Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Trillium

The Provincial Flower of Ontario, Canada but widespread across North America, this genus of plants related to the Lilies are among the wonders of the Eastern Hardwood Forest which every spring undergo one of the fastest transitions to occur in nature. After the first few warm ways, the forest flood burst into life with many plants including the Trilliums trying to get all the light they can before the trees leaf out and the canopy closes in.
The Trilliums are generally moderate growing plants eventually forming a long-lived clump with each stem being topped by a whorl of 3 leaves and a flower. The leaves are typically obovate, reaching up to 6 inches in length. The foliage contains calcium oxolate crystals and should not be eaten.
The flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are generally borne mid to late spring.
Trilliums prefer light to partial shade on deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist, well drained soil that is rich in humus. A mulch of shredded leaves will increase vigor. It is recommended to move them while dormant and to plant the rhizomes 2 to 4 inches underground. Trilliums will often go dormant early if summer drought occurs, then reappear the following year. Trilliums are rarely affected by insect pests and disease problems other than the occasional slug.
Most are hardy zones 3 to 9. Propagation is from sowing seed outdoors while it is still fresh. While seedling plants can take up to 8 years to bloom, these plants are also very long-lived exceeding 75 years.
Division is not required to retain vigor and should only be done with very established clumps for reproduction. It is best to have them planted at the same time as the foliage is dying down or during autumn though a fully dormant plant will be harder to locate in the garden. Dormant rhizomes should be planted 2 to 4 inches deep. Plants should not be picked for floral displays as removal of green foliage can kill the plant. Trilliums are rarely prone to insect pests or disease. If digging rodents are a problem...cover the soil within that area with mesh screening during winter. For additional information on cultivation and propagation on Trilliums I recommend this article from the Mt Cuba Center for horticulture in Delaware.
http://www.mtcubacenter.org/images/symposium-files/Rose-Mark.pdf


* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Trillium albidum ( Giant White Wakerobin )
A perennial, reaching up to 22 inches in height, that is native to rich woods and bottomland from Washington State to central California.
The broadly-ovate leaves are up to 8 x 6 inches in size. The attractive foliage is bright blue-green and mottled with deep green.
The white flowers appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5b to 8

Trillium camschatcense ( Kamchatka Trillium )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 foot, that is native to deciduous hardwood forests in eastern Siberia, Korea and Japan.
The 3 broadly-rounded to diamond-shaped leaves are up to 7 inches in length.
The white flowers, up to 2 inches wide, appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Trillium catesbei ( Catesby's Trillium )
An attractive long lived clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1.5 feet, that is native to hardwood forests in the southeast U.S. ( from Tennessee to Virginia; south to Alabama and Georgia ).
The oval or elliptical leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are bright green.
The nodding, white to rose-pink flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Prefers acidic soil.

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on May 1 2010

* photo of unknown internet source


Trillium cernuum ( Nooding Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet, ( 1 foot width in 5 years ) that is native to eastern North America where it is endangered. It is native to dry sandy mature forest from eastern Saskatchewan to Armstrong, Ontario to Ogoki, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Iowa to southern Ontario to Maryland ( further south to Georgia in the Appalatian Mountains ). It is critically endangered in Ontario and Saskatchewan. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s.
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 7 inches, are mid-green.
The nodding flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are white to pinkish with a deep red center, borne mid to late spring. They are followed by a red berry, up to 1.3 inches, ripening in early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, prefers light shade and acidic soil. Easy to grow.

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on July 17 2016 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Album'
White flowers

Trillium chloropetalum ( Giant Trillium )
A rhizomatous, clumping perennial, reaching up to 32 x 20 inches, that is native to moist forests from Washington State to California. A 6 year old plant typically has 3 stems, eventually spreading more.
The rounded to diamond-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 7 inches in size. The deep green foliage is mottled brown or gray.
The flowers, up to 3.7 inches, are pink, deep red or pale yellow, borne early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8. Dry shade tolerant. This Trillium does not grow in the eastern U.S.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


'Giganteum'
Robust with maroon mottled leaves.

* historic archive photo


Trillium cuneatum ( Whippoorwill Toadshade )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 feet x 16 inches, that is native to rich upland forests in the southeastern U.S. ( from Illinois to Pennsylvania, south to Mississippi to North Carolina ).
The elliptic leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches, are deep green with gray-green or lighter green mottling.
The flowers, up to 2.5 inches, are deep red or yellow, borne early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. With an occasional deep irrigation and mulch, this Trillium is well adapted to hot dry summers in the southeast. Tolerant of alkaline soil and just about any soil type as long as it is humus-rich.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC







* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on May 1 2010

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 6 2015 @ Cypressmeade Park, Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Midnight'
Deep purple flowers and leaves.

Trillium decipiens ( Chattahoochee Trillium )
A clump forming perennial, reaching up to 16 ( rarely over 8 inches ) tall, that is native to rich deciduous and bottomland forests of the the Chattahoochee River basin in Alabama, Georgia and Florida, with scattered populations are found elsewhere within the coastal plain in those states. It is critically endangered.
The lance-shaped to narrowly-ovate leaves are up to 7 x 3.5 inches in size. The very attractive mottled foliage consists of 3 colors being silvery-white, mid-green and blackish-green.
The purple, brown or green ( rarely yellow ) flowers are stemless. It is the earliest of the Trilliums, often blooming in late winter.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on acidic soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Trillium decumbens ( Trailing Trillium )
A very low growing Trillium, with a stem to short that the leaves appear to rest on the ground. It is native to deciduous woodlands native to southeastern Tennessee, Alabama and northern Georgia.
The ovate to nearly rounded leaves are up to 5 x 2.8 inches in size. The foliage is mottled green and bronze with silver overlay. The foliage dies back early in the season.
The flowers are deep red to purple during mid spring. They are followed by a deep purple berry.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 and is PH tolerant.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Trillium discolor ( Small Yellow Toadshade )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 9 inches in height, that is native to rich woods in the Savannah River drainage system of Georgia and the Carolinas.
The ovate to nearly-rounded leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is bright green and mottled with deeper green.
The bright yellow flowers appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 and is soil PH tolerant.

* photos taken on May 1 2010 & U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Trillium erectum ( Purple Trillium )
Also called Wakerobin. A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 feet x 20 inches, that is native to cool, moist, fertile woodlands in eastern North America ( from northern Michigan to Manitoulin Island, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Quebec's Gaspe Pen. to Nova Scotia; south to Tennessee and far northern Georgia...it is also found in northern Illinois ). It is now rare in Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was uncommon at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Grown from seed, they sometimes don't bloom until the age of 15 but can live more than double that.
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 10 x 7 ( rarely 12 ) inches in size, are bright green.
The leaves contain poisonous crystals and should not be eaten.
The nodding, red-purple flowers, up to 3.6 inches wide, are borne over a period lasting up to a month during mid to late spring.
They are followed by dark red berries. Hardy zones 2 to 8, prefers deciduous shade and acidic, light, well drained soil.

* photo of unknown source on internet

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


'Album'
White flowers

'Luteum'
Greenish-yellow flowers.

Trillium flexipes ( Bent Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 24 x 15 inches, that is native to rich mature deciduous woods in eastern North America ( from eastern South Dakota to central Minnesota to southern Ontario to New York State; south to Arkansas to far northern Georgia ). It is endangered in Ontario, Canada as well as South Dakota, Arkansas, Alabama, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New York State. The only remaining population in Ontario, Canada is near Dutton; it formerly occurred both in the Windsor region as well as London and possibly other locations along the north shore of Lake Erie before wholesale forest destruction in the late 1800s.
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 10 x 10 ( rarely over 7 x 7 ) inches in size, are bright green. The foliage persists into early autumn.
The fragrant, long lasting, drooping flowers, up to 3 inches, are white ( very rarely deep red ), borne mid to late spring. They are followed by showy red to purple fruit.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, prefers neutral to alkaline soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Trillium grandiflorum ( White Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet, that is native to rich forest of eastern North America ( from Minnesota to to Sault Ste Marie to Chalk River, Ontario to southern Quebec and Maine; south to Arkansas to far northern Georgia...not found on coastal plain south of Maryland ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern and western Essex County, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. A single rootstock will often form clonal colonies, which can become dense and very large. Of extreme beauty carpeting the deciduous forests in early spring as they undergo among the fastest transitions to occur in nature, as the spring flowers burst into color to grab as much sunlight as they can before the forest canopy closes in.
The White Trillium is the provincial flower for Ontario, Canada.
It has become endangered in Maine and threatened in New York State. Collecting in the wild has decimated many wild population and is illegal in many states.
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 8 x 5 ( rarely 12 x 6 ) inches, are deep green.
The foliage persists into early autumn.
The flowers, up to 4 ( rarely 5 ) inches across, are white fading to pale pink, borne mid to late spring.
They are followed by red to black berries 6 or more weeks later.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, prefers moist, humus-rich, acidic to neutral, sandy loam soil.
The White Trillium also likes dappled shade and a mulch of composed or shredded leaves.

* photo of unknown source on internet

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on May 1 2010


* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* historic archive photos

'Eco Double Gardenia'
Flowers with many wavy petals that fade to pink.

'Green Mutant'
Flowers are green margined in white.

'Plenum'
Double white flowers

'Quicksilver'
Fast and easy to grow.

Trillium kurabayashii ( Western Whippoorwill Toadshade )
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 feet x 20 inches, that is native from southwestern Oregon to the northern Sierras in California. It is found in moist, old-growth coniferous forests in the wild. It looks very similar too and is basically a western equivalent to Trillium cuneatum. Fast growing for a Trillium - the rhizomes produce 2 to 3 stems during the first year in the ground.
The elliptic leaves, up to 8 x 7 inches, are deep green with gray-green or lighter green mottling.
The flowers, up to 2.5 inches, are deep red ( less often yellow ), borne early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8; making an excellent landscape plant in parts of the western U.S., especially where it is native. This Trillium emerges earlier in spring than the similar Trillium cuneatum and is thus easily damaged by late spring freezes rendering it non-useful for landscaping in the east. This Trillium responds well to fertilizers.

* photo taken by The Wild Garden, www.nwplants.com


Trillium lancifolium ( Lance-Leaved Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 foot, that is native to upland hardwood forests from Tennessee to South Carolina; south to Mississippi to Florida. It is endangered in Tennessee and Florida, extinct in Mississippi.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 1.3 inches, are deep green mottled with lighter green.
The erect, deep red flowers, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 7, preferring acidic soil. It is tolerant of temporary flooding and deep shade. This Trillium emerges very early spring and needs protection from late spring frosts where they occur.

* photo of unknown internet source


Trillium luteum ( Yellow Wakerobin )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1.5 feet, that is native to mature hardwood forests in eastern North America in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and North Carolina.
The elliptic leaves are up to 7 x 4 inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep green and mottled with gray-green or light-green.
The lemon-scented, yellow flowers, up to 3 inches wide, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, on acidic or alkaline soil. It especially loves soil that is rich in calcium.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo take on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* historic archive photo


Trillium nivale ( Snow Trillium )
A perennial, reaching up to 2 feet in height, that is native to rich woods in the Midwestern U.S. ( from eastern South Dakota to central Minnesota to central Michigan to central Pennsylvania; south to Nebraska to central Missouri to Kentucky to western Maryland ).
The leaves, up to 1.8 x 1.5 inches in size, are gray-green.
The pure white flowers are borne during early spring. It is one of the earliest Trilliums to bloom; often at the same time as the Crocuses.
They are followed by a berry up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 ( likely hardy, reported to grow and bloom in Alberta ) on alkaline soil. It thrives when planted into well drained pockets in limestone and should not be mulched too deeply.

Trillium ovatum ( Coast Trillium )
Also called Western White Trillium. A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2.5 feet x 20 inches, that is native to rich forests in western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Kamloops, British Columbia to southwest Alberta to northern Wyoming; south to California to Colorado ). It is very similar to and pretty much a western equivalent of Trillium grandiflorum.
The deeply-veined, rhomboidal leaves, up to 8 x 8 inches, are deep green.
The flowers, up to 3.2 inches, are white fading to pink.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, requires slightly alkaline soils. It may grow in parts of the southeast however is generally limited in the east due to it emerging too early in spring only to get damaged by late frost.

* photos taken by The Wild Garden, www.nwplants.com

* historical archive photo


Trillium persistens
A perennial, reaching up to 1 foot in height, that is native to moist woodland and bottomlands in the wild. Critically endangered; its natural range consists entirely of a small section of the Tallulah Gorge in Georgia and South Carolina.
The ovate leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.5 inches in size.
The white ( fading to pink ) flowers appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. It requires acidic soils.

Trillium petiolatum ( Idaho Trillium )
A perennial, native to the northwestern U.S. ( from north-central Washington State to northern Idaho; south to northeast Oregon to central Idaho ). The stems are so short that it often appears that the leaves and flowers originate from the ground.
The ovate leaves are bluish-green. The flowers are purplish-red. Hardy zones 4 to 6.

Trillium pusillum ( Dwarf Wakerobin )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 12 ( rarely over 8 ) inches in height, that is native to low woods in the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to Kentucky to Maryland; south to central Mississippi to South Carolina ). It is critically endangered in Maryland ( found in Worcester County only ) and Mississippi, not faring much better in the rest of its natural range.
The small, lance-shaped leaves, up to 3 x 1.3 inches in size, are deep green.
The flowers are white at first, later deepening to pink then purple.
They are followed by berries up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full shade on acidic soil.

Trillium recurvatum ( Prairie Trillium )
A clump-forming perennial, reaching up to 15 x 9 inches, that is native to tallgrass prairie and moist hardwood forests in the Midwest ( from Iowa to Pennsylvania; south to Texas to North Carolina ).
It is threatened to endangered in Wisconsin and Michigan.
The leaves, up to 7 x 2.5 inches in size, are oval to rounded. They are mid blue-green with brown mottling.
The white to deep purple flowers are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 on alkaline soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Trillium reliquum ( Confederate Trillium )
A clump forming perennial, reaching up to 10 inches in height, that is native to the southern U.S. ( in Tennessee, southwest, central and east central Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida ). It is highly endangered throughout its native range where it was previously far more common. It is found on moist, well-drained soils in mature hardwood to bottomland forests. It is currently known to grow on only 21 sites but centuries ago was likely far more abundant and widespread.
The very attractive blue-green leaves, up to 5.5 x 5 inches in size, are mottled in silver.
The brownish-purple to greenish flowers are borne during mid spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on acidic soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Trillium rivale ( Brook Wakerobin )
Also called Pseudotrillium rivale. A slow growing, rhizomatous to clumping perennial, reaching up to 10 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, that is native to stream banks in Klamath and Siskiyou mountains from southwest Oregon to northern California.
The leaves are up to 3 x 2.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is very glossy blue-green with silvery veins.
The white flowers appear during mid-spring. The flower petals are uniquely lance-shaped. It typically blooms in 5 years from seed.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Del Norte'
A "steroidal form" reaching up to 1.5 feet in height.

Trillium sessile ( Red Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 20 x 20 inches, that is native to rich upland and floodplain forests of central and eastern U.S. ( from eastern Kansas to northern Illinois to southern Michigan to New York State; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Alabama to North Carolina ). It is threatened to endangered in Michigan and New York. It was abundant on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The overlapping, elliptical leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are bright green and marbled with deep green. The foliage typically persists until around mid-summer but may last longer if plants are kept consistantly moist.
The spicy-fragrant, erect, deep red flowers, up to 3.2 inches, borne early to mid spring. They are followed by purple berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, the Red Trillium can tolerate hot dry summers with occasional deep watering and mulch. Tolerant of alkaline soils.

* photos taken on Apr 6 2015 @ Cypressmede Park, Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Trillium simile ( Jeweled Wakerobin )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 feet, that is native to rich, moist, forests in the Appalachian Mountains in Tennessee, Georgia and the Carolinas. The rounded leaves, up to 7 x 8 inches in size, are dull mid-green. The white flowers appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 7 ( likely also 5 ) on acidic soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Trillium stamineum ( Propeller Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 1.5 feet in height, that is native to sandy upland woods in Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama.
The ovate leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The pale blue-green foliage is softly marbled with deeper green.
The deep purplish-red flowers are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected sites ). It is tolerant of alkaline soils.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on May 1 2010


Trillium sulcatum ( Southern Red Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 28 x 20 inches, that is native to mountains in the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Kentucky to West Virginia; south to northern Alabama )
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 8 x 9 inches, are luxuriant glossy deep green.
The slightly nodding, intense deep red flowers, up to 2.5 inches, are borne mid to late spring. They are followed by a red berry up to 1.2 x 1.1 inches in size.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, is soil PH tolerant and easy to grow.

Trillium tschonoskii
A perennial, reaching up to 1 foot, that is native to both the Himalayan Mountains and northern Japan as well as Sakhalin in Asia. It is found along wooded streambanks and mountain forests in the wild. It is endangered in China.
It has very large leaves up to 12 inches across. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
The white ( fading to pale pink ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, appear during late spring.
They are followed by a purplish-black berries, up to 1 inch wide.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Trillium underwoodii ( Underwood's Trillium )
A very attractive, clumping perennial, reaching up to 8 inches in height, that is native to central & southern Alabama, southwestern Georgia and northwest Florida. It is found in various deciduous woodland habitat in the wild.
The ovate to obovate leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The very attractive, deep green foliage is heavily variegated with white and pale green.
The deep purple flowers, up to 1 inch long, appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 on acidic soils

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


Trillium undulatum ( Painted Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 feet, that is native to swamps, bogs and cool acidic woodlands of eastern North America ( from Huntsville, Ontario to Nova Scotia; south to eastern Michigan to eastern Tennessee to northern Georgia to Maryland ). Is is now rare in southern Ontario. It is also endangered in Michigan, Ohio, South Carolina and New Jersey. It occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s.
The rounded leaves, up to 8 x 8 ( rarely over 7 x 5 ) inches, are borne in whorls topping the stem.
The flowers, up to 2.5 inches, borne during late spring, are white and veined purple towards the middle.
They are followed by glossy bright red berries up to 0.8 inches wide.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, requires cool, moist, acidic, light, humus-rich soils.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo


Trillium vaseyi ( Sweet Trillium )
Also called Vasey's Trillium. A rhizomatous, clumping perennial, reaching up to 26 inches x 2 feet, that is native to rich woods and steambanks in mountains in the southeastern U.S. ( from Tennessee to North Carolina; south to northern Alabama to western South Carolina )
The rounded leaves, up to 8 x 9 inches, are deep green, persisting into early fall.
The deep red flowers, up to 6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches across, are borne barely above the leaves during mid to late spring. It has the largest flower of all Trilliums.
Hardy zones 5 to 7, prefers acidic soil. The Sweet Trillium can tolerate hot dry summers with summer shade, occasional deep watering and mulch.

* photo taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Trillium viride ( Wood Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 1 foot, that is native to rich woods in the central U.S. ( from eastern Missouri to western Illinois; south to western Kentucky ).
The elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size. The glossy blue-green foliage is usually lightly mottled.
The greenish-yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 7, only thriving on very acidic, humus-rich soils.

Trillium viridescens ( Ozark Trillium )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 1.6 x 1 foot, that is native to rich hardwood forest in the central U.S. from Kansas to Arkansas, south to Texas to Louisiana.
The ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 5.5 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green with attractive deep green mottling.
The flowers petals are green except for being purpish near the base.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on acidic soils. Clay tolerant.

* historic archive photo