Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Cotoneaster

The Cotoneasters are a large genus of 200 species of shrubs or small trees that are part of the larger Rose family and are mostly native to eastern Asia though some are native as far west as Europe. None are native to the Southern Hemisphere or North America though often grown there. They are used for anything from specimen trees, hedging and groundcover and are excellent for areas where wild fires are common because living Cotoneasters are not very flammable.
Most prefer full sun though some of the taller evergreen types grow well in partial shade as well. All prefer moderately fertile and well drained soil, they do tolerate salt, wind and drought. Evergreen types grow better on sites that are sheltered from driving winter wind, they will much appreciate the shelter of a wall or evergreen trees. Cotoneasters do not enjoy root disturbance so it is recommended to plant them small while dormant on their permanent sites. Cotoneasters can be prone to fire blight, which can enter fresh pruning cuts so it is best to prune during late autumn while dormant. Lacebugs and Spider Mites may also occur but only rarely.
Propagation can be from seed which germinates best if collected when ripe, soaked in sulfuric acid for 2 hours then cold water for 15 minutes then sown immediately.
The cultivars are propagated from
a) deciduous types - half hardened cuttings taken in early summer
b) evergreen types - half hardened cuttings taken in late summer

Cuttings are generally easy to root in sand or perlite mixture with mist.

* photos of unknown internet source



Cotoneaster acuminatus ( Hedge Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster sanguineus. A deciduous large shrub or small tree, reaching around 20 feet, that is native to the Himalayas ( from northern India & Nepal to northwestern Yunnan Province in southwest China ). Some records include: largest on record - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches.
The oval leaves, up to 5 ( averaging 2 ) inches in length. The attractive foliage is glossy mid-green.
The white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by red fruit.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Cotoneaster acutifolius ( Peking Cotoneaster )
An extremely hardy, fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous shrub reaching up to 10 feet that is native to Russia, Mongolia, north-central & central China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 13 x 13 feet.
The pointed, elliptic or oblong leaves are up to 4.5 x 2 ( rarely over 2 x 1.2 ) inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy deep green, turning intense orange and red during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, appear in clusters of 2 to 5 during early summer.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on fertile, well drained soil. It is valuable for hedging and low screening on the northern Great Plains where it thrives especially well.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


Cotoneaster adpressus ( Creeping Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster horizontalis var. adpressus. A low spreading, deciduous shrub native to the Himalayas from northern India & Nepal to western China. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 6 feet; largest on record - 3.3 x 9 feet.
After many decades, it may grow even wider due to it's branches that root as they touch the soil. A beautiful plant when used in a large rock garden.
The wavy-edged, rounded leaves are up to 0.6 x 0.4 inches in size. The very glossy deep green foliage turns to deep red during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.5 inches wide, during autumn.
The stems are deep red.
Hardy zones 3 to 7

* photos taken on Sep 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Howard Co., MD


'Lowfast' ( Tom Thumb Cotoneaster )
Fast and very low growing, reaching up to 8 inches x 3 feet in 10 years, eventually to 1 x 10 feet.
The glossy green, semi-evegreen leaves turn brilliant red in late fall. Hardy zones 4 to 7, struggling in zone 8 in the eastern U.S.

* photo taken on October 15 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, Ontario


Cotoneaster affinis ( Purpleberry Cotoneaster )
A fast growing, arching, deciduous large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 18 feet, that is native to Himalayas ( from Kashmir to southwestern China ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 20 x 20 feet; largest on record - 20 x 20 feet ( larger may be possible with extreme age ).
The ovate or elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 2 ( rarely over 2 x 1 ) inches in size, are deep green, turning to deep yellow during autumn. The autumn foliage contrasts nicely with the berries.
The abundant, white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne in clusters, up to 1.6 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by purple-black fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Cotoneaster amoenus ( Beautiful Cotoneaster )
A moderate growing, dense, compact, evergreen shrub native to China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 5 x 5 feet; largest on record - 12 x 8 feet.
The taper-pointed, oval leaves, up to 1 x 0.5 inches, are glossy green above, woolly white beneath.
The white to pink flowers are borne in upright clusters during late spring.
They are followed by red fruit during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Cotoneaster apiculatus ( Cranberry Cotoneaster )
A fast growing, spreading, deciduous shrub, native to central China. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 6 feet; largest on record - 6.5 x 8 feet.
The wavy-edged, rounded leaves, up to 0.7 x 0.5 inches in size, are glossy mid-green above, slightly hairy beneath. The foliage turns to red-purple during autumn.
The solitary, pale pink ( rarely white or deep pink ) flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by abundant red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, that persist into late winter.
The stems are grayish-red.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 tolerating as low as -32 F. Drought and salt tolerant.

* photo taken on October 15 2010 in Crownsville, MD


* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 30 2014 in Columbia, MD


Cotoneaster bullatus ( Rehders Cotoneaster )
Also called Hollyberry Cotoneaster. A vigorous, very large, open, arching, deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub native from western to central China. Some records include: 10 years - 13 x 10 feet; largest on record - 27 x 15 feet.
The deeply-veined, oval leaves are up to 6 x 3 ( much smaller in most clones ) inches in size. The foliage is very glossy, mid green; turning to intense scarlet-red during fall.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters, up to 2 inches across, during late spring.
They are followed by very showy, pinkish-red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, borne in large clusters during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are dark gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Cotoneaster buxifolius ( Boxwood Cotoneaster )
A medium-size evergreen shrub native from northern India to southwestern China. Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 30 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 0.5 inches long, are hairy dull green above, densely-felted gray beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in dense clusters, during late spring.
They are followed by deep red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 tolerating as low as -10 F. Drought tolerant.

* historical archive photo


Cotoneaster cochleatus ( Kashmir Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster microphyllus var. cochleatus. A slow growing, very dense, low spreading, rigid-branched, evergreen shrub that is native to this Himalayas from Nepal to southwestern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - feet; largest on record - 2 .5 x 7 feet. The plant may spread beyond this size after many decades due the branches that sometimes root as they trail.
The thick, oval leaves, up to 0.7 x 0.3 inches in size, are hairy at first, turning to glossy deep green above, downy grayish-white beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by showy, deep red fruits that persist well into winter.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

Cotoneaster congestus ( Congested Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster pyrenaicus. A low, dense, mounding, spreading, small, evergreen shrub native to the Himalayas. Some records include: 10 years - 4 inches x 1 foot; largest on record - 3.5 x 6.5 feet. It is an excellent choice for rock gardens. The small, oval leaves, up to 0.5 inches in length, are bright green to blue-green above, lightly hairy beneath.
The pinkish-white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by scarlet-red fruit.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 tolerating as low as -20 F

Cotoneaster conspicuus ( Tibetan Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster microphyllus var. conspicuus. A dense mounding, evergreen shrub native to southeast Tibet, Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 10 feet; largest on record - 10 x 13 feet.
The spirally arranged, oblong leaves, up to 1 x 0.5 inches in size. The foliage is glossy very deep green.
The mostly solitary, white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by glossy red fruit up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

'Decorus'
Slow growing and lower in habit. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 10 feet.

'Red Glory'
Vigorous and erect in habit, reaching up to 6 feet.

Cotoneaster cooperi ( Cooper's Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster microphyllus 'Cooperi'. A rapid growing, low, creeping, evergreen shrub that is native to Bhutan at elevations around 11000 feet. It makes a great groundcover or plant for the rock garden. Some records include: 8 years - 0.5 x 6 feet; largest on record - 3 x 25 feet.
The tiny, rounded leaves are luxuriant deep green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by purple fruit.
The very rigid twigs are red.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Cotoneaster dammmeri ( Bearberry Cotoneaster )
A very fast growing, low spreading, evergreen shrub that is native to central Province in China. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 40 inches x 20 feet. An excellent groundcover for large commercial sites.
The alternately-arranged, deeply-veined, oblong leaves are up to 1.3 x 0.9 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns to purplish-green during late fall and winter. The foliage is evergreen to -10 F.
The white flowers are borne in singly or in small clusters during late spring.
They are followed by scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early autumn and often persisting well into winter. The berries are a bonanza for songbirds.
The stems are dark grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, in very cold climates thriving best with deep winter snowcover. During severe winters with no snowfall it will usually regenerate from the base even if the tips dieback.

'Coral Beauty'
Orange-red berries; otherwise similar to species.

* photo taken on October 15 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 13 2015 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, Ontario


'Eischotz'
Fast growing and spreading, reaching up to 1 x 10 feet.
The elliptical leaves are glossy deep green, turning orange-red during autumn.
It bears abundant deep red berries during autumn.

* photo taken on Sep 9 2014 in Elkridge, MD


'Major'
More vigorous with larger, rounded leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length.

'Skogholm' ( Bearberry Cotoneaster )
Very rapid growing and wider spreading. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 10 feet; largest on record - 3 x 27 feet.

Cotoneaster dielsianus ( Diel's Cotoneaster )
A graceful, open, deciduous to semi-evergreen medium-size shrub, native to central China. Some records include: largest on record - 12 x 12 ( rarely over 10 ) feet. It is a great shrub for hiding tall foundations.
The oval leaves are up to 1.5 x 1 inches in size. The attractive, leathery foliage is glossy deep green above; downy yellowish beneath' turning to orange and red during autumn.
The pinkish-white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in small ( 1.2 inch wide ) clusters of 3 to 7, during late spring.
They are followed by abundant, glossy deep red, oval fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
The stems are dark gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it thrives at the Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada but is virtually unknown elsewhere in North America.

Cotoneaster divaricatus ( Spreading Cotoneaster )
A very rapid growing, handsome, bushy, upright to arching, large deciduous shrub that is a widespread native of temperate China. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 17 x 17 ( rarely over 10 ) feet. Spreading Cotoneaster makes an excellent hedge or screen.
The oval leaves are up to 1.3 x 0.7 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green with long lasting, red-purple to florescent-red fall color. The fall color can last up to 1.5 months.
The pink flowers are borne in clusters of 1 to 3 during late spring.
They are followed by abundant, scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.5 inches, that persist well into December and sometimes even late winter.
The stems are purplish to dark reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun or partial shade ( may even tolerate shade ) on well drained soil. Drought and seashore tolerant. It thrives especially well in the Midwestern U.S. and Ontario, Canada. Very tolerant of pruning and makes an excellent screen or hedge. It can be prone to fireblight and oystershell scale on some sites.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer and seed sown in autumn.

* photos taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


Cotoneaster 'Exbury'
Also called Cotoneaster 'Exburiensis'. A vigorous, arching large evergreen shrub. Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 17 x 17 feet.
The deeply-veined, taper-pointed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by yellow fruit.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it is fully hardy in zone 4b Ottawa, Ontario on protected sites but does get some injury during cold winters on open sites there.

Cotoneaster franchetii ( Orange Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster sternianus. A fast growing, erect, gracefully lightly-weeping, evergreen large shrub that is native to southwestern China and nearby parts of Burma. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 44 inches; 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 17 x 13 feet.
The attractive, oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 0.6 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in length. The foliage is glossy bright green to gray-green above, thickly felted white beneath, turning to red during autumn.
The small, pinkish-white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters ( up to 3.2 inches across ) of up to 15 during late spring.
They are followed by abundant, oblong, scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.5 inches in length. The berries ripen during early autumn and sometimes persist into late winter or early spring.
The stems are deep grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 5b to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil, it thrives in the southeastern U.S. where most Cotoneasters do not grow.
Tolerant of drought, heat, strong winds and poor soil. Propagated from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* historic archive photo of clipped Orange Cotoneaster hedge


Cotoneaster frigidus ( Himalayan Tree Cotoneaster )
A domed, medium-size, deciduous to semi-evergeen tree native to the Himalayas. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 27 x 17 feet; largest on record - 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet
The wavy-edged, oval leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is dull deep green above, whitish & woolly beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in large dense, hanging clusters, up to 4 inches across, during late spring.
They are followed by scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.2 inches wide, borne on heavy clusters during early to mid autumn.
The bark is silvery, flaking with age. The stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Drought tolerant. It may be prone to Fire Blight in some areas.
Young trees are prune to a single leader and feathered. Thinning and pruning can be done in March. Overgrown plants can be cut back hard during early spring.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* historical archive photos


'Cornubia
A very vigorous, leafy, semi-evergreen, spreading small tree that is also useful for screening. Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 17 feet; largest on record - 50 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
The lance-shaped to oval leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are glossy deep green, turning to bronze during winter.
The small white flowers are borne in dense large clusters during late spring.
They are followed by very abundant, small, rounded, scarlet-red fruit, persisting through winter.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

'Fructu Luteo'
Yellow fruit

'Notcutt's Variety'
Large deep green leaves.

'Pendulous'
Very weeping branches.

'Saint Monica'
The semi-evergreen leaves are very large, up to 10 inches in length.
The fruits are borne in large drooping clusters.
Some records include: 10 years - 20 x 15 feet; largest on record - 33 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches

Cotoneaster glabratus ( Glabrous Cotoneaster )
A very large, gracefully weeping, evergreen shrub, reaching over 20 feet in 20 years, that is native to Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou & Hubei Provinces in China.
The taper-pointed, oblanceolate leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is very glossy bright green above, bluish-white beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in dense terminal clusters, up to 2.3 inches across, during early summer.
They are followed by small, orange-red berries, up to 0.2 inches wide, that are borne in large showy clusters during early to mid autumn.
The stems are purplish-red.
Hardy zones 6 to 7 and thrives in the Pacific Northwest. Thrives in full sun to partial shade and is tolerant of drought and heavy root competition. It is not bothered by Fire Blight.

Cotoneaster glaucophyllus ( Chinese Blue Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster serotinus. A fast growing, semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching up to 10 x 18 feet that is native to Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 30 x 32 feet.
The deeply-veined, oval to elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep green above, white beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in cymes during early summer.
They are followed by orange fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
The stems are deep grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Meiophyllus'
A rare, vigorous, large, semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 16 x 16 feet or more, with foliage that is pinkish at first, turning to deep green.
The small, glossy, scarlet-red berries persist well into winter.
Tough and disease resistant, has great potential for the maritime Pacific Northwest.

Cotoneaster henryanus ( Henry Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster salicifolius var. henryanus. A graceful, weeping, semi-evergreen to evergreen small tree that is native to central China. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 36 feet. The branches are up to 18 feet long and can be trained onto a trellis.
The pointed, oval leaves, up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is rough glossy deep green above, woolly gray beneath.
The small white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by deep red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 8

Cotoneaster x hessei
A small shrub reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 3 feet.
The leaves are oval.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during spring.
They are followed by fruit.
Hardy zones 4 to 7. Resistant to fireblight and spider mites.

Cotoneaster hissaricus ( Circular Leaved Cotoneaster )
An erect shrub reaching a maximum height of 6 feet, that is native from Iran to India.
The rounded leaves, are deep green above, woolly white beneath.
The abundant, white flowers are borne in clusters during early summer.
They are followed by small fruit that are red-purple, ripening to black.
The young stems are densely gray hairy.
Hardy zones 10

Cotoneaster horizontalis ( Rockspray Cotoneaster )
A very dense, herringbone-branched, medium-size, spreading, deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub native to western China. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 8 feet; largest on record - 5 x 17 feet. When grown against a wall with support, it may reach higher, up to 9 feet.
The rounded leaves are up to 0.5 x 0.3 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns to purplish-red during late autumn. The foliage is early to emerge during spring. In mild climates it may become evergreen.
The small, single or paired, pink flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by masses of rounded, scarlet-red fruit during autumn, lasting into winter.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is marginally hardy on non-protected sites in the Ottawa Valley of Canada, having survived only 7 years at Dominion Arboretum. It is salt tolerant but hates root disturbance and must be transplanted while small. Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer or seed sown during autumn.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Robusta'
Upright and vigorous, reaching a maximum height of 6 feet. The larger foliage, up to 0.8 inches in length, turns to scarlet-red in autumn. The fruit is rose-red.

'Variegata'
The very attractive foliage is edged in creamy-white turning to pink and rosy-red in autumn.
The berries are red. It can reach up to 3 x 8 feet in 10 years, eventually more.

* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD


Cotoneaster hupehensis ( Hupeh Cotoneaster )
A very handsome, arching, medium to large size, deciduous shrub native to China. Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 15 feet.
The oval leaves are up to 1.7 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green, turning to bright yellow during autumn.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by red berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Cotoneaster 'Hybridus Pendulus'
A vigorous, semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Cotoneaster dammeri & C. frigidus. Some records include: 10 years - 1 x 10 feet; largest on record - 7 x 10 feet. It is often grafted on a straight trunk of C. frigidus to form a graceful weeping standard tree.
The elliptical leaves, up to 3.2 x 1.3 inches, are deep green.
The white flowers are borne in small clusters during late spring.
They are followed by profuse round, scarlet-red fruit, persisting well into winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

C. ignavus ( Turkestan Cotoneaster )
A shrub native to E. Kazakhastan that is closely related to C. melanocarpus except with purple rather than black fruits.
Hardy zones 4b to 7, it is very drought tolerant and cold hardy thriving from Denver, Colorado to Ottawa, Ontario.

Cotoneaster insignis
A small semi-evergreen tree that is native to Iran, Afghanistan and Turkestan. Some records include: largest on record - 20 feet.
The rounded leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are dull mid-green above, whitish beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during spring.
They are followed by purplish-black fruit up to 0.3 inches long.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Cotoneaster integerrimus ( European Cotoneaster )
A rounded, dense, deciduous, large shrub reaching around 10 feet that is native to central & eastern Europe as well as western Asia. Some record include: fastest recorded growth rate - 22 inches; 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 12 x 15 feet.
The oval leaves are up to 2 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above and felted below. The European Cotoneaster leafs out early in spring and remains in leaf until late in autumn.
The pinkish-white flowers appear during late spring. They are followed by abundant, round, dark red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 5; it is even known to thrive in North Dakota and Saskatchewan and tolerate -43 F or annual rainfall as low as 10 inches. This Cotoneaster is also blight resistant.

* photos of unknown source on internet

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


Cotoneaster lacteus ( Late Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster parneyi. A very vigorous, dense, arching, evergreen large shrub, that is native to Yunnan Province in China. It makes a great informal hedge or windbreak.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 27 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches.
The deeply-veined, leathery, oval leaves are up to 3.3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage deep green above, densely felted white beneath.
The small, creamy-white flowers are borne in dense clusters, up to 3.2 inches across, during early to mid summer.
They are followed by red fruits that persist into late winter.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is resistant to fireblight and is among the best Cotoneasters for use in the southeast U.S. Tolerant of heat, smog, salt, drought and poor soil.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )


Cotoneaster linearifolius ( Thyme Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster microphyllus var. thymifolius. A dwarf low growing, evergreen shrub native to the Himalayas ( from Kashmir to southeast Tibet & northwest Yunnan province of China ). Some records include: 10 years - 1.3 x 4 feet; largest on record - 3 x 8 feet.
The narrowly-oblong leaves, up to 0.3 inches long, are glossy deep green above, gray beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during early summer.
They are followed by persistent deep pink fruit.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Cotoneaster lucidus ( Hedge Cotoneaster )
Also called Shiny Cotoneaster. A moderate growing, upright, large deciduous shrub native to Siberia. It makes an excellent hedge and screen. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 16 x 10 feet.
The oval leaves are up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green; downy white beneath; turning to red during autumn.
The pale pink flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 12 during late spring.
They are followed by black fruit, up to 0.5 inches.
The bark is tan color with lenticels.
Hardy zones 2b to 7, it thrives even in interior Alaska, central Alberta and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. This Cotoneaster can be pruned heavily and also grown as a hedge. Very tolerant of windy sites. It may be prone to leaf spot and fire blight where summmers are too hot and humid.

Cotoneaster marginatus ( Fringed Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster buxifolius var. marginatus. An upright arching evergreen shrub that is native to the Himalayas ( Nepal, northern India and southeast Tibet ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 10 years - feet;largest on record - 3.5 feet.
The very small, elliptical leaves, up to 0.7 inches long, are bristly hairy beneath. The foliage is mid-green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 2 to 8 during late spring.
They are followed by deep red fruit.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, it is not tolerant of hot humid summers.

Cotoneaster melanocarpus ( Black Cotoneaster )
A rounded, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 5 ) feet in size. It is native from eastern Europe to eastern Siberia; south to northern Mongolia, northern China & Japan.
The broadly-ovate to elliptical leaves, up to 2.3 x 1.2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, downy white beneath. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The pinkish-white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by purplish-black berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun on very well drained soil. It is extrmely drought tolerant.

Cotoneaster microphyllus ( Littleleaf Cotoneaster )
A moderate growing, low, dense, spreading to mounding, evergreen shrub that is native to the Himalayas. Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 8 feet; largest on record - 40 inches x 20 feet ( as tall as 5 feet if planted against a wall ). The Littleleaf Cotoneaster is an excellent groundcover for large areas such as banks.
The thick, oval leaves, up to 0.5 inches, are hairy at first, turning to glossy deep green above, woolly beneath.
The tiny white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring and early summer.
They are followed by deep red fruit which persist into March.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, it has thrives in trials at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario.

Cotoneaster mongolicus ( Mongolian Cotoneaster )
A spreading, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6 feet in height, that is native to central & eastern Mongolia and Inner Mongolia province of China.
The elliptical to oblong leaves are up to 1.2 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, downy-white beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 7 during late spring.
They are followed by deep red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early autumn.
The stems are deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

Cotoneaster moupinensis ( Moupin Cotoneaster )
A large shrub, very similar to Cotoneaster bullatus, that is native to China.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 17 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 3 inches, are deep green above, downy beneath.
The pink flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by fruit that are pink, eventually ripening to black.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Cotoneaster multiflorus ( Showy Cotoneaster )
A moderate growing, arching to slightly weeping, deciduous large shrub to small tree, reaching around 20 x 15 feet, that is native to Siberia's Altai Mountains and western China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 6 x 9 feet; largest on record - 30 x 17 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 1.5 inches, are deep blue-green.
The very abundant, white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by very abundant, scarlet-red fruit.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( varies with seed source with some only marginal in zone 4b ) in full sun on rich, very well drained soil. Very pest resistant, it is also very clay tolerant.

* historical archive photos


'Calocarpus'
Large leaves and very abundant clusters of red berries during autumn.

'Granatensis'
Foliage is downy beneath. The white flowers are followed by clusters of red berries.

Cotoneaster nanshan ( Nanshan Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster adpressus var. praecox. A vigorous, arching spreading, deciduous ( evergreen in mild climates ) shrub native to western China.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 6 x 10 feet.
After many decades, it may grow even wider due to it's branches that root as they touch the soil.
The rounded leaves, up to 1 inch, are very glossy deep green, turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.5 inches across, in fall.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, requiring mulch or deep snowcover during winter in zone 4.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park


Cotoneaster nitens
A dense, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 13 ( rarely over 6 ) feet in height, that is native to western Sichuan Province in China.
The ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 0.8 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green, turning to red during autumn.
The pink flowers are borne in clusters of 2 to 6 during early summer.
They are followed by purplish-black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
The stems are grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Cotoneaster nummularia ( Lindley Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster lindleyi. An attractive, arching, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 10 + feet in height, that is native to the northwestern Himalayas. It makes a great hedge or screen.
The oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 1.7 inches in size, are deep green above, silvery-white felted beneath. The white flowers are borne on clusters of 5 to 12, during late spring.
They are followed by bluish-black fruits up to 0.25 inches wide.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant, often found in desert climates in the wild.

Cotoneaster pannosus ( Silverleaf Cotoneaster )
A vigorous, semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub, reaching around 15 feet, that is native to Sichuan & Yunnan Provinces in southwestern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4.5 feet; 7 years - 7 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 20 x 20 feet. It has become a non-native noxious weed in Hawaii.
The oval leaves, up to 2 x 0.6 inches, are dull green above, white hairy beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters during early summer.
They are followed by slightly woolly, bright red fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during mid to late autumn. The fruits are loved by birds.
The stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Cotoneaster perpusillus
Previously known as Cotoneaster horizontalis 'Saxatilis' and it is closely related to C. horizontalis but now considered a separate species rather than regional clone. A moderate growing, dense, low growing, domed, deciduous, groundcover shrub, rarely over 1.5 feet in height, that is native to central China. Some records include: 10 years - feet;largest on record - 2.5 x 8 feet. Does not have as much of the herringbone branching habit as C. horizontalis.
The very small, rounded leaves are up to 0.3 inches long. The foliage is deep green, turning to scarlet-red very late in fall.
The white flowers with pink tints, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by sparse, rounded, orange to scarlet-red fruit up to 0.2 inches wide.
The stems are brownish-purple.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, it was discovered growing amongst large boulders above tree line in 1908 by botanist and plant explorer E.H. Wilson. It is both heat and drought tolerant. Dieback may occur from voles eating the bark from the stems.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Cotoneaster potanini
Also called Cotoneaster soongoricus var. microcarpus. A deciduous, large shrub that is native to central China. Some records include: largest on record - 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches.
The oblong leaves are up to 0.6 inches long. It is closely related and very similar to Cotoneaster soongoricus but has much smaller leaves.
The white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by red berries, up to 0.25 inches wide, during autumn.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Cotoneaster procumbens ( Streibs Findling Cotoneaster )
A fast growing, very low, spreading, evergreen to semi-evergreen, groundcover shrub native from the Himalayas to China. Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 16 inches x 7 feet
The round leaves, up to 0.8 inches in length, are purple at first, turning to deep green.
The solitary white flowers are borne in clusters during early spring
They are followed by red fruit during fall.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Queen of Carpets'
Vigorous with abundant red berries; otherwise identical to species.

Cotoneaster racemiflorus ( Redbead Cotoneaster )
A moderate growing, spectacular deciduous shrub native from southern Europe to the Himalayas and northern Africa. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 8 feet;largest on record - 17 x 17 feet.
The oval leaves are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage is hairy gray-green above, white velvety beneath.
The white flowers are borne in umbels during early summer.
They are followed by abundant, persistent rose-pink to bright red fruits.
The stems are slender and downy.
Hardy zones 3 to 7

Cotoneaster 'Rothschildianus'
A vigorous, spreading, large, evergreen shrub. It may be a variety of Cotoneaster frigidus rather than a hybrid. Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 17 feet;largest on record - 30 x 30 feet
The elliptical leaves, up to 6 x 1.3 inches in size, are mid green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during early summer.
They are followed by clusters of round, light yellow berries.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( may be slightly hardier as it thrives in zone 4b Ottawa, Ontario )

Cotoneaster salicifolius ( Willowleaf Cotoneaster )
A vigorous, spreading, semi-evergreen to evergreen large shrub native to central China. It typically reaches around 12 feet or sometimes much larger when trained as a small tree. The Willowleaf Cotoneaster has a graceful habit resulting from its thin arching branches. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 17 x 17 feet; largest on record - 33 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
The wrinkled, deeply veined, pointed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep glossy green above and white felted below.
The abundant, white flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne in large corymbs, up to 2.3 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by round, shiny scarlet-red berries, up to 0.25 inches, in autumn and persisting into winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, tolerating as low as - 20 F.

* photos of unknown source on internet




'Autumn Fire'
Low and spreading in habit with very abundant, red berries.
Some records include: 10 years - 20 inches x 8 feet; largest on record - 7 x 13 feet.

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Floccosus'
Graceful and very pendulous, it can be trained as a tree. Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 17 feet; largest on record - 23 feet.
The foliage is glossy green above, gray-white beneath.
The flowers as well as the berries in fall, are very abundant.
It is hardier than the species, surviving in zone 4b Ottawa, Ontario however dwarfed in habit by frequent winter dieback.

'Gnom'
A dense, very low growing form, that makes a great groundcover. Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 8 feet.

'Repens'
Low spreading, groundcover form, reaching only 3 feet in height.
The foliage is often reddish at first.

* photos taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 19 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Scarlet Leader'
Reaches up to 2 x 15 feet in size. The foliage is scarlet-red at first, turning to green.

Cotoneaster serotinus
Also called Cotoneaster glaucophyllus var serotinus. A vigorous evergreen small tree reaching around 23 feet, that is native to western Yunnan Province in southwestern China. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 33 x 13 feet with at trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The oval leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are deep blue-green above, grayish-white felted beneath.
The white flowers are borne in large corymbs, up to 3.2 inches across, during mid-summer. It blooms much later than most Cotoneaster.
They are followed by very persistent bright red berries. As many as 50 berries may be borne in a cluster.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Cotoneaster simonsii ( Simon's Cotoneaster )
A handsome, vigorous, upright, large, semi-evergreen shrub native to northern India and the eastern Himalayas. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 17 x 17 feet. Great at the back of a large shrub border and as a hedge.
The oval leaves are up to 1.5 x 0.7 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, lighter green and bristly hairy beneath. The leaves turn red in autumn.
The flowers, either single or in small cymes, are white with a pink tinge, borne in early summer.
They are followed by persistent red fruit up to 0.8 inches wide.
Hardy zone 3b to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant and tolerant of severe climates as it has succeeded at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada. Prune hedges late winters into early spring.

Cotoneaster soongoricus ( Sungari Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster racemiflorus var soongoricus. A deciduous, arching, large shrub, reaching up to 10 feet, that is native from northwestern to central China.
The broad oblong leaves are up to 2 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is glossy blue-green above, gray beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide are borne in short racemes of 3 to 12 during late spring. The foliage is mid-green above, downy white beneath.
They are followed by showy, abundant, pinkish-red berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade, it is even hardy in parts of central Alaska. It is very drought tolerant and will even thrive on dry sandy soil.

Cotoneaster splendens ( Sabrina Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster 'Sabrina' & Cotoneaster dielsianus var. elegans . A very vigorous, dense, wide-spread, rounded deciduous shrub with bowed branches that is native to northwest China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 0.7 x o.5 inches in size. The foliage is glossy bright green and hairy above, white felted beneath. The attractive fall color is usually intense red to red-purple but may also be orange.
The pinkish-white flowers are produced in cymes of 3 to 7.
They are followed by spectacular massed orange-red berries.
Hardy zone 4 to 8. A mountain plant in the wild, it enjoys the cool moist summer climate of the British Isles and the Pacific Northwest. It does not grow well in parts of the eastern U.S. where summers are hot and humid, where it can be prone to Fire Blight. Drought tolerant. Little pruning is needed.

Cotoneaster turbinatus
A fast growing, large, evergreen shrub, that is native to southwestern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 17 + feet.
The oblong leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.3 ( rarely over 2 x 0.8 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep blue-green above, gray felted beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.25 inches wide, are borne on clusters up to 2.5 inches wide, during early summer.
They are followed by scarlet-red berries, up to 0.25 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
The stems are dark grayish-brown.
Hardy north to zone 7

Cotoneaster wardii
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 10 feet, that is native to southeast Tibet.
The ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, silvery-white downy beneath.
The flowers are borne in corymbs of 9 to 15 during early summer.
They are followed by orangish-red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5b to 8, it was hardier than expected at zone 4b Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario having survived 7 winters before succumbing to winter injury.

Cotoneaster x watereri ( Waterer Cotoneaster )
A 3 way hybrid between Cotoneaster frigidus, C, rugosus and C. salicifolius.
It is a vigorous small evergreen tree. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 5 years - 10 x 10 feet; 10 years - 17 x 17 feet; largest on record - 52 x 53 feet with a trunk diameter of 37 inches.
The heavily veined, oval leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green above and felted beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters, up to 3.2 inches across, during summer.
They are followed by round red berries that persist almost into the following spring.
Hardy zone 5 to 8, it is only marginally hardy in zone 4b Ottawa, Ontario sustaining severe damage during hard winters.

Cotoneaster zabelii ( Shensi Cotoneaster )
Also called Cotoneaster shansiensis. A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 10 ( rarely over 5 ) feet in height, that is native from Inner Mongolia; south into central China. It is closely related to Cotoneaster integerrimus.
The ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is gray-green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The pale pink flowers are borne up to 12 on a hanging cluster, up to 1.2 inches wide, during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by rounded, scarlet-red berries, up to 0.5 x 0.3 inches in size, that ripen during late summer and persist into early autumn.
The stems are downy rushy-yellow at first, turning to smooth deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, it is hardy and makes a useful landscape plant in the Ottawa Valley of Canada. It is tolerant of windy and coastal conditions.

No comments:

Post a Comment