Tuesday, March 2, 2010

SIBERIAN GINSENG & Other Eleutherococcus

Eleutherococcus

A genus of close to 30 species of shrubs and trees, native to eastern and southern Asia. They are mostly grown for their lush foliage which appears early in spring. Most prefer full sun on just about any well drained soil. Propagation is from seed sown during spring, suckers seperated and planted during autumn or root division.
SIBERIAN GINSENG HAS HIGH CULTIVATION POTENTIAL IN NORTHEAST NORTH AMERICA AS BOTH HEALTH INDUCING HERB AND AS A HARDY LANDSCAPE PLANT!

Eleutherococcus henryi
A fast growing, heavily suckering, medium size shrub, reaching around 10 feet in height, that is native to eastern China.
Some records include: largest on record - 17 x 10 feet.
The palmate leaves, are composed of 5 ( rarely 3 ) leaflets, up to 5 x 2 inches.
The foliage is emerald green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The flower are borne on clusters, up to 6 inches in length, during mid-summer.
They are followed by black berries that ripen during early autumn.
Hardy zones 5a to 8 in sun or shade, tolerating heavy clay and drought.

Eleutherococcus innovans
Also called Evodiopanax innovans. A deciduous, medium-sized tree native to Japan.
The leaves are composed of 3 smooth-edged, oval to elliptical leaflets. The bright green foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn. The leaves are usually clustered near the stem tips.
The creamy-white flowers are borne in circular clusters at the stem tips during early summer.
They are followed by purplish-black berries during mid-autumn.
The smooth bark is pale grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( estimate...not fully tested outside native range ).

Eleutherococcus lasiogyne
A vigorous, thornless, rounded, deciduous large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 20 feet, that is native to western China. Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 20 feet
The trifoliate leaves, are composed of 3 ovate or oblong leaflets, up to 2.5 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The white flowers are borne in dense compact umbels during late summer into early autumn.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.3 inches, ripening during early autumn, persisting into late autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( seed source from Xinjiang is hardy in 4 & 5 and thrives at least as far north as Ottawa, Ontario ).

Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides
Also called Chengiopanax fargesii & Eleutherococcus fargesii. A medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet, that is native to southwest Hunan Province in southeastern China.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 5 to 7 ( rarely 9 ), elliptic or oblong leaflets, up to 5 x 2.4 inches in size.
The flower are borne on a panicle, up to 12 inches wide, during early autumn.
They are quickly followed by black berries, up to 0.2 inches wide, peristing into late autumn.
The smooth bark is grayish-white.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum




Eleutherococcus senticosus ( Siberian Ginseng )
A sparsely branched, large, deciduous shrub native to northeast Asia ( from eastern Siberia to northern China ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 23 x 10 feet. The stems are prickly and bristly.
The palmate leaves, are composed of 5 oblong leaflets, up to 8 x 5 ( rarely over 5 x 3 ) inches.
The flowers appear during early summer, the male flowers are purplish, the female flowers are green.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.3 inches in size, that ripen during late summer persisting into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, tolerating as low as -50 F...possibly even lower for seed source from Heilongjiang ). Tolerant of clay soils and urban pollution.
Pharmacology: Siberian Ginseng is often sold as a herb. It is known to boost mental and physical stamina. Excellent article on the uses of Siberian Ginseng on ( copy and paste ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleutherococcus_senticosus

* historic archive photo


'Inermis'
Thornless

Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus
A large pyramidal, deciduous shrub native to northeast China and Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet; largest on record - 17 x 21 feet.
The palmate leaves, are composed of 3 or 5 toothed obovate leaflets, up to 7 x 3 inches.
The leafstalks sometimes have prickles.
The purplish flowers are borne in umbels during late summer.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.6 inches long, ripening during early autumn, persisting into late autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( 2 for seed source from Heilongjiang ).

Eleutherococcus sieboldianus ( Fiveleaf Aralia )
A fast growing, arching, large, deciduous shrub native to eastern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 20 x 13 feet ( usually under 12 feet in height ).
The stems are typically lightly to moderately spiny.
The palmate leaves, are composed of 5 or 7 leaflets, up to 2.5 x 1.5 ( rarely 4 x 2 ) inches. The foliage is glossy deep green. The foliage appears early in spring and persists late during autumn.
The greenish-white flowers are borne in umbels during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.3 inches across, borne on large clusters during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in sun or shade on just about any soil. It is clay tolerant and may even prefer it. It also tolerates dry shade and urban pollution. Prefers a site protected from excessive wind. It makes a great plant for a large patio container. Old over grown plants can be cut to the ground in very early spring, to renovate. They are rarely bothered by pests or disease. Propagation is from seed during autumn or 3 inch root cuttings during winter.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


'Variegata'
Equal in size and vigor, it's foliage is heavily cream variegated. It is among the most beautiful of plants.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Eleutherococcus spinosus ( Japanese Bush Ginseng )
A medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 13 x 8 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to Korea and Japan.
The leaves are composed of 5 toothed, elliptical leaflets, up to 3.5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, appear in rounded clusters during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Eleutherococcus trifoliatus
A large shrub native to montane forests of India, southern China, Thailand, Vietnam, Phillipines and southern Japan, with sparsely prickled stems. Some records include: largest on record - 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot ( typically closer to 13 feet ).
The palmate leaves, are composed of 3 to 5 papery, ovate to rounded leaflets, up to 4 x 1.8 inches, that are luxuriant bright green.
The flowers are borne on umbels during late summer.
They are followed by berries, up to 0.2 inches wide, ripening during early autumn, persisting into early winter.
The young shoots can be eaten as a vegetable as a side dish or cooked in curry.
Hardy zones 9

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