Monday, March 15, 2010

Cleyera japonica - Ternstroemia

Cleyera japonica ( Japanese Cleyera )
Also called Ternstroemia gymnanthera. An evergreen upright-oval shrub to medium-sized tree, that is native to Japan, Korea and nearby parts of China. Reaching up to 15 x 10 ( rarely over ) 10 feet in 10 years, the largest on record is 40 x 22 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. The Japanese Cleyera is moderate to fast growing on ideal sites ( fastest recorded growth rate being 3.5 feet ).
The leathery foliage is similar to that of its relative the Camellia. The toothed, oblong or elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches ( rarely to 6 x 2 inches ) in size. The foliage is deep red at first during spring turning to glossy deep green then to burgundy during fall & winter. They are generally tufted or clustered at the ends of the branches.
The small, fragrant, 0.6 inch wide, bell-shaped, pendulous, white flowers are borne in sprays on 2nd year wood during late spring.
They are followed by small black olive like drupes.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Heat tolerant, the Japanese Cleyera prefers cool, moist, light, slightly acidic, well drained soil. It is also prefers being sheltered from strong winds and hot sun. Tolerant of clay, drought, salt and any exposure from sun to shade. Rarely bothered by insects or disease. Foliage can turn yellow from chlorosis on excessively alkaline soil. Fertilize in early spring and prune and shape after blooming. Propagation is from seed and half hardened cuttings. Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( tolerating to 0 F, damaged at -3 and killed at -6 F ) and heat tolerant.
Cercospora leaf spot can be a problem however most of the cultivars are only lightly prone in comparison to the species with Leann showing high resistance.

* photos taken on March 26 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

fast growing and upright to 20 x 8 feet or more with large very glossy light green leaves.
One of the best dense evergreen hedges for the southeast U.S.A. A great problem free replacement for the Red Tip Photinia. Very tolerant of shearing and can be kept much lower than its natural height

'Bronze Beauty'
Foliage is rich bronze in spring turning to deep green in summer then back to bronze in autumn and winter. Grows to 10.5 x 6 feet in 5 years and eventually up to 15 x 10 feet and makes an excellent sheared hedge.
Much more prone to sun scald than other cultivars.

'Burnished Gold'
Similar to species except for having very attractive foliage that is intense golden-orange at first, before turning to glossy deep green.

Fast growing to 12 x 7 feet.
The very attractive foliage is showy red in spring turning to dark green in summer, and then to maroon again in fall and winter.

Dense and upright in habit, reaching up to 6 feet in 10 years, eventually to 10 x 10 feet.
The foliage is glossy bright red at first, maturing to dark green.

'Royal Red'
Scarlet very attractive new leaves turning to glossy dark green.

Slower growing, reaching up to 10 feet. The very attractive, glossy deep gray-green foliage is heavily variegated pink & yellow. The variegation turns to rosy-pink during fall and winter.

Cleyera ochnacea

An evergreen shrub up to 6 feet in height native from the Himalayas to Japan ( especially near Hiroshima ). Similar to Cleyera japonica but with small creamy yellow flowers in spring. Hardy zones 8 to 10

Cleyera theoides
A tree native to Central America reaching up to 90 feet tall with a trunk up to 2.5 feet in diameter.


Ternstroemia gymnanthera
A medium-sized, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 50 feet, that is a widespread native of the Himalayas and southeastern Asia ( from Nepal & Bhutan to Korea and central & southern Japan; south into India to Burma, Thailand, Camboia and Vietnam.
The smooth-edged, obovate leaves are up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne solitarly or in small clusters from the leaf axils during late spring to early summer.
The smooth to lightly-fissured bark is grayish-brown.
They are followed by purplish-red berries, up to 0.6 inches wide, during early through late autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

1 comment:

  1. Hi Randy, Enjoyed your blog on Cleyera. Can you elaborate on how to cut and (details) prepare "half hardened cuttings" for propagation, and when to do so in Georgia? Thanks