Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Bellflower

Campanula

A large genus of mostly blue flowered perennials that are native to Europe and Asia.
All Bellflowers have milky sap.
Most species are easy to grow in full sun to partial shade and are not too fussy about the soil as long as it is well drained. Insect and disease problems are rare and usually minor. Slugs can be treated with sprinkling Diotomacous Earth around the plants.
Propagation is from seed sown in spring for the species, and also softwood cuttings, root cuttings and division.

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken in Columbia, MD


Campanula alliariifolia ( Spurred Bellflower )
A graceful, taprooted, long-lived clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 feet x 28 inches ( rarely over 3 feet ), that is native to the Caucasus. Looks great in the border or woodland edge.
The long-stalked cordate leaves are up to 10 inches in length.
The nodding, creamy-white, bell-shape flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Propagation is from basal shoot cuttings.

'Ivory Bells'
Larger flowers

Campanula allionii
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6 inches, that is native to the French Alps.
The lance-shaped leaves are green
The bluish-purple, tubular flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, very well drained soil.

Campanula arvatica
A trailing, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 16 inches, that is native to Spain.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are green
The violet-blue, starry flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

'Alba'
White flowers.

Campanula aucheri
A thick rooted, tufted perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 inches, that is native to western Asia. It is great for planting in crevices in rock walls.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are downy and glossy green
The large, deep purple flowers, up to 1 x 1.6 inches in size, are borne solitarly during late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Campanula barbata ( Bearded Bellflower )
A rosette forming, short-lived perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 1 foot, that is native from Norway to the European Alps.
The hairy, lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are deep green.
The bluish-purple or white flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 on deep sandy acidic soil.

Campanula bononiensis ( Russian Bellflower )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 feet x 20 inches, that is native to Russia.
The lance-shaped leaves, are grayish-green.
The starry, lilac flowers, up to 0.8 inches, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Campanula carpatica ( Carpathian Bellflower )
A fast growing to invasive, long-lived, evergreen, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 3 feet, that is native to mountains of eastern Europe ( from Poland to western Russia; south to Czechoslovakia to Romania ). Looks great along the edge of a border or amongst large boulders.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are glossy bright green
The blue, shallow cup-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne profusely during early summer then sporadically into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil. Plants can be divided every 3 or more years during early autumn or early spring.

* historic archive photo


'Blue Clips'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet, with large, mid-blue flowers, up to 2.5 inches across. Grows true from seed.

* photo taken on Sep 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Blue Moonlight'
Flowers are grayish-blue.

'Blue Uniform'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 3 feet, with very profuse, nodding, mid-blue flowers, up to an inch in length, during early to mid summer. It is even more compact than the 'Clips' cultivars and is excellent for the rock garden.

'Chewton Joy'
Pale blue flowers margined in deep blue, borne later in the season.

'Deep Blue Clip'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 3 feet, with large, intense deep-blue flowers. Spectacular in bloom, even from a distance.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Isobel'
Violet flowers.

'Light Blue Clips'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet, with light-blue flowers, up to 2.5 inches across.

'Snow Imp'
White flowers borne later than regular Campanula carpatica.

'White Clips'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 1.2 x 3 feet, with pure white flowers, up to 2.5 inches across.

* photo taken on June 22 2013 in Columbia, MD


'White Star'
White flowers.

'White Uniform'
A low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 3 feet, with very abundant, nodding, pure white flowers, up to 1.7 inches wide, during early to mid summer ( sometimes repeating until mid-autumn ). It is even more compact than the 'Clips' cultivars and is excellent for the rock garden.

Campanula 'Cherry Bells'
A hybrid with Campanula punctata in its parentage, forming a strongly upright, fast spreading clump, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 2.5+ ( rarely over 2 ) feet.
The red, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula cochleariifolia ( Spiral Bellflower )
A vigorous, rhizome-spreading, tufted, dense, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 2+ feet ( rarely over 6 inches ), that is native to the European Alps.
It can be used on landscape walls and can even be planted between patio stones.
The small, toothed, heart-shaped leaves, are glossy mid-green
The nodding, blue, tubular, flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne on wiry stems all summer long.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Easy to grow.

'Alba'
White flowers.

'Bavaria Blue'
A dwarf, compact form, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 3 feet, with dark blue flowers all summer long. Great along the front of a border, in pots or trailing on top of a rock wall.

'Bavaria White'
A dwarf, compact form, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 3 feet, with pure white flowers all summer long. Great along the front of a border, in pots or trailing on top of a rock wall.

'Elizabeth Oliver'
Powdery-blue, double flowers.

'Oakington'
Large, deep blue flowers.

Campanula collina
A clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 1 foot, that is native to western Asia.
The oval, basal leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are green.
The deep purplish-blue flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Campanula divaricata ( Southern Harebell )
A beautiful perennial, reaching a maximum height of 3 feet, that is native to dry woods in the southeastern U.S. ( from Kentucky to western Maryland; south to Alabama and Georgia ).
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are luxuriant deep green.
The abundant, hanging, 0.3 inch, blue, bell-shaped flowers are borne on upright clusters from mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Easy to grow.

Campanula 'Elizabeth' - See Campanula takesimana

Campanula excisa
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot.
The narrow leaves are green
The lilac-blue, pendant flowers, up to 1 inches in length, are borne early summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on acidic soil only. It is not one of the easier species to grow and needs to be regularily divided and replanted to maintain its vigor.

Campanula fragilis
A low, spreading, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 3 feet, that is native to
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are glossy green
The showy flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula garganica ( Adriatic Bellflower )
A rapid growing, tufted, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 feet, that is native to Italy. Great for use on a wall.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are bright green
The profuse, pendent, blue, starry flowers are borne in lax panicles, up to 6 inches in length, all summer long.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

* historic archive photo


'Dickson's Gold'
Similar except smaller growing, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1.5 feet, with bright golden-green leaves contrasting with bright blue flowers borne in loose clusters. In climates with long hot humid summers, it will bloom late spring into early summer then if lightly sheared right after - it will rebloom during autumn.
This semi-evergreen perennial, looks at its best in a partially shaded rock garden.

* photo taken on May 16 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City


'Filigree'
Similar to species but lower ( to 8 inches ) bearing abundant bright purplish-blue flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Paine'
Flowers are deep blue with a white center.

Campanula glomerata ( Clustered Bellflower )
A fast spreading to invasive, rhizomatous, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4.3 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to Eurasia ( from England to Kamchatka; south to Spain to southwestern Asia to Kazakhstan to Manchuria to Japan ). It is usually found on grassy slopes and meadows in the wild.
The ovate leaves, up to 6 x 1.6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size, are deep green.
The purplish-blue ( with white pistils ) flowers, up to 1.3 inches in length, are borne over a long period during early to mid summer. Up to 20 flowers may be borne in the clusters which can be up to 3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is very tolerant and enjoys alkaline soils. Clustered Bellflower is also very heat tolerant. They looks best with a light trim after flowering and divided frequently ( don't worry if you end up with extra plants - they will look great in your neighbors yard ).

* photo taken on June 5 2012

* historic archive photos


'Acaulis'
A fast growing, low growing form, reaching a maximum size of 15 inches x 2 feet, with bright violet-blue flowers borne in pyramidal panicles.
This form looks great used for edging.

* historical archive photo


'Alba'
The rapid spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 3+ feet, that is the white flowering form of 'Superba'. The cultivar 'Snow' is nearly identical.

'Caroline'
Reaches a maximum size of 3.2 x 3.3 feet with shell to lavender pink ( with purplish-pink markings ) flowers, up to 1.3 inches wide, borne in clusters during summer. It spreads less aggressive than the species.

subsp. 'dahurica'
Reaches up to 32 inches, with rich-violet flowers borne on clusters up to 3 inches across. Can be invasive.

'Joan Elliott'
A neat clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2 feet, with very abundant, intense deep violet-purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide. They are over a long season from late spring into early summer.

'Purple Pixie'
Vigorous but dwarf and compact in habit, reaching a maximum height of 15 inches, with violet flowers borne late on large clusters.

'Superba'
Vigorous in habit, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 feet, with wide, deep violet-purple flowers borne over a long extended season in large clusters during early summer. Fast growing and can be invasive.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery<br />

* photo taken on May 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 24 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


Campanula x haylodgensis
The hybrid between Campanula carpatica & C. cochleariifolia, forming a lax perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 inches.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are yellowish-green
The double blue flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula isophylla ( Italian Bellflower )
A trailing, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 foot x 20 inches, that is native to northern Italy. Great for planters and hanging baskets.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 1.6 inches in length, are mid-green.
The very abundant, mid-blue, starry flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. It does not like soil that is excessively wet during winter.

* historic archive photo


'Alba'
White flowers

'Caerulea'
Bright blue flowers

'Mayii'
Hairy grayish foliage and large, mid-blue flowers.

Campanula kemulariae
A low clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 feet, with glossy green and pale pinkish-purple flowers.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula 'Kent Belle'
A very fast growing to slightly invasive, sturdy and upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3.3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet. It is the hybrid between Campanula punctata & C. takesimana.
It may need staking on some sites.
The toothed leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are green.
The large, sterile, deep rich violet-purple, pendulous flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.
Heat tolerant.

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC


Campanula kinokawamae
A fast growing, stoloniferous, dense, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 8 inches x 2 + feet, that is native to China and Japan.
The crinkled foliage is mid-green.
The white ( rose-purple speckled reddish-purple inside ) flowers, up to 1.5 inches in length, are borne summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4 on protected sites ) in partial shade on just about any fertile, well drained soil.

Campanula lactiflora ( Milky Bellflower )
A dense, long-lived perennial with arching stems, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 5 feet ( rarely over 6 x 4 feet ), that is native to mountain foresrs of the Caucasus and northwest Iran. It resembled Phlox paniculata in habit. Great for naturalizing.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 4.7 inches in length, are bright green.
The lavender-blue, starry flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne in dense panicles from early summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on cool, moist, fertile soil. It can tolerate moderate drought once established.

'Loddon Anna'
densely growing and upright, reaching up to 7 ( rarely over 4 ) x 3 feet, with soft pink flowers.

'Macrantha'
Large, reddish-purple flowers.

'Pouffe'
Dwarf in habit, forming a dense mound, up to 1.5 x 3 feet in size, with profuse lavender-blue flowers up to 1.5 inches wide.

'Prichard's Variety'
Reaches up to 5 x 4 feet, with sturdy, upright stems bearing purplish-blue flowers, up to 1.3 inches wide, borne early summer to mid-autumn. Self seeds.

'White Pouffe'
Dwarf in habit, forming a dense mound, up to 1.5 x 3 feet in size, with abundant pure white flowers up to 1.5 inches wide.

Campanula lasiocarpa ( Mountain Harebell )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 15 inches, that is native to rocky alpine meadows in Kamchatka in eastern Russia as well as northern Japan.
The toothed, oblanceolate to narrowly-obovate leaves, up to 2 x 0.3 inches in size, are mid-green.
The fragrant, clear, blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 2b to 6 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula latifolia ( Giant Bellflower )
A clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 1.5 feet, that is native to Eurasia ( most of Europe to western Siberia & the Caucasus ). It often self seeds freely and may be invasive on some sites.
The attractive, double-toothed, oval leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid green.
The purplish-blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 3.2 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is very tolerant of clay soils.

* historical archive photo


'Brantwood'
Similar with large, deep violet flowers. Spreads freely by seed.

'Gloaming'
Reaches a maximum height of 44 inches, with smoky-blue flowers.

'Macrantha'
Reaches a maximum height of 4 feet, with large, deep bluish-purple flowers up to 1.5 inches wide.

'White Ladies'
Reaches a maximum height of 44 inches, with white flowers.

* historical archive photo

Campanula medium ( Canturbury Bells )

* historical archive photo


Campanula morettiana
A low, tufted, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 6 inches, that is native to northern Italy where it is endangered.
The tiny, toothed, heart-shaped leaves are hairy, gray-green
The violet flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne solitary on the stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. It likes limey soil and does not like excessive winter wetness.

Campanula persicifolia ( Peachleaf Bellflower )
A very vigorous, rosette forming, long-lived perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4 ( rarely over 4.3 x 3 ) feet, that is native from Belgium to Siberia. It has naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Wiarton, Ontario.
The evergreen, wavy-edged, narrow basal leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are mid-green.
The large, blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during early summer, often repeating during late summer if cut back after the first flush of blooms.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Very easy to grow and often self seeds. Tolerant of heat, drought, flooding, hail and excessive winds. It is not generally eaten by deer.

* photos taken on June 28 2015 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photos


'Alba'
Similar with white flowers.

'Blue Bells'
Similar with rich blue flowers.

'Chettle Charm'
Sturdy in habit, reaching up to 4 feet, with very pale blue flowers with deeper violet-blue petal edges.

'Kelly's Gold'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with glossy narrow foliage that is brillint golden-yellow during spring, later turning to bright yellow-green.
The flowers are pure white.

'Moerheimii'
A long lived perennial with narrow, leathery, evergreen foliage and double, pure white flowers.

'Percy Piper'
Similar with deep blue flowers.

'Pride of Exmouth'
Dwarf, only reaching 2 feet, with semi-double, bright blue flowers.

'Snowdrift'
Similar with white flowers.

'Talham Beauty'
Similar except with very large, bright blue flowers, up to 4 inches across, borne early to mid summer.

* photo taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD



'White Pearl'
Similar except for the flowers which are double and white.

Campanula 'Pink Octopus'
A very fast growing perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 2.7 feet in just 3 years, eventually wider.
The deeply-cut foliage is very attractive.
The very abundant, deep rosy-pink flowers are borne late spring into early summer, repeating into early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. Very heat tolerant but deer and rabbit resistant.

* photo taken on Sep 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC


Campanula portenschlagiana ( Dalmatian Bellflower )
A fast growing, long-lived, rhizome spreading, dense, mat-forming, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 4 feet, that is native to southern Europe.
It looks great both as groundcover as well as cascading over walls.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are glossy mid to deep green
The abundant, mid-blue to violet-blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1.3 inches in length, are borne in large clusters during mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, light, well drained soil. Very easy to grow and tolerant of shade.

* historical archive photo


'Alba'
White flowers, otherwise identical to species.

'Aurea'
A stunning groundcover with golden-yellow foliage contrasting with the blue flowers.

'Birch Hybrid'
Strong growing but more compact and tidy than the species, reaching a maximum size of only 9 x 32 inches. It is considered to be a hybrid with Campanula poscharskyana.
The very abundant, nodding, bright blue flowers are borne over a long season from early summer to early autumn. It is not invasive and makes an excellent plant for the rock garden.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on May 5 2017 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on May 8 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Lieselotte'
Lavender-blue flowers borne during late spring.

'Resholt Variety'
Fast growing, dense and creeping in habit, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet, with abundant, large, blue flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, borne on panicles all summer long.
The foliage is glossy deep green.

Campanula poscharskyana ( Serbian Bellflower )
An extremely fast growing ( to 4 feet wide in 3 years ), dense, rhizomatous, mat-forming, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.2 x 4 feet, that is native to Croatia. Too rampant for some gardeners likings, it really is an excellent groundcover for larger areas such as very dry banks, large rock gardens or trailing over walls. It also looks good in large containers where it can trail over the edge. A great companion plant for Oriental Poppies.
The toothed, rounded, kindey-shaped leaves, up to 3.6 inches in length, are mid-green
The very abundant, lavender-blue, starry flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne on long sprays all summer long. In climates with long hot humid summers, it will bloom late spring into early summer then if cut back right after - it will rebloom during autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 ( tolerates -40 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Heat and drought tolerant.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Blue Waterfall'
Similar in habit, with abundant deep blue ( centered white ) blooms.

* photos taken on June 5 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on May 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 23 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 28 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 10 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 19 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Constellation'
Clump forming and less invasive, with broad, open, lavender-blue flowers.

'E.H. Frost'
White ( with pale blue eye ) flowers borne over a long season, otherwise similar to species.

'Stella'
Violet-blue flowers, otherwise similar to species.

Campanula pulla
A rhizome spreading, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 15 inches.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to inches in length, are green
The purple, nodding flowers, up to 0.8 inch in length, are borne solitary during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade on alkaline, well drained soil. It tends to quickly loose its vigor after a few years if not lifted and divided ( your neighbors will always enjoy the extra plants ).

Campanula x pulloides
A rhizome spreading, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 9 x 15 inches, that is the hybrid between Campanula carpatica & C. pulla.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are hairy and green
The slightly nodding, bluish-purple flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade.

Campanula punctata ( Spotted Bellflower )
A very fast rhizome-spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2.5+ feet, that is native to eastern Asia ( Siberia to Korea and Japan ). Exotic and interesting in appearance but may be invasive on some sites.
The oval leaves, up to 5.3 inches in length, are green
The pendulous, creamy-white flushed pink, tubular flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne from the leaf axils during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on moist, sandy or humus-rich soil.

* historic archive photo


'Bowl of Cherries'
Reaches a maximum size of 20 inches x 2.5 feet often bearing hundreds of deep red, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches long, during early summer then repeating later in the summer. 'Cherry Bells' is very similar to 'Bowl of Cherries' but with even larger flowers, up to 2.5 inches in length.

'Pantaloons'
Reaches a maximum size of 28 inches x 2.5 feet, with light purple, hose in hose flowers borne in pendulous clusters during early summer.

'Pink Chimes'
A dwarf, compact form, reaching up to 1.4 x 2 feet, with profuse, mid-pink flowers.
Drought tolerant.

'Plum Wine'
Huge light pink flowers contrast with silvery-blue foliage that turns to purplish-red in winter.

'Rubriflora'
Similar except for purplish-red flowers.

'Van Houttei'
Reaches a maximum height of only 2 feet, with oval mid-green leaves and purplish-lilac flowers, up to 3.2 inches in length, borne on wiry stems all summer long.

'Vienna Festival'
A cultivar of subsp rubrifolia, reaching up to 32 inches x 2.5 + feet in size.
The red-purple, tubular flowers, up to 2 inches long, are borne late spring into early summer, often repeating into late summer

'Viking'
Sturdy and vigorous, but compact and not invasive ( does not spread by rhizomes ), reaching up to 1.5 x 2 feet in 2 years. It is excellent for use in mass plantings. This cultivar originated from Arie Bloom of the Netherlands.
The serrated leaves are deep green.
The sterile, tubular flowers, up to 2.5 inches in length, are lavender-purple. The flowers are borne continuously from late May through most of July. They are loved by hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Campanula 'Purple Sensation'
An improved version of the hybrid 'Kent Belle', reaching up to 3.3 x 2.5 feet in size.
The broadly-elliptical, deep green leaves, up to 2.5 x 1.3 inches in size, are borne on very deep purple stems.
The abundant, deep purple flowers, up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. It is heat tolerant, thriving in Midwestern and eastern North America.

Campanula raddeana
A rhizome spreading, tufted, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 2 feet, that is native to western Asia.
The narrowish, toothed, heart-shaped leaves are glossy deep-green
The deep violet-blue, nodding flowers, up to 0.8 inches in length, are borne on sprays atop upright stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on alkaline soil ( likes lime ). Plants are most vigorous when divided regularly.

Campanula raineri
A dwarf, tufted, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 15 inches, that is native to
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are gray-green
The intense mid-blue flowers, up to 1.6 inches, are borne solitarily during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on alkaline soil ( likes lime ).

Campanula rapunculoides ( Creeping Bellflower )
A fast growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4 feet ( rarely over 2 feet ), that is native to Eurasia. Very beautiful but often self-seeds and may become invasive. It has naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Tobermory and Haliburton, Ontario.
The nettle-like, cordate-ovate leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches in length, are blue-green
The nodding, violet, starry, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1.2 inches in length, are borne on graceful stems over a very long period during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Extremely cold tolerant; it thrives at least as far north as Winnipeg, Manitoba and Red Deer in Alberta.

Campanula rhomboidalis
A taprooted perennial, reaching a maximum size of 28 inches x 1 foot, that is native to high mountains in central Europe.
The ovate leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are green
The bluish-purple flowers, up to 1 inches in length, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Campanula rotundifolia 'Olympica' ( Bluebell of Scotland )
A fast growing to very invasive, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 ( usually much lower ) feet, that is native to Europe and North America ( from the Arctic Circle; south to mountains of Mexico to Missouri to New Jersey ). The plants are rhizome spreading and reach 1 foot x 8 inches during the first year. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was uncommon along the cliffs in far southern Essex County as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is usually found in dry open woods and prairies in the wild.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 4 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in length, are green
The abundant, nodding, intensely sky-blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1.3 inches in length, are borne in airy masses from early summer into early autumn. This cultivar is almost identical to Campanula rotundifolia but has larger flowers. Another cultivar 'Alba' is similar but with white flowers.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on alkaline, fertile, well drained soil. It loves lime and prefers climates with cool summers.

* photo of improved cultivar 'Thumbell Blue' taken by Milan Havlis in the Czech Republic

* historical archive photo


Campanula 'Samantha'
A low spreading perennial, reaching up to 1 foot x 20 inches, with abundant, intense violet-blue flowers, up to an 1.3 inches across, that are borne during late spring to early summer. If deadheaded or lightly sheared after the first flush of blooms, it will sporadically bloom later in the summer. It is an excellent choice for the rock garden or the front of a border.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


Campanula 'Sarastro'
A fast growing, clumping perennial, reaching up to 28 inches x 3 feet, bearing abundant, violet-blue flowers, up to 2.5 inches in length. They are borne over 3 or more months from late spring to late summer. It is the hybrid between Campanula punctata & C. trachelium. It is an improvement over the original hybrid Campanula 'Kent Belle'.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any light, well drained soil. It is generally resistant to deer and rabbits. It is very heat tolerant.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Campanula sarmatica
A beautiful, taprooted, long-lived, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 1.5 feet, that is native to the Caucasus in western Asia.
The hairy, gray-green leaves, up to 5 ( typically 3 ) inches in length, are gray-green
The showy, downy, pale blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 x 1.6 inches in size, are borne during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Campanula seraglio
A low, tufted perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 12 inches, that is native to northeast Anatolia in Turkey. It is critically endangered in the wild and survives in only one location.
The sharply-toothed, elliptical leaves are deep green.
The large, bell-shaped flowers are pure white.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est ).

Campanula x stansfieldii
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1 foot, that a hybrid of unknown parentage.
The lance-shaped leaves are bright green
The slightly nodding, violet flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne in sprays during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Campanula takesimana ( Korean Bellflower )
A rapid spreading to invasive, clumping perennial that spreads by underground runners, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4+ feet, that is native to Korea.
The attractive, toothed, heart-shaped, semi-evergreen leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are glossy mid-green
The large, creamy-white ( streaked deep red ), hanging, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches long, are borne during late spring then often sporadically all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, moist, well drained soil. Very easy to grow and even tolerates dry shade.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Beautiful Trust'
A fast spreading, low growing form, reaching a maximum size of only 2 x 4+ feet, with pure white flowers.

'Elizabeth'
A rapid spreading to invasive perennial that spreads by underground runners, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 2.5 feet. The individual stems are sturdy upright.
The large, deep red, tubular flowers, up to 3 inches in length, are borne during mid summer to early autumn.

Campanula thyrsoides
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 1 feet, that is native to
The narrow, bristly leaves are green
The fragrant, yellow flowers are borne in thick spikes during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. Easy to grow but is typically short-lived and dies after flowering.

Campanula trachelium ( Nettle Leaved Bellflower )
A spreading, woody-based perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to Eurasia ( England to western Siberia; south to North Africa to Turkey & northern Iran ). It has naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Wiarton, Ontario.
The sharply-toothed, ovate, nettle-like leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are green
The bluish-purple flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is drought and dry shade tolerant.

'Albo Plena'
Double white flowers.

'Bernice'
A vigorous, strong growing, upright clone, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3 ( rarely over 3 x 2 ) feet, with abundant, double, deep bluish-purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide.
Drought tolerant.

Campanula 'Viking'
A perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 2 feet in 2 years, eventually up to 3 feet across. It is not rhizomatous and the flowers are sterile, therefore it is not invasive despite being similar to C. punctata in appearance.
The foliage is deep green.
The abundant, lavender, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne over a 1.5 month period from late spring into early summer, usually repeating sporadically to mid-autumn if deadheaded. They attract butterflies and hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( reports of 3 ) in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, well drained soil.

Campanula 'Wedding Bells'
A fast growing, upright and spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 26 x 26 inches. It is a hybrid including Campanula punctata in its parentage.
The leaves resemble that of its parent Campanula punctata.
The hose in hose double, white ( or sometimes bicolored pink ) flowers, up to 1.7 inches long, are borne early summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

* photos taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


Campanula zoysii
A low perennial form a tufted clump, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 9 inches.
The obovate leaves, up to inches in length, are green
The bright blue, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne from mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is typically planted in rock crevices in the gritty, limy, very well drained soil if prefers.

Adenophora ( Ladybells )
A genus of long lived perennials that are closely related to the Campanula and also very similar except for the deep fleshy roots that resent disturbance ( including dividing ). Propagation is from seed, dividing while dormant or cuttings.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Adenophora bullyana
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 feet, that is native to western China.
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves are green
The nodding, intense-blue, funnel-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches in length, are borne during mid summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Heat tolerant.

Adenophora confusa ( Farrer's Ladybells )
A perennial, reaching up to 2.5 feet in height.
The nodding, deep blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne on racemes lasting for a month during late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun on deep, fertile, well drained soil.

Adenophora lamarckii
A deep taprooted ( root up to 1 inch thick ) perennial, reaching up to 3.3 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet in height, that is native to deciduous forests in mountains of southern Siberia.
The toothed ovate leaves are up to 2.8 x 1.2 inches in size.
The intense blue, funnel-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne early summer over a 1 month period.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Adenophora lilifolia
A rapid spreading to invasive but very attractive perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, that is native from Europe to Japan.
The toothed, heart-shaped, basal leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are green
The fragrant, nodding, bright-blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches in length, are borne branched upright spikes over a long season during mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil. Heat tolerant.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Adenophora tashiroi
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 1 feet, that is native to
The toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to inches in length, are green
The nodding, violet-blue, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches in length, are borne solitary or in racemes during mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Heat tolerant.

Adenophora tricuspidata
A perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3.3 ) feet, that is native from eastern Siberia to Kamchatka; south to northeastern China.
The narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 3.3 x 0.8 inches in size.
The intense blue to purplish-blue, nooding flowers, up to 0.8 inches in length, are borne on branched flowering stalks.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

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