Blackcap. A deciduous, lax shrub, reaching up to 6 feet, that is native to western North America ( from southern Alaska to Montana; south to southern California to central New Mexico. Individual stems are biennial, surviving 2 years.
The leaves are composed of 3 to 5 ( rarely 7 ), sharply-toothed, ovate leaflets. The foliage is mid-green above, white downy beneath.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in clusters of 3 to 7.
They are followed by sweet-tasting, edible, deep red to black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in sun or shade. It is tolerant of clay and flooding.

Rubus lineatus ( Silky-leaved Blackberry )
A suckering, upright, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 feet, that is native from the Himalayas to southwestern China; south to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is among the most beautiful of all Rubus.
The leaves are composed of 3 to 5 deeply-veined, sharply-toothed, elliptical leaflets, up to 9 x 1.5 inches in size. The very attractive foliage is deep green above, silvery woolly beneath.
The small, white, 5-petalled flowers, are borne in short axilliary clusters.
They are followed by small red to black fruits.
The woolly stems are prickly.
Hardy 7 to 11 in sun or shade on just about any well drained soil.

Rubus 'Navajo'
A hybrid Blackberry, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 feet. It was bred in Arkansas as a heat tolerant agricultural crop for the Deep South.
It bears an excellent tasting, moderately small, black fruit with an excellent shelf life. An acre of Navajo Blackberry can produce up to 8000 pounds of fruit per acre.
The stems are thornless.
Hardy 3 to 8b

Rubus nepalensis ( Himalayan Carpet Bramble )
A fast growing, low, creeping, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 4 feet, that is native to the western Himalayas.
The leaves are composed of 3 sharply-toothed, diamond-shaped leaflets, up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is bright green above, hairy beneath.
The flowers are white.
The stems are bristly.
Hardy zones 6 to 11 in full sun to partial shade.

Rubus occidentalis ( Black Raspberry )
A thorny cane shrub, reaching up to 6 feet in height, that is native to meadows, moist thickets and rich open woods in North America ( from central North Dakota to Sault Ste Marie to Cabot Head on the Bruce Peninsula to Bobcaygeon, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick; south to northeast Oklahoma to northern Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The palmately-compound leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 ( rarely over 3.5 ) inches in length, are composed of 3 to 5 double-toothed, elliptical leaflets up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, white beneath; turning to red during autumn.
The white to pinkish flowers are borne in dense terminal clusters of 3 to 12 ( rarely over 7 ), during late spring.
The rounded, black fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, during mid-summer. They are very tasty and juicy.
The stems are deep purple with a white bloom coating. They are armed with curved prickles.
Hardy zones 2 to 6. During winter remove old canes that have fruited. Propagation is from seed or layering as the stems often root anywhere they touch the ground.

* photo taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Rubus odoratus ( Flowering Raspberry )
A vigorous, suckering, erect, arching shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 ( rarely over 9 ) feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from northern Michigan to Chapleau, Ontario to Cape Croker, Ontario to Midland, Ontario to Chalk River, Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia, south to northern Illinois to central Kentucky to Virginia ( south to northern Alabama and Georgia in mountains ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common at Point Pelee, rare at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore from the Vermillion River and east, during that time.
The toothed, 5-lobed leaves up to 14 x 14 ( rarely over 10 ) inches in size, are green above, hairy beneath.
The foliage turns to brownish-yellow during autumn.
The fragrant, purplish-pink flowers, up to 2 inches across, borne early summer into early autumn.
They are followed by edible, orange-red fruits, up to 0.8 inches wide, during late summer. The fruits are edible but not very tasty.
The bark is peeling. The stems are covered in bristles but are not armed with prickles.
Hardy 2 to 7 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Jul 20 2017 in Ottawa, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD


Rubus parviflorus ( Thimbleberry )
A rapid growing, robust, upright, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17+ x feet ( rarely over 8 feet in height ), that is native to North America ( from Skagway, Alaska to Mackenzie, British Columbia to central Alberta to Armstrong, Ontario to Manitoulin Island to North Bay, Ontario; south to Mexico...it is not found south of Canada in the Great Plains ). There is a separate native population at High Level in northwest Alberta. The Bruce Peninsula is one of the best places to see it in Ontario. In Ontario, it is also abundant on the southern shore of Lake Nipigon and the entire northern shore of Lake Superior. It is found in upland forests in the wild. The rhizomes often survive forest fires and resprout after.
The alternately-arranged, toothed, 5-lobed leaves, up to 10 x 8 inches in size, are furry at first. The foliage is luxuriant glossy bright green.
The white flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne in corymbs containing up to 9 during summer.
They are followed by juicy, sweet-tasting, rounded, scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.7 inches wide, that ripen over an extended season.
The older stems have attractive grayish-brown peeling bark and the stems bear no prickles.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( 2 for hardiest seed source ) in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. Thrives even in Fairbanks, Alaska. Requires 45+ inches of yearly rainfall unless irrigated.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Rubus phoenicolasius ( Japanese Wineberry )
A fast growing to invasive, spreading deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 10 feet, that is native to China, Korea and Japan. It has naturalized in much of the northeastern U.S>
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 toothed, broadly-oval leaflets, up to 4 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, white-felted beneath.
The white to bright pink flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in terminal racemes during early to mid summer.
They are followed by rounded, bright red fruits, up to 0.7 inches in length, during late summer. The fruits are great for jellies and desserts but aren't tasty fresh.
The stems are covered in red bristles with the occasional thorn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, cut to ground immediately after planting to balance plant and increase vigor. It is very easy to grow and rarely bothered by insect pests or disease. Propagation is from seed or layering as the stems often root as they touch the ground.

* photos taken on June 18 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 6 2015 @ Cypressmeade Park, Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Rubus procera ( Armenian Blackberry )
Also called Rubus discolor and Himalayan Blackberry. A fast growing, bramble shrub, reaching up to 10 feet, native to Eurasia. It has naturalized in Bruce and Gray Counties in Ontario as well as Nova Scotia.
The leaves are composed of 5 nearly rounded leaflets up to 5 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is white felted beneath.
Hardy ones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

Rubus pubescens ( Dwarf Red Raspberry )
Also called Rubus triflorus. A low, spreading groundcover shrub, reaching up to 1 foot in height. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1880s. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time. It is found in moist woods in the wild. It is native to all of Alberta except for the arid southeast. It is native to northern North America ( from south-central Yukon to south-central Northwest Territories to Lake Athabasca, Saskatchewan to Bisset, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south into northeast Washington State to northern Montana to north-central Nebraska to northern Illinois to northern Ohio to northern New Jersey ). It is found in moist mixed or coniferous forests or peat bogs in the wild.
The leaves are composed of 3 deeply-lobed, ovate leaflets, each up to 3 x 1.8 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne singly or in loose clusters during late spring.
They are followed by edible, glossy bright red berries, up to 0.6 inches long, during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in partial shade on moist, acidic soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Rubus sachalinensis ( Sakhalin Raspberry )
Also called Rubus idaeus var sachalinensis. A shrub, reaching up to 6.5 ( rarely over 3.5 )feet tall, that is native from eastern Europe to Siberia; south to northern Mongolia, north-central China, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
The leaves are composed of 3 ( rarely 5 ) lightly toothed, ovate leaflets, up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, downy-white beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters of up to 5 to 9 during early summer.
They are followed by rounded, red fruits, 0.6 x 0.3 inches in size, during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are brown to purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( seed source from Mongolia is hardiest ) in full sun. Cut back nearly to the base 2nd year stems only during autumn.

.Rubus saxitilis ( Stone Bramble )
A vigorous, running, dense, spreading, mounding, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 2 ( rarely over 1.3 ) feet in height. It is native to Greenland, northern Europe, much of Russia, northern & eastern Mongolia, northwestern China and Manchuria.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of toothed, elliptical leaflets, up to 3.2 x 2.8 inches in size. The foliage is glossy bright to mid green above, downy beneath.
The small white flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 10 during early summer.
They are followed by small, glossy red fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, during mid to late summer. The edible fruits can be eaten fresh or used for making juices, syrups and jellies.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( likely 2 for seed source from Mongolia ) in full sun on stony or sandy, well drained soil. It is not tolerant of hot summers. Cut back to the base 2nd year stems only during autumn.

Rubus spectabilis ( Salmonberry )
A deep rooted, fast growing, upright deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub native to western North America ( from the Aleutian Islands to Fairbanks, Alaska to Skagway, Alaska to Smithers, British Columbia; south to northern California to northern Idaho ). Some records include: 5 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 17 x 17 ( averaging less than half that ) feet. It is great for bank stabilization and erosion control.
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green above, pale green beneath.
The solitary, fragrant, pink to purple flowers, up to 1.5 inch across, are borne during late spring. The flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds.
They oval fruits, up to 0.8 inches in length, are pale orange.
The stems are covered by tiny thorns.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile soil. Requires 32+ inches of average yearly rainfall. Tolerant of deep shade, sand, clay and flooding. Propagation is from hardwood cuttings raken during autumn and cut into pieces between 5 and 8 inches.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


'Golden Ruby'
More compact, rarely reaching over 5 x 5 feet, with brilliant golden-yellow foliage.
The deep pink flowers are followed by sweet tasting orange fruit.
Hardy zones 5+

'Olympic Double'
Spectacular double, red-purple flowers.

Rubus strigosus ( American Raspberry )
Similar to Rubus idaeus but is dense in habit, reaching up to 6 feet in height, with bristly stems. Native to woodland edges and roadsides in North America ( from central Alaska to the Yukon to Nunuvat to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to Arizona to Nebraska to Iowa to northern Ohio to Pennsylvania...to North Carolina in Appalachian Mountains ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie Islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also common at Detroit during that time.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 3 to 7 ( usually 3 for flowering shoots ) sharply-toothed, ovate leaflets. The foliage is mid-green above, white hairy beneath. The leafstalk and rachis are bristly.
The greenish-white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in clusters of 2 to 5 during early summer.
They are followed by juicy, rounded, bright red berries up to 0.8 inches wide, during mid-summer though sometimes later into early autumn. The reddish-brown stems are covered in bristles and also the occasional hooked prickly mostly towards the base of the stem.
Hardy zones 1 to 8. Propagation is from seed or often layering as the stem tops root when they touch the ground.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Rubus 'Tayberry'
A shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 feet
The large, sweet, red fruits are borne over a long season from mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy 4 to 9

Rubus thibetanus ( Ghost Bramble )
A thicket-forming shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 15 feet, that is native to western China.
The leaves, up to 9 inches in length, are composed of 7 to 13 ferny, deeply-cut, ovate leaflets, up to 2 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, white felted beneath.
The small, reddish-purple flowers are borne mid to late summer. They are borne either singly or in small terminal racemes.
They are followed by rounded black fruits.
The white-bloomed stems are prickly.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil.
Propagation is from layering or division during spring.

'Silver Fern'
Attractively dissected silver-gray foliage.
The flowers are purple and are followed by red to black fruits.
Silvery-white stems.

Rubus tricolor ( Korean Raspberry )
An extremely vigorous, semi-evergreen, low, groundcover shrub, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 15+ feet, that is native to western China. It can spread 3.5+ feet per year in all directions. It is an excellent groundcover for large areas.
The 3-lobed to trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 4 x 2.3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, white-felted beneath.
The white, saucer-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne singly or in small racemes from the leaf axils during summer.
They are followed by small edible, scarlet-red fruit.
The reddish stems are bristly but do not have thorns.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Tolerant of deep shade.

Rubus x tridel 'Benenden'
A very fast growing, upright to arching, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 10 feet, that is the hybrid between Rubus delicious and Mexican Rubus trilobus. It is not invasive despite it's parent Rubus trilobus being so in much of the Pacific Northwest. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 8 feet; 5 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet.
The toothed, 3 to 5 lobed leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are luxuriant deep green. The foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
The showy, fragrant, pure white ( with bold golden-yellow stamens ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne over a period lasting up to 4 weeks during late spring.
It rarely produces fruit.
The showy, peeling, tan-color stems are thornless.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on fertile, well drained soil. Remove overcrowded stems that have lost their vigor immediately after blooming.
Propagated from layering or division during spring.

Rubus trivialis ( Southern Dewberry )

* historic archive photo


Rubus ulmifolius ( Bramble )
A fast growing, arching deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 12 feet, that is native to western and central Europe.
The leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are composed of 3 to 5 leaflets, are deep grayish-green above, downy beneath.
The flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, range from white to light pink. They are borne early to mid summer.
They are followed by small, purplish-red fruits.
Hardy 6 to 10. Tolerant of alkaline soil. It is easily propagated from layering during the summer.

Rubus ursinus ( California Blackberry )
A deciduous to semi-evergreen, bramble shrub, reaching up to 5 x 6 + feet, that is native to canyons and open woods in western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Kelowna, British Columbia to western Montana; south to southern California ). Individual trailing stems are known to grow as long as 20 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 coarsely-toothed, broadly-ovate leaflets, up to 4.7 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, pale green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in clusters of up to 12.
They are followed by sweet, juicy, black, cylinder-shaped berries, up to 0.8 inches long.
The reddish stems are covered in bristly spines.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in sun or shade on well drained soil. It is drought tolerant.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

1 comment:

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