Tuesday, March 23, 2010


A variable genus of close to 350 species of perennials, shrubs or rarely trees, that are part of the huge Daisy family.
Most prefer full sun and can be propagated from seed or softwood cuttings taken during summer.

Baccharis 'Centennial'
A fast growing shrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 10 feet, that is a hybrid between Baccharis pilularis & B. sarothroides.
The leaves, up to 0.8 inches in length, are deep green.
Hardy zones 5a+, tolerating as low as -10 F. It is extremely heat and drought tolerant.

Baccharis emoryi ( Emory Baccharis )
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6.5 feet, that is native from south central California to Texas as well as northern Mexico.
The smooth-edged to toothed, oval or oblong leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are deep green above, silvery beneath.
It may occasionally become deciduous during severe drought.
The flowers are white.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun where annual rainfall exceeds 20 inches.
Prefers a soil PH from 6 to 8. Tolerant of temporary flooding and pure sand.

Baccharis halimifolia ( Groundsel Tree )
A fast growing, rounded, large shrub reaching up to 13 feet or more that is native to the southern and eastern U.S. and the Caribbean ( from eastern Oklahoma to central Tennessee to central Virginia to Massachussetts; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida...a separate population is native to southern Nova Scotia ). Some records include: 2 years - 4.5 feet; 10 years - 10 x 8 feet ( average ); largest on record - 30 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.9 feet. In the coldest parts of its range it often dies back in winter acting more like a perennial. It is endangered in Canada though this population may hold great potential for cultivation in cold climates.
The toothed, paddle-shape leaves up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size are lush green and persist very late in autumn when it turns gray-green to purplish.
The flower clusters in late summer to fall and the following seedheads are white and downy, up to 6 inches in length.
The sharply angled branches are partially down covered when young.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( 5 for Nova Scotia seed source ) in full sun to partial shade though may grow as far north as zone 4 as a herbaceous perennial. This shrub is very well adapted to coastal environments and is very tolerant of wind, salt air/soil. Looks awesome planted with fall blooming shrub Roses especially the Knockout Rose. It is well known for stunning autumn displays along some highways in the Mid Atlantic.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken in summer or seed sown in spring. Male and female flowers occur on separate plants, propagate male plants if you don't want excessive seeding.

* photos of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Oct 30 2011 in Harford Co, MD

* photos taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on June 18 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 24 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Oct 13 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photo taken on Nov 5 2016 in Annapolis, MD

'Orient Point'
Reaches up to 12 feet with shimmering gray-green foliage.
The base of the seedheads are red unlike that of the species.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

'White Caps'
A selection from Kurt Bluemel, reaching up to 12 feet with abundant, white flowers borne during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Baccharis magellanica ( Christmas Bush )
A dense, low, spreading shrub, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 5 feet in size, that is a rare native to extreme southern South America and the Falkland Islands. Some records include: 8 years - 6 inches x 3.5 feet. It makes a great groundcover on rocky or sandy sites.
The toothed, paddle-shaped leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are glossy mid-green.
The very abundant, yellow florets are borne on small flowerheads, up to 1 inch across, during late winter into early spring.
They are followed by fluffy seed heads.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun, it is tough and hardy north to Michigan.

Baccharis patagonica ( Patagonia Sea Myrtle )
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 12 feet, that is native to Chile's high desert. Some records include: 15 years - 6.5 feet.
The foliage is polished deep green.
The shoots are red.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, tolerant of salt spray making it an excellent seaside hedge.

Baccharis pilularis ( Chaparral Broom )
A very fast growing, evergreen, groundcover shrub, reaching up to 2 feet in height, that is native to coastal California. Some records include: 2 years - x 10 feet; 10 years - 2 x 14 feet; largest on record - 3.5 x 20 feet. Great for covering very hot banks, especially along streets and parking lots.
The crowded, thick, toothed, ovate leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The inconspicuous, white flowers are borne at the branch tips.
They are followed by cottony seedheads.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun. This plant hates dust, be sure to wash it off the foliage if dust storms occur. Deer resistant and tolerant of seashore conditions, sand, clay and alkaline soil. It prefers a soil PH from 5 to 8.
Thrives best where average yearly rainfall exceeds 20 inches. Irrigation is recommended during the hotter months once every other week. A stone mulch is preferred. Shear and fertilize during early spring.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

var 'consanguinea'
Very fast growing, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 13 feet.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, thriving where annual rainfall exceeds 12 inches.
Water once weekly until established, after it requires only one deep watering monthly if mulched with a stone mulch.

'Pigeon Point'
A fast growing, groundcover form, reaching up to 1 x 12 feet, with luxuriant deep green foliage.

'Pozo Surf' ( Lowly Coyote brush )
Reaches up to 2 x 3 feet, with luxuriant green foliage.
An extremely heat resistant form that is excellent for commercial sites such as parking lot islands in southern California. It is the most tolerant of reflected heat of all Baccharis pilularis cultivars.

'Santa Ana'
Reaches up to 1 x 6 feet, with deep green foliage.

'Twin Peaks'
Moderate growing and much taller, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 12 feet.
Makes a great fire resistant screen.
The foliage is gray-green.
Tolerates as low as 4 F as a shrub, 2 F as a dieback perennial.
It is best near the coast, in hot inland locations it quickly dies out in the middle and becomes an eyesore.

Baccharis salicifolia ( Mule-Fat )
A fast growing to very invasive shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 12 ( rarely over 12 ) feet, that is native to the southwestern U.S. ( central California to southwest Colorado & south ), northern Mexico and parts of South America.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The abundant white to pink flowers appear late summer into early autumn, sometimes sporadically at other times of the year.
Hardy zones 8 to 10. Very heat tolerant. Severe frosts may cause it to die back to the ground.

* photo taken by William & Wilma Follette @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Baccharis sarothoides ( Broom Baccharis )
A fast growing, dense, rounded shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 12 ( rarely over 7 x 8 ) feet, that is native to the Mojava and Sonoran Deserts in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet. It is deciduous but appears evergreen due to its green broom-like stems.
The very attractive, luxuriant foliage is mid-green. The linear to narrowly lance-shaped leaves are up to 1 inch in length.
The very showy, greenish-white to creamy-yellow flowers are borne on dense panicles during summer. The flowers attract butterflies.
They are followed by seeds during autumn which unfortunately aren't very attractive.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating 15 F ) in full sun, thriving in climates with 12 to 20 inches of annual rainfall. Do not overwater on heavy soil as it can drown. Can be cut to ground for renewal. Tolerant of extreme heat, sand or clay, preferring a soil PH from 8 to 10.

* photo of unknown internet source

Iva frutescens ( Marsh Elder )
A medium-sized shrub, reaching up to 10 feet, that is similar to Baccharis halimifolia but has oppositely-arranged foliage. It is native to the coastal plain from eastern Texas to Nova Scotia; south to southern Florida. It is typically found in salt and brackish marshes.
The toothed, narrowly-elliptical leaves are mid-green.
The greenish-white flowers are borne late summer to mid-auutumn.


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