Thursday, February 4, 2010

Oaks in the Landscape - Revised

The most important forest tree in the U.S. and also my favorite tree; the Oaks are also incredibly useful in the landscape and come in many forms and sizes. There is an Oak for the landscape for every part of the U.S. except Alaska. Many Oaks are both fast growing and an investment that will last for many centuries. The wood is also extremely valuable for furniture and paneling. Never use insecticides, fungicides or bactericides near an Oak. Root disturbance such as regrading or ditch digging can kill. 1 inch of fill during regrading can kill an Oak by suffocating the roots. Drip irrigation is not recommended. Water more than once a week can cause chlorosis or kill. Roundup on weeds surrounding an Oak is ok. Evergreen Oaks can be fertilized somewhat heavily in March and June to push growth.
The fact that Oaks like to be left alone may also be one of the highest qualities. They withstand drought and bad soil better than almost any other tree and on good sites can be very fast growing and extremely long lived. They add permanence to the landscape.
Prune while dormant. Some early pruning may be needed to establish a strong trunk.







Here are a few of the many types of Oaks that make awesome landscape plants

Oak, Algerian ( Quercus canariensis ) - From north Africa, s. Portugal and Spain this fast growing Oak eventually grows huge. It can reach 13 feet in 5 years; 50 feet tall and 27 feet wide in 20 years; 75 feet in 30 years and add up to 5 feet in a single year! Trunks up to 3.6 feet wide may only be 100 years old. The largest trees on record are up to 135 feet tall, 70 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 6.5 feet across. The Algerian Oak can live up to 300 years. It is both heat and drought tolorant and succeeds equally well on both heavy clay and shallow limey or chalk soil. The dark gray bark is deeply fissured into square rough plates. The leaves are large ( up to 8 x 5 inches ) and are oval, shallowly lobed, dark shiny green above and whitish below. The leaves are often green until Christmas then turn yellow-brown and often last even until Febuary. The flowers in May are drooping yellow-green catkins.
It is hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolorates to - 4 F ) eliminating its use in the north east and Midwestern U.S. Great in the South!

Oak, Aleppo ( Quercus infectoria )
Native to Greece and Turkey; this is a semi-evergreen small tree growing to 33 feet tall; 20 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The oblong leaves are blue-green, spiny toothed and smooth. The bark is gray, scaly and deeply fissured.
Hardy from zone 6 to 10. Extremely heat tolorant.
subsp. veneris - basically the same "on steroids". From Asia Minor; it has larger leaves to 5 x 3 inches. Reaching up to 50 feet; the largest trees known reach up to
66 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameter of 7 feet! Not native to England but adaptable and is known to reach 60 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter. Not much known on growth rate and it should be tested in the U.S.

Oak, Arizona ( Quercus arizonica )
Native to the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico south into central Mexico; this tough Oak becomes a large tree on good sites reaching up to 50 feet though a few much larger trees occur such as in Tonto National Forest in Arizona. The largest trees ever recorded reach up to 100 x 80 feet and 7 feet in trunk diameter. The canopy is rounded and the bark is plated.
The semi-evergreen foliage is broadly oval to 4 x 2 inches with smooth or spiny tipped margins. The acorns are medium size up to an inch and mature in one season.
Hardy north to zone 6

Oak, Arkansas ( Quercus arkansana ) - An excellent exceptionally drought, heat as well as clay tolorant Oak native from Arkansas, n Alabama and into central Georgia. It is rare however should be much more widely used. It can grow large ( to 100 feet tall and 105 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 4 feet ) and has very dark fissured bark. The leaves grow to 6 x 4 inches and are shaped like the Water Oak being smooth edged to shallowly lobed. The new leaves are very pale above, red-brown below and are covered with fine hairs becoming dark green as they mature. It is hardy north into the Mid-Atlantic & Midwest ( zones 5 to 9 ) and has already reached sizes over 55 feet in England. - 22 F is the limit of this trees hardiness

Oak, Armenian ( Quercus pontica )
From Armenia and the Caucasus; this is a rare handsome slow growing small tree to 17 feet in 20 years and rarely reaching 33 feet tall; 15 feet across with a trunk diameter of 2 feet at maturity. The most growth recorded in a single year is 1.5 feet. The large, leathery, oval, semi-evergreen leaves are strikingly beautiful and are strongly ribbed and toothed. They reach up to 14 x 6 inches and are light green in spring turning shiny dark green above with a yellow leafstalk and midrib. In fall the foliage which in summer is blue-green below turns intense burgundy.
The purple-brown thin scaly bark becomes rugged with age.
Hardy from zone 5 to 9; it is hardy even in the Ukraine. Recommended for use in eastern U.S. and Canada.

Oak, Armenian ( Quercus hartwessiana )
Native to central and western Asia; this is a large tree with foliage that looks like the Swamp White Oak of North America. It can reach up to 12o feet in height at most and the dark green shiny foliage can reach up to 8 x 4 inches. Very fast growing; very flood tolerant and also tolerant of shade. Hardy north to zone 4.

Oak, Aucheri ( Quercus aucheri ) - an evergreen oak excellent for warm dry climates. Native to sw. Turkey and Greece; it is hardy from zone 8 and south and grows only to 33 feet tall making it an excellent patio tree. The 1.5 inch evergreen foliage is oblong, dark green above & white below.

Oak. Banj ( Quercus leucotrichophora ) - reportedly hardy from zone 6 to 9 this is a massive evergreen Oak native to the Himalayas from Afghanistan to ne. Pakistan & Nepal. It grows to 100 feet tall and 65 feet wide with trunk diameters known to 10 feet across. Very rare in the U.S. but holds excellent potential as a street and shade tree. Its evergreen leaves grow to 8 x 3 inches and are attractive & leathery, green above and white below. They look like those of the native Chinkapin Oak in shape. The bark is smooth and light tan brown becoming lightly furrowed.

Oak, Bear ( Quercus ilicifolia )
From the northeast U.S.; this is a spreading rounded deciduous small tree to 20 feet or very rarely 50 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.3 feet. One of the largest grows in Romney, West Virginia.
It is known to regrow after fire and is often scrubby in rocky mountainous areas. The oval leaves up to 6 x 3.5 inches are oval, deeply 3 - 7 ( usually 5 ) wide lobed. They are pinkish at first in spring turning green above and felted white below and persist until early winter. Fall foliage is red. The Bear Oak grows well in fertile well drained soil in sun or part shade and is hardy from zone 3 to 7. Moderate growing or rarely fast growing with a record of 3 feet in a year. The branches are slender and the bark is gray-brown. The Bear Oak unlike most Oaks can sucker. A 200 year old clone in France planted from an acorn now covers several acres.

Oak, Black ( Quercus velutina )

Native to central & eastern U.S. and Ontario, Canada; this is a large deciduous Oak with a massive domed crown with slightly ascending branches. Rapid growing and often reaching over 100 feet; the largest on record have reached up to 200 feet in height; 90 feet in width with trunk diameter up to 11 feet. Some extremely large trees grow in Algonac, Michigan and E. Granby, Connecticutt. It can live up to 300 years. Usually moderate growing; anything close to the 8 foot increase in a single year record is an extreme rarity.
The large leaves are hard, deeply but irregularly bristle-tip lobed, drooping, glossy dark green above and paler downy below. They are usually around 8 inches ( but are known to reach up to 16 x 10 inches in 'Albertii' ). They turn red in the fall. The young shoots and buds are downy. The flowers grow in yellow-green catkins up to 6 inches in spring and are followed in fall by small acorns up to 1 inch. The dark gray bark is smooth when young becoming deeply fissured into small squares.
The Black Oak is salt, high heat and drought tolorant but is difficult to transplant with its deep taproot. If it can be established on site; it is an excellent large shade and street tree. Grows best on deep, acid, well drained sandy soil. It hates compaction and alkaline soil where the foliage will turn yellow from chlorosis. Hardy from zone 3 to 9.


Oak, Blackjack ( Quercus marilandica )

Native to Mid Atlantic and southeast U.S.; this deciduous Oak grows to 100 feet tall; 80 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 4.5 feet. The upside down triangular broad glossy leaves are with 3 lobes near the tips, and reach up to 12 x 12 inches though usually half that. The thick leaves are shiny dark green above and rusty hairy below often turning bright red very late fall. The acorns are oval and up to 0.7 inches. The bark is thick and dark gray cracking into small square plates. Very drought tolorant and hardy from zone 3 to 9. Grows best on sandy acid soils and very drought, heat and salt tolorant. Long lived up to 430 years. Usually moderate growing; the record single year growth is 5 feet. Difficult to transplant due to deep taproot.

Oak, Blue ( Quercus douglasii )

A large California native that is not prone to Sudden Oak Death ( however there are conflicting reports saying it is prone though less than Tanoak and other "Red Oaks" )
. It is very drought tolerant growing without irrigation once established in regions with 12 to 32 inches of rainfall per year and with soil PH from 4.5 to 7.5. On ideal sites this Oak grows large with a rounded crown to 80 feet and the largest records is 120 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. One huge tree grows in s. Alemeda County in California.
Both very drought tolerant and long lived ( up to 500 years ); this Oak makes an excellent urban street tree in the West. It should be planted more especially because unfortunately destruction of its natural habitat has made it endangered in the wild.
The oblong foliage is deciduous and up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The leaves have either smooth margins or 4 to 5 somewhat shallow lobes. They are blue-green in summer and turn an unusual pinkish color in the fall. It is the waxy coating that gives the leaves its bluish cast that also blocks evaporation and helps these trees withstand the long dry summers of Californias Mediterranean climate.
Also with Oaks of the southwest U.S.; vessels that conduct water in stems and roots much be able to withstand unusually great internal tensions
As summer drought progresses, newly formed oak vessels become progressively thicker, harder and more compact, decreasing the likelihood of collapse as
roots withdraw the last droplets of soil-bound moisture.
If water finally becomes too scarce, blue oaks simply drop their leaves, a condition
known as drought deciduous. They will then leaf out the following spring after soaking up winter rains.
Unlike most Red Oaks; the acorns of this tree are tasty and sweet and mature in one season.
The bark is gray-brown and scaly. Hardy north to zone 6 though there are unverified reports of 5. It is not known to grow in humid summer climates of the eastern U.S. and as far as I know I'm not even sure it has been tried.

* excellent photo of Blue Oak that is posted on Wikipedia



Oak, Bluejack ( Quercus incana )

Similar to Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak in appearance; this Oak is native further south and is smaller in size. Native from Texas to Virginia and south; this Oak is fast growing and can reach up to 41 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 8 inches in 26 years. A medium size tree; the largest on record is 80 feet in height; 65 feet in width with trunk diameter of 4 feet. Very old trees can somewhat resemble the true Olive in its gnarled appearance. The leaves are elliptical, up to 6 x 2 inches, very glossy blue-green above & woolly white below. They turn a brilliant flaming orange-red in late fall lasting into December. The new foliage in spring is pinkish in color. In mild climates this tree is semi-evergreen. Bark is red-brown and broken into small blocks. Small yellow flower catkins in spring become small acorns to 0.5 inches in the fall.
A real cool patio tree; it is very drought tolorant and hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( reports of 5 & 10 ). Needs acid soil and grows wild though often stunded in dry pine barrens.

Oak, Bluff ( Quercus austrina ) - A large Oak growing to 120 feet tall and 100 feet wide with a trunk diameter to 5.3 feet with a straight habit and a spreading canopy. Its leaves grow to 8 inches long and 5 inches wide, are reddish in spring turning to dark green in summer, then orange to bronze in late fall and early winter. It is related to the White Oak and has whitish bark. A rare native to the southern U.S. - it makes an excellent very drought and urban tolorant shade tree. Also flood tolorant. Fast growing to 3 feet in a year. Hardy zones 4 to 9.

Oak, Boynton's Post ( Quercus boyntonii )

A miniature White Oak that is extremely drought tolorant as well as of both acid and alkaline soil. It is hardy from zone 4 to 8

Oak, Brandtii ( Quercus brandtii ) - found from Kurdistan to sw. Iran, this is a small semi-evergreen drought tolorant Oak with a round crown that grows to 40 feet tall and wide with a trunk diameter to 32 inches. The leaves grow to 6 x 4 inches with short pointed teeth and are downy below. Hardy from zone 7 to 10

Oak, Bur ( Quercus macrocarpa )

Native from Manitoba to Nova Scotia & south to Texas to Virginia; this is among the hardiest of all hardwood trees. It is a large deciduous tree with spreading branches and a massive trunk. Slow to moderate growing; it can be faster with good care. Known to reach 17 x 11 feet in 6 years ( usually half ), 50 x 60 feet in 40 years and 67 x 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet in 85 years. The canopy casts dense shade.
It can easily reach 100 feet on good sites and some have reached as large as 170 feet tall and 80 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 9 feet. The Bur Oak can live up to 600 years and there are even unconfirmed reports of trees as large as 240 feet in height and trunk diameters reaching 17 feet in the original old growth hardwood forests that covered the Ohio Valley before 1800. Some extremely large Ontario, Canada trees include 100 feet tall and 7 foot trunk diameter at Burford, Ontario; and 107 feet tall and 6.3 feet in diameter at Wallaceburg.
The leaves are oval and conspicuously lobed, to 8 inches or very rarely 12 x 7 inches. Leave leaves when young in addition to young shoots are covered in pale down.
They are glossy green and smooth above, paler and hairy below and usually turn yellow in fall. Acorns are large and some Bur Oak have been known to produce
500 pounds of them.
The light brown to gray brown bark is deeply furrowed.
Salt, urban, very drought, extreme heat and storm tolorant. The Bur Oak however needs room to grow; its deep wide roots need deeper soil or it will be stunted
There is a 40 foot healthy tree on Muskrat Street in Banff, Alberta where the growing season is only 70 days. Grows well in other parts of Alberta where chinook winds are common also. It is also a fire-resistant tree, and is very drought resistant due to its long taproot that also makes it difficult to transplant. New trees may, after 2 to 3 years of growth, possess a taproot 3 to 6.5 feet deep.
It has been planted successfully as far north as Anchorage, Alaska.
Hardy from zone 2 to 8.

'Bebb' a hybrid between the Bur Oak & Quercus alba White Oak that grows equally huge. It is both vigorous ( average 2 feet per year ) and very soil tolorant and hardy north to zone 4 ( - 30 F ). The leaves look like Quercus alba but are larger to 12 inches with 5 lobes on each side and downy below
'Boomer' fast growing
'Kreider' originating in Illinois; it has huge acorns that are often produced in only 8 years. The acorns are double the average size of most Bur Oak in Michigan.
Fast growing; averaging 18 feet in 8 years
'Maximus' BUR OAK ON STEROIDS!!!
Hardy at least to -20F with no damage ( lower temperatures are not known to have occured on any testing plots ) and has huge acorns ( 4 acorns to a pound ). The leaves are HUGE from 12 to 18 inches in length and stay green late in the fall!
FAST GROWING! Trees reported to reach 6 feet in 2 years!!! Sold by Oikos Tree Crops. Highly recommended!!! Trees have thick corky branches that are attractive in winter in a rugged kinda way
* photo from family photo album - April 1973


Oak, Bur-English ( Quercus macrocarpa x robur ) Another fast growing and cold hardy hybrid Oak EXCELLENT FOR MIDWEST & GREAT PLAINS!!! Very soil ( including clay ) tolorant and fast growing; 4 feet in a year can be expected. The leaves are glossy, dark green and do not get powdery mildew. It is east to transplant and can grow to 50 feet or more in height and 50 feet in width in 20 years; pyramidal when young developing into an open large crown. It maintains its central leader. Bears acorns in 6 years and has a heavy annual acorn crop. Great for wildlife! Hardy north zone 4 and is great in the Midwest and Plains tolorating as cold as -35F. Also known as the McDaniels Oak. Appearently can breed true from seed.

Oak, Burgambel ( Quercus macrocarpa x gambelii ) A hybrid between the Bur Oak and an extremely drought tolorant Oak from the Rocky Mountains - this is a very cold tolorant, vigorous fast growing Oak. It grows around 2 feet a year and to 20 x 14 feet in 10 years. hardy north to zone 5a and retains its leaves very late in the fall. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR MIDWEST & GREAT PLAINS!!!

Oak, Burlive — Quercus macrocarpa x turbinella
Tolorant of extreme heat, drought and cold!
This strain has been used in parts of Nebraska were few trees can grow. Burlive oak can tolerate both heat and drought and grow in unforgiving soils. Ecos Burlive was selected from the Marquez crosses which tend to be closer to bur oak however with the extremely deep root system of Quercus turbinella. Parent tree is highly productive. Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan also has a large planting of Burlive from the Cottam Hybrids as well and those tend to be more like shrub live oak. Each is a single trunk trees.

Oak, California Black ( Quercus kelloggii )

Very easy to grow and one of the worlds prettiest trees; this Oak is native to central Oregon to southern California. It is a fast growing large deciduous tree reaching up to 20 feet in 6 years and often exceeding 100 feet at maturity. The largest on record is 130 x 115 feet and width and 10 feet in trunk diameter. One almost that large currently grows in Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon.
The California Black Oak can be very long lived up to 500 years.
The leaves are 7 to 9 deeply lobed and bristle toothed; shiny dark-green above and paler hairy below. They reach up to 12 x 7 inches and are pinkish to crimson at first in the spring and turn yellow to orange in the fall. The thick bark is deeply furrowed and divided into wide ridges. The inch long acorns were once a staple food of the California native Indians. Hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( reports of 5 ), very summer drought tolerant and grows in climates with between 28 & 65 inches of rain in a normal year ( not naturally found in desert zones of the west ). Grows in sun or part shade but does not like alkaline soils above 7.5.

Oak, Cambridge ( Quercus warburgii )

A rare large tree to 80 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 3 feet in 80 years.
70 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet has been recorded in 50 years. Mature size is unknown but ubviously large.
The original tree of this hybrid grows at the University Botanic Gardens in Cambridge, England. The large egg oval shallowly lobed leaves reach up to 5 x 3 inches. They are similar to Quercus robur English Oak in appearance but are longer stalked and semi-evergreen. The Cambridge Oak leafs out early in spring and is heat tolorant. Hardy from zone 3 to 9

Oak, Canbyi ( Quercus canbyi ) - hardy from zone 7 to 9 this is a very tough evergreen Oak that is tolorant of both poor clay soil and drought. It has long narrow glossy green leaves. It grows in good form to 20 feet tall and 14 feet wide and fast increasing in height by up to 6 feet in a year when young.

Oak, Canyon Live ( Quercus chrysolepis )
Native to areas with 32 to 80 inches of yearly rainfall from Oregon to Mexico; this tree is very variable depending on growing conditions. On good sites it becomes moderately fast growing ( record 3.5 feet in a year ) and can reach 30 feet in 20 years and eventually 100 feet or more. The largest ones on record are truly huge reaching as large as 200 feet tall; 150 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 12 feet. Trees are known to increase in trunk diameter by as much as 1 inch per year so that many extremely large older trees are actually younger than they appear; though it is also long lived to 350 years. When mature the large horizontal branches form a massive spreading crown. The oval spine toothed leaves reach up to 4 x 2.5 inches. They are leathery and shiny and can last up to 4 years. The thick bark is gray-brown tinged with red. Though not thoroughly tested; it appearently grows well in the eastern U.S. and Europe possibly even to zone 5. For now it is considered to be reliably hardy from zone 7 to 10 tolerating to -11 F. The Canyon Live Oak makes an excellent dense canopy urban street tree. Tolerant of sun or part shade.

Oak, Chapman ( Quercus chapmanii )

A small to medium size Oak growing to 25 feet though sometimes much larger with 100 x 50 feet with trunk diameters of 4 feet having been recorded. It has oblong leathery leaves, that are dark green above and silvery below; the margins are smooth to undulating. The leaves reach up to 5 x 2 inches though usually half that; and semi-evergreen to evergreen south of zone 7b. The bark is dark gray and platey and the acorns are small to 0.8 inches. It is native to sandy areas of s Alabama, Georgia, SC & Florida and is hardy from zone 6 to 10. It is alkaline tolorant and suprisingly hardy far outside its native range. The Chapman Oak makes an excellent hedge.

Oak, Chestnut ( Quercus prinus ) A huge exceptionally drought tolorant deciduous Oak native to Eastern North America - the Chestnut Oak can reach truly massive dimensions of up to 145 feet tall and 95 feet wide. Some such trees in the original old growth Eastern hardwood forest reached trunk diameters up to 9 feet though most trees were much smaller as the hardy Chestnut Oak often grew on some of the harshest of sites where few other trees would grow.
Generally the Chestnut Oak grows with a striaght trunk that splits off into a dome made of large spreading branches. The large oblong leaves grow to 12 x 5 inches at most and are shiny dark green above and paler below. They often turn an attractive orange-red in fall and remain late on the trees.
The bark is gray and deeply fissured and is often an ornamental feature in itself. An important source of timber and tannin - the Chestnut Oak is a fast growing tree once fully established. Though it only reaches 10 inches in its first year while establishing a deep taproot; this tree will soon speed up and is known to grow as tall as 25 feet in 7 years and 40 feet in 20 years. It is known to live almost to 430 years in age. Not well known in Europe where the similar Quercus castaneifolia grows however on in England reaches 66 feet in height

* August 2009 Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania



Oak, Chestnut Leaved ( Quercus castaneifolia ) - Native to the Caucasus, Iran & Algeria this temperate climate Oak grows huge! Very fast growing and vigorous, it often grows up to 4 feet in a single year ( Oikos Tree Crops ECOS strain ) and also rapidly grow a massive trunk ( trunk diameters reported: 5 inches in 4 years, 9 inches in 13 years, 38 inches in 60 years, 6.9 feet in 100 years ). Record sized trees approach 170 feet tall, 130 feet wide and up to 12 feet in trunk diameter. Beautifully striking in appearance this tree grows a massive dome shaped crown on top of a smooth gray trunk that eventually becomes brown with short ridges separated by orange fissures. The very thick, shiny dark green leaves grow to 8 x 6 inches, are tapered at both ends and have coarse sharply pointed teeth. They are blue-gray and downy below. The flowers in April and May are yellow-green in 4 inch drooping catkins. This drought tolerant Oak should be much more widely used in the landscape from zone 5 to 9 ( tol -20F ) The variety 'Greenspire' is broadly columnar and very fast growing. One cultivar 'Schuettes' may be a hybrid with Bur Oak ( Quercus macrocarpa ). Seedlings grow up to 3 times the average rate and it is hardy to - 30 F ( zone 4 ). Yearly height increase averages 4 feet on this 'steroidal hybrid' when young

Oak, Chinese Cork ( Quercus variabilis ) - Rarely grown in the U.S. this may actually be a more superior tree in comparison to the more commonly planted Sawtooth Oak ( Quercus acutissima ). Native of China, Korea and Japan, it is well adapted and actually requires the hot humid summers of the Mid Atlantic Region. Growing very large and heavy set at maturity ( to 100x 80 feet with trunk diameter to 5.5 feet ) it is also fast growing to 4 feet per year. Trees have already grows to 80 feet tall im Maryland & Pennsylvania and 3 feet in diameter in hartford, CT. The Chinese Cork Oak can live up to 400 years and the pink grey, thick, corky, deeply fissured bark on older trees is truly spectacular. They are hardy from zone 4 ( -30F ) to zone 9.
The foliage is also very attractive; the oblong toothed 8.5x4" leaves being shiny dark green in summer and staying green very late into the fall.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum



Oak, Chinese Evergreen ( Quercus myrsinifolia ) - A beautiful evergreen Oak that is native from the Himalayas to China & Japan. Not carried by any nurseries in the Mid Atlantic region and that is everyones loss. It can be a fast growing tree to 3 feet a year ( record being 6 feet in a year ) and can top out at 82 x 67 feet with a trunk diameter up to 3.2 feet. It can be grown from zones 7-9, can tolerate temperatures down to -12F and is clay and very heat tolorant making it a perfect tree for the southeast U.S. It's beautiful leathery, elliptic foliage is shiny deep purple-red in the spring turning glossy dark green above, and blue-green below, smooth on both sides. The foliage does not loose it's lush green color in the winter and is up to 7 x 3 inches in size. It's attractive bark is gray and very smooth becoming rough and fissured.
This tree grows best in a spot protected from wind and on deep rich acid soil.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Chinese White ( Quercus liotungensis ) - Similar to the White and Mongolian Oak this tree is moderately fast growing and can reach up to 82 feet tall with a dense and full crown. The leaves hang on late into the fall and very often remain dried on the trees for most of the winter. An EXCELLENT OAK FOR THE MIDWEST & GREAT PLAINS and should be tested and used more. It is hardy to - 35 F though it is not tolorant of wet soil. In the wild it is native from Manchuria, Mongolia and China at elevations up to 7500 feet. It is hardy anywhere from zone 4 to 8 and should be tested in zone 3 regions

Oak, Chinkapin ( Quercus muehlenbergii )

A large growing Oak native to the central U.S. and Ontario, Canada. It is fast growing ( often 3 feet per year with 5 feet being the record ) and reached truly huge sizes up to 200 feet tall, 90 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 10 feet in the old growth forest that once covered the Ohio Valley. Trees well over 100 feet tall are still somewhat common and in England where it is less vigorous due to cooler summers; one such Oak still reached 70 feet. They are also long lived up to 430 years.
The leaves are oblong, coarsely toothed and reaching up to 10 x 6 inches though usually half. They are shiny green above and paler downy below then turning orange and crimson in the fall. The acorns are small and brown up to 0.8 inches. The gray bark is fissured vertically into irregular flattish plates. Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan sells a Michigan strain with Selections were made based on trees with large glossy leaves, fast growth rate and attractive peeling, shaggy bark.
Hardy from zone 3 to 8 ( tol - 33 F ); this Oak grows well in clay and alkaline soil with PH up to 8.5. A spectacular but unfortunately rare tree that should be used alot more in the landscape. Some Chinkapin clones have even done well in El Paso, Texas.
'Texas' From one of the seedlings from a tree originally found wild in Texas sent to us by oak breeder Miguel Marquez. Purplish-red fall color. Thick glossy foliage. Better heat and alkaline tolerance compared to ECOS. Not a hybrid either and has been very productive in the acorn department here.
Hardiness -30 ° ( description from Oikos Tree Crops, Michigan )

Oak, Chisos Red ( Quercus gravesii ) - An EXTREMELY HEAT & DROUGHT TOLORANT Oak from the Chisos Mountains in Texas and N. Mexico. It is hardy much further north into zone 7 and can grow to 52 feet tall and 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter to 4.5 feet. The bark is black and roughly furrowed. Its leaves grow to 5.5 x 5 inches and are scarlet in fall. Surprisingly fast growing with good growing conditions, 10 feet tall in 4 years is possible.

Oak, Coast Live ( Quercus agrifolia )
A huge Oak native to California & Mexico. It forms a round headed, heavy set, fast growing tree. It can reach 25 feet in 10 years; 75 feet in 25 years and eventually exceed 100 feet. The largest recorded reach truly massive dimensions to 160 feet tall; 150 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. They often have huge massive branches that sweep the ground. Trees have already grown as large as 55 feet in England. The record growth rate is 4 feet and the oldest trees reach 1000 years.
The leaves are oval to round, hard textured and edged with spine tipped teeth. They are smooth and shiny dark green above, glabrous below and reach up to 4 x 1.7 inches in size. The bark is black, striped brown, becoming fissured into large squares. The Coast live Oak is tolorant of soil PH from 4.5 to 7.5. It is moisture hardy in Meditteranean areas receiving 16 to 50 inches of rain in a year and temperature hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolorating -4 F ). Difficult to transplant so it is best to plant from acorn on site; this Oak grows best on well drained sandy soils in sun or part shade.

Oak, Cork ( Quercus suber )
Native to sw Europe and north Africa; the Cork Oak is a stocky, dense, wide spreading dome shaped evergreen tree. It is a dominent tree in much of the Meditteranean Region of Europe.
It is moderate to fast growing to 13 feet in 5 years; 50 x 36 feet in 20 years; 60 feet in 25 years and can eventually reach 80 feet though some have been known to grow as large as 100 feet tall and wide with trunk diameters up to 8 feet. The fastest known single year growth increase is 4 feet.
A 74 foot tree grows in Wallingford, PA and one is known to grow in Baltimore; however much more planted in California where one reaches 74 x 100 x 6 feet in Napa. The Cork Oak is very long lived up to 500 years of age.
This tree is widely grown in plantations in Spain and Portugal. The bark harvested from these trees becomes the cork used in wine bottles. Unlike the vast majority of trees; the Cork Oak is not damaged - the bark just grows back. The leathery leaves are broad toothed, glossy dark green above and felted gray-brown below. They reach up to 3 x 2 inches or very rarely 6 x 4 inches. The yellow-green droopign flower catkins become acorns up to 1.5 inches in the fall.
The bark is tan, thick and corky with prominent ridges.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10 through careful clone selection and wind protection it's range may be extendable to zone 6b with some winter leaf drop. It is drought tolorant but grows best on deep fertile soil. It is prone to chlorosis on alkaline soil. The Cork Oak is planted in southern England.

Oak, Crassifolia ( Quercus crassifolia ) - A large deciduous Oak that is native in mountains from central Mexico to Guatemala but is hardy much further north to the Carolinas in the U.S. In fact it is very fast growing in North Carolina ( up to 18 feet in 5 years ) and can eventually reach 100 feet and is safely hardy to zone 8. The very thick, leathery, obovate leaves reach up to 7 inches long and 4.5 inches wide. Very old trees can reach 3.5 feet in trunk diameter

Oak, Crimson Spire ( Quercus alba 'Crimson Spire' ) - an upright narrow columnar Oak like the Fastigiate English Oak but this one has blue-green mildew resistant leaves that turn purple-red in the fall ( English Oak hybrids do not turn red in fall ). It is shaped like the Lombardy Poplar growing up to 13 feet tall and 4 feet wide in 5 years and 45 x 15 feet or more at maturity

Oak, Daimyo ( Quercus dentata ) - Another exotic Asian Oak that is EXCELLENT FOR ALL CENTRAL & EASTERN NORTH AMERICA! Its typical label of hardy from zone 4 to 9 may be wrong since trees have grown very well in regions as diverse as hot humid Maryland as well as Saskatoon, Canada ( zone 3 ). While they absolutely can't stand maritime climates, they grow very fast anywhere summers are hot reaching up to 4 feet in a year and 20 feet tall in 6 years. A mature tree can be up to 82 feet tall, 70 feet wide and with a trunk to 4 feet across. The Daimyo Oak is native to Japan, Korea, and China and has a rather gaunt but attractive habit in a Kentucky Coffee Tree kinda way.
The foliage looks like that of the English Oak but is HUGE!!! The foliage reaches dinner plate sizes of up to 20 x 12 inches! is purplish pink at first turning dark green and with forward pointing lobes. Most of the leaves turn brown and hang on the trees throughout the winter.
* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum



Oak, Dalechampii ( Quercus dalechampii ) - a decidious medium size drought resistant Oak native to southern Europe. It is hardy from zone 5 to 10 but needs hot summers. The leaves grow up to 5 inches long with 5 to 7 lobes on each side. It is rare and little known in the U.S.

Oak, Deer ( Quercus sadleriana ) Native to the Siskiyou Region from sw Oregon to n California; this small shrubby Oak up to 10 feet in height forms thickets. It is thought to be a relic of a much larger range before the last Ice Age. The foliage is obovate and thick, up to 5 x 3 inchhes, dark green above and white below. Hardy north to zone 6.

Oak, Downy ( Quercus pubescens )

Native to central & southern Europe; this vigorous semi-evergreen Oak can grow huge reaching sizes up to 107 feet tall; 100 feet wide and with trunk diameters up to 8 feet across. The foliage is oval with wavy margins and are deeply lobed reaching up to 8 x 4 inches in size. Foliage is gray-green above 7 downy below. The bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed into small rough plates. Zone 6 to 8 ( unknown in 5 ) and grows best in Meditteranean Regions with hot dry summers. Very drought tolorant. Most growth recorded in single year is 4 feet. Very rare in the U.S.; one such tree reportedly grows at the Library of Congress in DC

* photos of unknown source on internet








Oak, Dunn ( Quercus dunnii )
Growing to 40 feet tall and wide with trunk diameter of 2 feet on the best of sites; this Oklahoma and Texas native is very drought tolorant. The Dunn Oak survives without irrigation in regions with between 12 and 36 inches of yearly rainfall. New trees should be soaked once a week in summer for first few years transitioning to once a month. Evergreen and hardy from zone 7 and south. Prefers soil PH from 7 to 8

Oak, Durand ( Quercus durandii ) - A tough urban tolerant Oak that can grow huge to 160 feet tall and 120 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 10 feet possible put usually half that or less. Its leaves are like the Shingle Oak in shape, very dark green, lush and glossy; red in very late fall and to 10 x 4 inches. The bark is shaggy and light gray. This tree is pyramidal in shape when young becoming rounded and massive. It is flood, very lime and very drought tolorant. Very fast growing, long lived and hardy from zone 3 to 8. This Oak is rare however should be much more common in the landscape. Easy to transplant.

Oak, Durmast ( Quercus petraea )

Native to central and southeast Europe; this Oak is a massive spreading deciduous tree similar to Quercus robur but with sessile acorns and more upright branches. It is moderately fast growing to 12 feet in 5 years; 50 feet in 20 years; eventually to 100 feet. The largest on record is 170 feet tall; 100 feet in width with trunk diameter of 14 feet. The most growth recorded in a single year is 3 feet.
Though not native; trees over 80 feet already grow in the U.S. including
90 x 70 feet in Baltimore City. It can live to 1200 years
The long stalked leathery leaves are large to 7 x 5 inches. They are glossy dark green above and downy below. This Oak continues growing in the summer and the leaves stay green late in the fall. The flowers are yellow-green drooping spring catkins that are replaced in fall by acorns to an inch long.
The bark is gray and smooth for the first 20 years becomming deeply fissured and vertically ridged. This tree is an excellent choice for coastal areas. Hardy from zone 3 to 9. It has a deep taproot and is very drought and wind resistant.
The National tree of Wales. Unlike English Oak the Durmast Oak
should not be planted in flood prone areas!
'laciniata' deeply cut leaves to 6 inches long
'Longifolia' has very long 8 inch leaves
'Purpurea' dark purple leaves

Oak, Dwark Chinkapin ( Quercus prinoides )

A small Oak native to the Midwest U.S. and Ontario, Canada is an excellent patio tree. It usually grows to 20 feet in height; the largest on record is 60 feet in height, 22 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is extremely drought and clay tolorant and is often found in wild on sand dunes and dry ridges. It is moderate growing on good sites and can reach 12 feet in height in 5 years. The obovate leaves resemble the regular Chinkapin Oak but are smaller to only 6 inches long. They are shiny dark green and turn red and bronze in the fall. The bark is light brown and scaly. Hardy from zone 4 to 8 ( tol -30F ). A rare tree that should be used alot more in the landscape. Unlike most Oaks; this one produces runners. Even grows well in open windswept prairie in Nebraska.

Oak, Emory ( Quercus emoryi )
A rare native to mountains of Western Texas into central Arizona south to central Mexico; this extremely tough Oak becomes a large shade tree on better sites.
It is a handsome evergreen Live Oak that can reach 50 feet though the record is 105 x 100 feet with trunk diameter of 7 feet. The oblong, glossy green foliage can have either smooth or spiny tipped margins and reaches up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The oblong acorns are small up to 0.8 inches and mature in one season. The bark is dark brown in rectangular blocks like alligator hide.
In moist soil it can be moderate growing with growth rates up to 2 feet and should be planted much more, especially in west Texas. It is very long lived but soil should be tested before planting since it does not like very alkaline soil
The Emory Oak is also much hardier than its native range might suggest; growing from zone 7 to 10 ( does not grow in tropical climates such as Florida ) and surviving as low as -10 F

Oak, Engelmann ( Quercus engelmannii )

An evergreen Oak with a wide spreading crown that is native to southern California. It is moderate growing up to 2 feet in a year and usually reaches around 30 feet in its parched native habitat. However; on good sites it can become a large tree with some known to reach 120 feet in height; 100 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 6 feet. Very stately attractive tree with alot of character.
The foliage is oval to oblong and smooth edged reaching to 4 x 1.5 inches.
They are leathery and blue-green in color. The light gray-brown bark is thick and furrowed.
It grows without irrigation in regions with 20 to 30 inches of yearly rainfall and is hardy from zone 8 to 10 ( tolorating as low as 0 F ). Prefers well drained, sandy loam soil in sun or part shade. The Engelmann Oak is very long lived and grows well on the coast. Endangered in the wild and should be used much more in landscaping.

Oak, Engler ( Quercus engleri )
An evergreen Oak native to Hupeh region of China; it can reach up to 40 feet tall with shiny dark green leaves to 7 x 2.5 inches.

Oak, English ( Quercus robur )
Native of Europe, western Asia and extreme northern Africa; the English Oak is a long lived, large broad crowned, deciduous tree that is also fast growing. It can reach up to 20 feet in 6 years; 70 x 50 feet in 20 years ( record ) and eventually over 100 feet. Trunk diameter can increase up to 1.6 inches in a year but more often a 50 year old tree will only be 2 feet in diameter. One tree 100 x 105 feet with trunk diameter of 5 feet in Victoria, B.C. is only 74 years old and another tree has already reached 96 x 87 x 4 feet in dry Denver, Colorado. Trees already 90 feet or more also grow in Ohio & in Washington, D.C. Some truly massive trees do exist it native range and they have been known to reach up to 240 feet in height; 130 feet in diameter with extreme diameters up to 23 feet. The most an English Oak has ever been recorded growing in a single year is 4 feet; it can also live up to 1200 years.
The leaves are shallow round-tip lobed and to 6 x 3 inches; there are 3 to 6 lobes on each side. They are lighy yellow-green in spring turning smooth and dark green above & blue-green below; usually falling green in the late fall.
The late spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins that are later replaced by acorns up to 1.5 inches.
The bark is light gray, fissured into short narrow vertical plates.
Best in light, well drained soil; it can tolorate some flooding. Hardy from zone 2 to 8

supsp. 'pedunculiflora' from Greece, Turkey and the Caucasus has leaves with fewer lobed that are bluish below
'Bimundorum' a hybrid with Quercus alba White Oak that becomes a massive wide spreading tree. Easy to transplant; it is also fast growing to 40 feet tall in 25 years. Foliage looks like English Oak but is mildew resistant and turns red in fall. Hardy north to zone 3. Seedlings can produce acorns in only 6 years and a 16 year old tree can produce over 50 pounds of acorns ( Oikos Tree Crops ). Easy to transplant with fibrous roots.

'Brutia' from Yugoslavia has larger leaves up to 12 x 4 inches
'Concordia' ( Golden Oak ) yellowish leaves. Reaches 60 x 50 feet at most.
'ECOS' from Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan; this strain is not prone to mildew.
It should be planted instead of regular English Oak is humid parts of eastern U.S. where powdery mildew can be a big problem with English Oak. Mildew makes the tree less vigorous and more susceptible to insects and other more devastating diseases. This is why most English oaks have a limited life span of 20-40 years.
'Fastigiata' columnar habit up to 100 feet tall and with great age widening to 30 feet in width. 90% come true from seed.
'Nigra' ornamental deep purple foliage
'Pendula' up to 92 feet tall with vigorous drooping branches. Trunk diameter up to 6 feet. Very early leafing out in spring.
'Procera' very fast growing, often 3 times as fast as the English Oak. Pyramidal with strong central leader and upright branches. The leaves are lush and mildew resistant though they do not color well in the fall. This Oak grows extremely tall and can easily scale 100 feet with potential of 200 with extreme age. It grows true from seed and can tolorate as low as -30F
'Skymaster' Rapid growing with strong upright branching habit but not as narrow as Fastigiate English Oak. It tolorates drought, pollution and restricted root space making it an excellent urban tree
'Variegata' leaves with creamy white margins

Oak, Englishlive ( Quercus robur x turbinella )
Description from Oikos Tree Crops, Michigan
Drought-tolerant compact oak
Another Cottam hybrid for tough sites, especially drought soils. Dwarfish, somewhat pyramid shaped, ornamental hybrid with good acorn crops. Medium growth rate (12-18" per year) and develops a lot of branches on young seedlings. Best hybrid for cut-leaf foliage. Another good hedge oak or a small single tree. Height to 30 feet. Hardiness -30 °F.

Oak, Fabri ( Quercus fabri )
Native to China & Korea and hardy north to zone 5; this Oak can reach up to 82 feet in height with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet with foliage up to 7 x 4 inches.

Oak, Gambel ( Quercus gambelii )
Among the hardiest of deciduous hardwood trees; this Oak is native to the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. It is both alkaline soil and very drought tolorant. It also grows well in the moister climate of eastern North America. Unfortunately the Gambel Oak is slow growing with 15 feet in 20 years at most. The record yearly growth increase is only 2 feet. Often small and stunded in its drought prone native range; with the best of conditions this tree is capable of 110 feet in height; 85 feet in width and 8 feet in trunk diameter. The leaves have 3 to 6 lobes on each side and are finely hairy below. The acorns are small and ovoid up to 0.5 inches. Hardy from zone 3 to 6 it can tolorate as cold as -43F

Oak, Garry ( Quercus garryana )

From drier valleys of the Pacific Northwest; this Oak is of variable growth rate depending on conditions but can grow very large and stately. Known to reach as much as 9 feet in 3 years and 50 feet in 20 years; the largest trees on record reach 150 feet in height; 130 feet in width and 9 feet in trunk diameter. Average of all previous dimensions is about half. This Oak develops a spreading crown of large branches. The oval leaves are deeply cut and are shiny dark green above and paler below. They can reach up to 7 x 5 inches but are usually half that. The bark is similar to Quercus alba White Oak. Hardy from zone 5 to 9 in somewhat Meditteranean climates; it can tolorate extremes from -33F to + 116 F!
Currently endangered in Canada. Before the last ice age, Garry oaks were part of an extensive hardwood forest in British Columbia. Their range was wider during a warm, dry period after glaciation, but it has diminished in the current wet and cool climate. Its range has significantly declined even more since 1800 due to human related environmental destruction



Oak, Gemelliflora ( Quercus gemelliflora )
A huge tree resembling the Chinkapin Oak reaching up to 170 feet. The leaves are up to 7 x 3 inches are blue-green above and white below.



Oak, Georgia ( Quercus georgiana ) - If you need an extreme heat and drought tolorant Oak that doesn't grow huge - this tree is freaking awesome!!! Rare in the wild but native from central Alabama to South Carolina this rare relatively little known Bear Oak look alike grows to 75 feet tall, 65 feet wide and up to 2 feet in trunk diameter ( usually half that ) and is an almost perfect patio tree. It is very drought and heat tolorant. The foliage is shiny dark green, to 5 x 4 inches and turns to an excellent dark red in November often remaining dried on the tree through the winter. This tree is suprisingly hardy far north of its native range and can be grown anywhere from zone 4 to 9

Oak, Gilva ( Quercus gilva )

A large evergreen Oak growing to 100 feet with massive trunk up to 10 feet in diameter. The foliage is very glossy, dark green up to 7 x 1.5 inches. Bark is very shaggy. Hardy zone 9 & 10. Native to Taiwan and south China

Oak, Golden ( Quercus alnifolia )
A native of Cyprus; this is a small and slow growing Oak; rarely to 33 feet tall and 30 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 1 foot ( record being 3 feet ). It has erect branches and a shrubby crown. The most it can grow in a year is 1 foot. The rounded evergreen leaves are up to 2.5 x 2 inches ( rarely 4 x 3 inches ) and are smooth shiny dark green above, golden felted below. The acorns are long up to 1.5 inches. The bark is gray with pale orange-brown lenticels becoming very rough with age. Hardy from zone 6 to 10. It is very drought tolorant. Unlike many Oaks; this one can resprout from stumps and does so rapidly. It is among the most important native trees in Cyprus anchoring mountain slopes.

Oak, Hispanic ( Quercus x hispanica )
A natural hybrid between Quercus suber & Q. cerris; they are variable but always make excellent trees. The Hispanic Oak is fast growing up to 13 x 10 feet in
5 years; 55 feet in 20 years and eventually over 100 feet. The largest trees on record reach up to 140 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 8 feet.
The most growth increase recorded in a single year is 4 feet.
They range from late deciduous to nearly evergreen. The leaves are oblong, toothed and shiny dark green above while gray and downy below. They reach up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The flowers in spring are yellow-green catkins up to 2 inches and are followed in fall by small acorns up to an inch. The thick bark has deep fissured but is never corky like Quercus suber. Hardy from zone 6 to 9. It is sometimes found in wild in southern Europe and is a popular estate tree in England. It is very tolorant of lime soils.
'Ambrose' has evergreen very dark green leaves that are white below.
'Fulham' has drooping branches
'Lucombeana' ( Lucombe Oak ) is a tall tree resembling Quercus cerris. The leaves are long and the bark is light gray and shallowly fissured.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9.

Oak, Holm ( Quercus ilex )

also called the Holly Oak; a native of southern Europe and northern Africa; it forms a large evergreen tree. Growing to 3 feet in a year ( record is 4 feet ) it can eventually reach up to 100 feet or very rarely 130 feet tall; 120 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. A 10 year old tree can be up to 23 feet tall
and it can reach 65 feet in 25 years. Holm Oaks cast dense shade that lawns do not
thrive under. This spectacular tree is so commonly planted in England that
many people actually believe it is native.
It has a very dense massive domed crown with sharply ascending upper branches. The leaves are very glossy up to 5 x 3 inches and are very leathery dark green above; white and downy below. They can either be smooth edged or toothed like Ilex aquifolium. At first in spring the new foliage is whitish and downy.
The late spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins and are followed in the fall with small acorns to 0.7 inches.
The light gray bark is rough and shallowly cracked into small squares. The Holm Oak thrives on all soils and tolorates shade. Hardy from zone 6 to 10; it is not injured at -10F but is killed to ground at -20F however it may still resprout. It is not bothered by pests, diseases or storms and also is salt air and very lime tolorant.
'Laurifolia' only difference is narrower leaves to 6 x 2 inches

Oak, Hungarian ( Quercus frainetto )

Native to Italy, the Balkans and Hungary; this Oak grows both very fast and very large. It can grow to 13 x 10 feet in 5 years and is known to reach sizes as large as 133 feet in height; 100 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 7 feet. A truly spectacular tree with a massive broad dome of widespreading branches that often droop along the outer edges. Known to already have reached 80 feet in Maryland in the U.S. Record yearly growth increase is 5 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 1 inch ( and also 6 inches height growth in a single week! )
The oblong leaves are up to 13 x 6 inches and are deeply lobed. They remain green late into the fall and often last late into December though rarely coloring much. During summer the foliage is deep green above and gray green below. The spring flowers are yellow-green drooping catkins that are followed in fall by small acorns up to 0.7 inches. The bark is light gray to brown and closely fissured into small short ridge. Bark is smooth for the first 10 years.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9; this Oak grows well in all soils except chalk. Tolorant of urban conditions, clay and drought. It is suprising this tree is not planted more in the U.S.

'Hungarian Crown' erect habit
'Schmidt' Growing with a strong central leader and very glossy dark green leaves.
It is very drought tolorant and hardy to zone 5 ( tolorating -25F )
'Vulcan' a form originating in Turkey is even more tolorant of drought. Hardy to zone 6

Oak, Interior Live ( Quercus wislezenii )

Native to California and Mexico; this is a large broad massive heavy set Oak to 100 feet or sometimes much larger. The largest recorded is 200 feet in height; 70 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 9 feet. It is moderate growing with the record single year growth being 3 feet; older trees form a broad rounded crown. The leaves are evergreen, holly like, oblong and edged with slender spiny teeth and smooth. They reach up to 4.7 x 2 inches in size and are mid green.
The thick bark is nearly black and deeply furrowed with scaly ridges. Hardy from zone 6 to 10 in sun or part shade. Very similar to Quercus agrifolia

Oak, Island ( Quercus tomentella )

A stately evergreen tree native to the Channel Islands off the coast of California. It is extremely endangered in the wild though grows well on the mainland if planted and irrigated. It is rapid growing up to 3 feet or more in a year and can grow to 85 feet tall and 60 feet across with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet with an open spreading crown. The leaves are ovate with toothed edges, glossy mid green above and white below. Downy when young; they reach up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The acorns are large and only abundant in some years. The bark is red-brown. Growing in climates with 24 inches of rainfall or more in a year; this Oak is hardy from zone 8 to 10. While it can tolorate 10 F; at 8 F it is reported to have froze to ground and resprouted rapidly. An excellent street tree for milder parts of the west.


Oak, Japanese Evergreen ( Quercus acuta ) - One of the Asian Evergreen Oaks that would make an excellent landscape tree in the Mid Atlantic region despite most people having never heard of it and most nurseries not selling it. It loves our hot humid summers which are really no different than where it came from. It is a fast growing tree to 3 feet per year and it's mature size in the U.S. is really not known. Very old trees in it's native Japan have reached heights of 100 feet with trunk diameters of 8 feet.
It's elliptic, smooth edged, very glossy, lush green leaves remain the same color all year, are leathery and can grow 8 x 3"
It is hardy north to zone 7 though some clones may be hardy even in zone 6 and should be tested.
* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum



Oak, Japanese White ( Quercus aliena )

Native to Japan; this Oak looks like the native Chestnut Oak. It is fast growing known to grow as much as 6 feet in a single year; this Oak often reaches 27 feet in 20 years and is capable of reaching 100 feet tall; 80 feet across with a trunk diameter up to 7 feet. The leaves are large, oval, regularly lobed and coarsely toothed. They are shiny dark green above; paler and downy below and up to 12 x 7 inches. Hardy from zones 4 to 8. It grows well in the Mid Atlantic and tolorates hot sunny sites

Oak, Kermes ( Quercus coccifera ) - Native to the western Mediterranean this Oak is extremely drought tolorant and can live up to 800 years but never grows very large reaching only up to 66 feet tall and 30 feet wide though massive trunks up to 5.5 feet across on ancient trees are known. The leaves may be prickly or flat and smooth and are shiny green up to 6 x 2 inches or more often smaller. The foliage is evergreen and no freeze injury typically occurs down to 4 F and the tree may be hardy anywhere from sheltered sites in zone 6 to zone 10. Can survive in regions with as little as 12 inches of rain in a year. The variety 'Calliprinos' ( Palestine Oak ) is reported to be a large tree with larger leaves

Oak, Kharshu ( Quercus semicarpifolia )
A large semi-evergreen Oak native to high elevations ( 6000 to 12 000 feet ) in the Himalayas. It prefers cool summers and thrives in England though not well known. The Kharshu Oak grows large up to 120 feet in height with a trunk diameter of up to 6 feet and the furrowed roughened bark is gray-brown. The foliage is hollylike and up to 5 x 3 inches.

Oak, Konara ( Quercus glandulifera ) - The "Konara Oak" is native to China, Korea & Japan and can grow large to 100 x 50 x 4 feet. Generally only moderate growing - to 2 feet a year at most. Its ovate leaves are deciduous, ovate and sharply margined, bright green above & whitish below. The 8 x 4" leaes remain on the trees til very late into the fall when they often turn scarlet before falling.
It is hardy from zones 4 to 9 and despite being extremely rare - is an excellent tree for much of the E. U.S. & Canada including the Mid Atlantic Region.
Not quite as large and fast growing as some of the native oaks, it may make an excellent urban shade and street tree and should be tested more.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Lacey ( Quercus glaucoides ) - An extellent Oak for the hot, dry and alkaline Southern Plains yet little known in horticulture. This Oak loves extreme heat and tolerates drought and should be planted more. Does well on alkaline soil and is wilt resistant. It is a moderate rate grower ( 2 feet per year ) and can reach 100 feet tall and 60 feet wide with a trunk to 3 feet across on ideal sites though is usually half that. The leaves are very handsome, to 9 x 5 inches, orange- pink in spring turning dark blue-green in summer then gold in fall. Native to Texas and ne Mexico and hardy much further North ( from zone 6b to 9 ).
Grows in sun or part shade.

Oak, Lamellosa ( Quercus lamellosa ) - native to the Himalayas to the Orient this huge Oak is known to grow to 200 feet tall with a trunk diameter reaching 10 feet across. Practically unknown in the U.S. but holding massive potential as an evergreen shade tree. Trees planted in Cornwall, England and warmer parts of Ireland have thrived and already reached 66 feet tall. The gigantic evergreen ornamental foliage reaches up to 18 inches long and 9 inches wide, is elliptic, leathery, dark green above and white below and shaped like the Chestnut Oak with sharply serrated margins. Bark is rough and grey brown. hardy north to zone 8 and LOVES HOT SUMMERS!!! An imposing tree; this is the noblest of all Oaks!

Quercus laurifolia ( Laurel Oak )

From the se U.S.; this large fast growing Oak is hardy from zones 6 to 10 and is semi-evergreen from zone 7 south becoming almost evergreen around zone 7b. It grows with a dense rounded habit and reaches massive proportions up to 150 feet tall; 120 feet wide and with trunk diameters recorded up to 8 feet across. Few Laurel Oak old enough to reach those sizes still exist but 100 plus footers are somewhat common. It is a fast growing tree and can reach 18 inches in the first year. 6 foot growth rates in a year have been recorded as well as one Laurel Oak reaching 150 feet in 50 years.
The foliage is smooth, bronze when young turning very glossy green and oval. They are smooth edged or very shallow lobed. The leaves usually fall in early spring just before the new leaves appear and reach up to 6 x 2 inches.
The bark is dark brown and smooth when young turning scaly; thick and deeply furrowed into wide flat ridges.
One of the most beautiful of all Oaks; the Laurel Oak makes great street trees. Trees growing in Cincinnati indicate the Laurel Oak may be hardy even further north that previously thought tolorating temperatures lower than - 20 F and surviving into zone 5. In Cincinnati trees have been observed staying green well into December.
Salt tolorant; it grows best on deep rich sandy soil with a PH from 4 to 6. Hot summers are required for this Southern Oak to thrive.




Oak, Lanata ( Quercus lanata ) - another huge Oak from the Himalayas growing to 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter to 4 feet across. This Oak has foliage like the native Chestnut Oak - the leaves growing to 9 x 4 inches and are shiny dark green and white below.

Oak, Lebanon ( Quercus libani )

Native to Syria & Lebanon; this Oak forms an elegant medium size tree growing to 70 feet tall; 50 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet at most. It is moderate growing reaching up to 5 feet in 3 years; 50 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet in 45 years. The maximum single year growth increase would be 2.5 feet. The dark green glossy oblong leaves reach up to 6 x 2.5 inches and persist well into winter. They are margined with bristle tipped teech and are borne on slender branches. The slightly corky bark is dark gray with orange fissures. Hardy from zone 5 to 10 and does well in the piedmont of the south U.S.A. The Lebanon oak can grow in loam to heavy clay soils of variable soil PH and can grow in sun or part shade. The tree can endure strong winds but not maritime exposure. It does not tolorate root disturbance and trees should not be moved once planted, in fact acorns sown on site will produce the best trees.
'Regia' has larger leaves up to 9 x 5 inches

Oak, Liotung ( Quercus liotungensis )
A moderate growing tree with a dense full crown reaching a height up to 82 feet. It is similar to the Mongolian and White Oak and retains its leaves dried often through the winter. It is hardy to zone 4 ( tolerates -35 F ) and is highly recommended for Nebraska and surrounding states. Native to Manchuria, Mongolia and China up to 7500 feet in elevation.

Oak, Live ( Quercus virginiana ) - The famous massive Oak with moss hangin from the branches, the Live Oak can grow to a truly huge 200 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of a massive 13 feet and live up to 1400 years. It is very rapid growing ( up to 4 feet in a year ) when young and a tree 70 years old may already have a trunk 5 feet in width. A Live Oak can become a reasonable large tree in just 10 years and 9 x 6 feet has been reached in only 4 years. It can tolorate high winds, high heat and alot of salt, urban conditions and is not bothered by deer. They are very soil tolerant. Evergreen Oaks should be fertilized heavily in March and June.
Its very often evergreen leaves are oblong to 6 x 3 inches at most and are leathery, glossy dark green above and whitish below.
The bark is charcoal gray with shallow fissures making a coarse checkered pattern.
The wood is very heavy up to 55 pounds per square foot.
Usually considered only hardy north to zone 7; some trees are known to tolerate as cold as -14F and be winter hardy in zone 6 and be evergreen to 0F. Live Oaks growing in Dayton, Ohio stayed evergreen during the winter of 2002.

The subspecies 'fusiliformis' ( Escarpment Live Oak ) from Texas and Oklahoma is more drought tolorant, actually very drought and heat tolerant making it an excellent tree for use in parking lots for shade. It is evergreen only to zone 7 but grows well also in zone 5b dropping its leaves late in the fall with no injury. It is also dense and fast growing to a size of 82 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.5 feet. Its leaves are very shiny and lush green to 6 x 3.5 inches.

Some additional cultivars include:
'Highrise' - very fast growing to 80 x 40 feet in 25 years with trunk width increases up to 1.3 inches in a year. Possibly up to 200 x 60 feet at maturity with an upright pyramidal shape.

'Southern Shade' - rapid growing to 18 feet tall and 5 inches in trunk diameter when only 5 years old. It has a strong leader when young and can reach 65 feet in 35 years and eventually much larger.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken in South Carolina on March 1994





*photo from unknown source on internet

















Oak, Loquat ( Quercus rhysophylla )

Very healthy growing to 50 x 31 feet with trunk diameter of 1.4 feet at Virginia Beach. Should eventually reach 82 feet. Fast growing to 4 feet in a year. The evergreen leaves up to 10 x 3 inches are reddish in spring. Native to new Mexico and hardy from zone 7 and south. Tolorates as low as 0 F.

Oak, Macedonian ( Quercus trojana )
Native to southeast Europe to Turkey; this is a medium size tree to 50 feet with the largest on record being 82 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is fast growing and hardy north to zone 6. The foliage is leathery, very shiny and oblong to 4 x 2 inches. This tree often keeps its foliage until January and can be semi-evergreen.

Oak, Maple Leaf ( Quercus acerifolia )

This endangered native of limestone ridges in Arkansas is hardy far outside its native range to zone 3. On the best of sites this drought tolorant Oak can reach 60 feet in height and width with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. The leaves reach up to 6 x 7 inches and are shaped like that of a maple.

Oak, Mexican Blue ( Quercus oblongifolia )
A rare Oak native to mountains of Arizona and northwest Mexico. On good sites it can become a medium size tree to 50 feet with the largest ever recorded being 90 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. One nearly that size is known to grow in Hidalgo County New Mexico. The oblong leaves are evergreen with curled margins that are either smooth or with small teeth. They are up to 4 x 1 inches and blue-green in color. The acorns are small to only 0.5 inches. The bark is ash-gray in scaly plates. Hardy north to zone 7 it is both heat and drought tolerant.

Oak, Mexican Chinkapin ( Quercus polymorpha )

A large very fast growing Oak to 80 feet tall and 60 feet in width. It can reach 25 feet in 5 years. It is native to mountains around Monterrey, Mexico. The attractive evergreen leaves are bright shrimp pink in spring turning thick, leathery and sage green in summer and up to 7 x 3.7 inches. The margins are entire and the fall color is a glowing red. This Oak looks alot like the native Chinkapin Oak. Hardy from zone 6b to 9; this Oak can survive as low as -8 F. Grows well in North Carolina. Very heat and drought tolorant. Grows best in deep rich soil.

Oak, Mexican Royal ( Quercus germana )
hardy far north of native range to zone 7. Fast growing to 15 feet in 4 years. Little else is known of this rare Mexican native. Should be tested in the U.S.



Oak, Mongolian ( Quercus mongolica ) - A huge Oak native to e. Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia, Korea & Japan. Has tested extremely well in climates as diverse as Maryland & Manitoba. Very dense with a full crown and also very fast growing where summers are hot ( not a maritime tree ). 3 feet of growth in a year is common, 6 feet is possible with excessive pampering. At maturity the stately thick branched Mongolian Oak can reach 130 feet tall and wide and with a trunk up to 6 feet across. The foliage is somewhat like the native White Oak but larger ( 12 x 7 inches ) glossy, often very dark green, oblong, strongly lobed and borne in dense clusters at the ends of the branches. An extremely beautiful tree that is also early leafing out in spring. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED AS A REPLACEMENT TREE IN AREAS AFFECTED BY EMERALD ASH BORER!!! - AND ALSO THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Moru ( Quercus dilatata )
Similar to Quercus prinus in appearance; this massive Oak reaches up to 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter up to 10 feet. From the mountains of Pakistan; it is best with cool summers and can be grown in England. Tolerates temperatures from 19 to 90F
The foliage reaches up to 4.5 x 2.5 inches and the bark is dark reddish-brown.

Oak, Myrtle ( Quercus myrtifolia )

Native from Louisiana to South Carolina and south; this small to medium size Oak makes for an excellent patio tree. The largest on record is only 60 feet tall; 50 feet wide and 2 feet in diameter. The evergreen obovate foliage has smooth somewhat turned over margins and reaches up to3 x 1.5 inches. The bark is light gray and the acorns are small to 0.5 inches. The Myrtle Oak is not tolorant of waterlogging and needs very well drained soil. Has very deep drought tolorant roots and is salt spray tolorant. Hardy north to zone 6 but is evergreen only to zone 7

Oak, Netleaf ( Quercus rugosa )
From the mountains of southwest U.S. south to Central America; often mixed into pine forest comes this fast growing Oak. With adequate water it can reach up to 12 feet in 5 years and 75 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 10 inches in only 30 years. It can grow large and the largest on record is 120 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It can also grow well in parts of Virginia & the Carolinas in the east. The foliage is evergreen, rounded, shallowly lobed, heavily veined and up to 8 x 5 inches. The leaves are dark green above & very pale beneath. The bark is flaking and somewhat corky; the acorns are small.
Hardy from zone 7 to 11 and can live up to 150 years.

Oak, Northern Pin ( Quercus ellipsoides )
Native to the north central U.S and Ontario, Canada; this is a large deciduous tree with a typically short trunk and a spreading canopy. Usually to 70 feet; the largest recorded is 130 feet in height; 122 feet in width with a trunk diameter to 5 feet.
The Northern Pin Oak can live up to 300 years. Some very large trees are recorded near Waterloo, Ontario.
The leaves are very deeply lobed and bristle tipped up to 7 x 6 inches at most. They are glossy dark green above and shiny with rust colored hairs beneath; turning deep crimson purple in the fall. The fall color tends to last late and the leaves may remain on the trees dried for quite some time. Unlike the related Pin Oak this Oak has ellipsoidal shape acorns. The bark is dark brown and shallowly furrowed.
Also unlike the Pin Oak; this Oak is both drought and very alkaline soil tolerant; it prefers drier well drained soil ( clay tolorant if well drained ) and is intolorant of flooding. Hardy in the extreme cold winters of the Great Plains from zone 2 to 7.
Considered rare to endangered in Canada. Difficult to transplant and needs full sun.


Oak, Nuttall - 10/10 EXCELLENT. Easy to transplant. New leaves are a purplish red and turn back to intense scarlet in fall. The foliage reaches to 9 inches long. It is hardy far north of its native range ( north to zone 5 and possibly 4 ) and GROWS VERY FAST - to 8 feet in a year!!!
The Nuttall Oak is among the worlds fastest growing Oaks.
Though I have not actually seen it, a new supposedly extremely attractive variety called 'Redleaf' retains its red leaf color for most of the growing season.
. It is similar to the Scarlet Oak however this one tolorates both flooding and drought and is also a very fast grower. Healthy foliage until fall when it glows oranges and reds. Trees have tested extremely positive results in Illinois and Maryland and this tree is RECOMENDED FOR MOST OF EAST & CENTRAL U.S.!!! It can grow huge and massive, some old growth trees in the southern Mississippi Valley reach 160 feet tall, 120 feet wide with trunks up to 7.5 feet across! ( one of the largest grows in Meridan, Louisiana ). The Nuttall Oak grows with a strong central leader in a shape similar to that of the White Pine.
Tolorant of flooding, heat, alkaline soil and drought. Has also grows to 24 x 23 feet in Denver though not well known in the west.

'New Madrid' produces colorful spring foliage of red and purple from mid April to mid May. Tolerant to wet and dry soil. Vigorous and hardy!

Oak, Oglethorpe ( Quercus oglethorpensis )

A rare native to the southeast U.S. it is hardy much further north to zone 4. It can grow up to 82 feet tall; 70 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet. It is reported Vigorous in Chicago but can also unfortunately be killed by Chestnut Blight and not recommended for landscapes for that reason. The Oglethorpe Oak can grow as much as 3 feet in a year. The shiny leaves are shaped somewhat like Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak and are up to 6 x 1.5 inches. They turn red very late in the fall. The bark is white and flaking and the roots are deep. It is flood and very clay tolorant but does not like transplanting. Hardy from zone 4 to 9

Oak, Oriental White ( Quercus aliena )
A large deciduous tree native to Japan and growing to as large as 100 feet tall; 80 feet wide with trunk diameters are large as 7 feet being recorded. Averaging 27 feet in 20 years; one good site it can become very fast growing with the record single year increase being 6 feet. The large thick, oval, foliage is regularly lobed and coarsely toothed, dark green above and paler downy beneath. The leaves look alot like the Chestnut oak and are up to 12 x 7 inches in size. Tolorant of hot sites and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic and Midwest. Hardy from zone 4 to 8 ( tolorates -25 F possibly colder )


Oak, Overcup ( Quercus lyrata )

From the mid Atlantic & southeast U.S. this very fast growing Oak can grow huge; to 160 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 8.3 feet known. The canopy is open and spreading with large massive branches. This is an "Oak on steroids!" Up to 6 feet of new growth in a single season has been recorded and it can reach up to 45 x 35 feet in 20 years. Trees over 75 feet grow outside its native range in Cincinnati as well as 75 feet tall and wide in drought prone Pueblo, Colorado. The leaves are oblong, lustrous and shiny, to 10 x 7 inches, dark green above; paler and smooth white-hairy below. They turn yellow-orange in the fall.
The bark is similar to Quercus alba White Oak. Grows well on poor soils, urban conditions and wet sites. Hardy from zone 4 to 9 tolerating as low as -23 F
'Highbeam' - THIS OAK IS AWESOME!!! Forms a pyramid shape with a strong central leader with upswept branches, is heat, drought, clay and SWAMP tolerant!!! It is very ornamental and had no pests! Also very rapid growing and grows to 50 feet tall and 40 feet wide in 20 years and in fact will likely not exceed 40 feet in width due to its upright habit making it an excellent street and allee tree. The very shiny leathery dark green leaves turn bronze & red in fall.

Oak, Persian ( Quercus macranthera )
Native to the Caucasus and the mountains of Iran; this is a fast growing tree ( up to 3 feet in a year ) forming a tall dome shaped crown with ascending upper branches. It can reach up to 120 feet in height; 80 feet in width and up to 3.5 feet in diameter. The leaves are large and broadky ovate and 6 to 11 strongly lobed. They are up to 10.5 x 7 inches in size, dark green above, gray and velvety below and last into December. The bark is gray brown, thick and flakes coarsely. Hardy from zone 5 to 8 and is extremely drought tolorant. It can tolorate very frosty 2 month growing seasons and hates summer heat. Not for the mid Atlantic and southern U.S. An extremely beautiful tree.

Oak, Pin ( Quercus palustris )
Native to se Canada and the U.S.; this Oak forms a large dense deciduous tree. It is also fast growing up to 25 feet in 5 years; 30 feet in 12 years; 70 x 40 feet in 30 years and eventually to over 100 feet on good sites. Trees as massive as 210 feet in height ( Ohio Valley ); 115 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 8 feet are known to have existed in the old growth hardwood forests that originally covered the eastern U.S.
The record growth increase recorded in a single year is 6 feet.
It also grows large in Europe and is known to reach 100 feet in England. Has even reached 75 feet in Colorado far outside its native range. The Pin Oak can live up to 300 years.
Pyramidal when young; the crown eventually becomes narrowly domed with slender lower branches that droop near the tips. These are called the "Pins". The leaves are elliptic deeply bristle-tipped lobed and up to 8 x 8 inches ( averaging around 5 inches ). They are shiny dark green above and shiny green below sometimes with tufts of brown hairs. They turn very attractive scarlet in the fall then persist dried on the trees into winter. The bark is silver gray and smooth on young trees and becomes darker, purplish-gray and scaly with vertical streaks as the tree ages. Hardy from zone 3 to 8 and also flood tolerant. In the south it is replaced by the Nuttall Oak.
Pin oak is often found wild on sites that flood heavily during the dormant season but do not ordinarily flood during the growing season. It does not grow on the lowest, most poorly drained sites that may be covered with standing water through much of the growing season. However, it does grow extensively on poorly drained upland soil on the glacial till plains of Ohio, Illinois and Indiana, and n Missouri and Essex / Kent County, Ontario. The level landscape and presence of a claypan in the soil of these areas cause these sites to be poorly drained and excessively wet in winter and spring. Due to its shallow fibrous roots rather than the deep taproot of many Oaks; the Pin Oak is easy to transplant. This is one of the main factors of its abundant use in landscaping for its ornamental features do not exceed that of many less common Oaks. It is also somewhat tolorant of drought and very tolorant of clay and salt. In alkaline areas it is best to use seed of local trees since seed from acid soil clones will often turn yellow from chlorosis and stunt out on such sites.
'Crownright' lacks the pendulous lower branches

* photos taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010






Oak, Portugese ( Quercus faginea )
A medium size heavy set tree with spreading branches forming an irregular crown. The Portugese Oak is native to Spain and Portugal. It is moderate growing to 10 feet in 5 years and can eventually reach 70 feet in height; 66 feet in width and 2 feet in trunk diameter. It can live up to 600 years in age. The dense foliage is a highly ornamental copper color in spring turning shiny dark green in summer above while gray felted below in summer. In the fall the leaves turn shiny red in color. The leaves reach up to 6.5 x 3.5 inches ( usually half that ) and are sharply toothed. The acorns are broad ovoid. Grows in all soils except chalk and is both drought and very heat tolorant. This Oak is highly recommended for Mediterranean climates only and is hardy from zone 7 to 10.

Oak, Post ( Quercus stellata )
Native to central and eastern U.S.; this is a large dense broad crowned deciduous tree to 60 feet however sometimes much larger. The largest Post Oaks recorded have reached as large as 140 feet tall; 100 feet wide with trunk diameters as much as 6.5 feet. It is moderate growing with 3 feet growth increase in a year being the record.
The Post oak is very long lived up to 450 years. It is often smaller than some of the other White Oaks but often this is due to its tendency to grow in the worst possible soils imaginable where many trees wont grow at all.
The obovate, rough textured, shiny black-green leaves are deeply lobed ( 4 to 6 lobed )and densly downy gray beneath. Usually around 6; the leaves can reach up to 10 x 6 inches in size and turn bronze late in the fall. The flowers in spring are in drooping yellow catkins up to 5 inches long and are replaced in fall by acorns around an inch in size.
The red-brown bark is ridged and flaky.
Very heat and very drought tolorant; the Post Oak can make an excellent urban street tree however care must be taken not to disturb the roots. Compaction and root damage from construction kills mature trees. The subspecies 'similis' can tolorate some flooding and survive on floodplains where most Post Oak wont ( it is also the hardiest to extreme cold and originates from the Mississippi Valley ).
Tolorant of soil PH from 4.8 to 7.
The Post Oak is hardy from zone 3b to 9 ( -40F )

Oak, Pyrenees ( Quercus pyrenaica )

A rounded crown medium size Oak that rarely reaches up to 100 feet in height and 80 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. It is slow growing and at most can reach 2 feet in a year. The Pyrenees Oak is very long lived up to 600 years.
The elliptic, leathery leaves up to 9 x 5 inches are deeply lobed though the lobes are often untoothed. They are deep green and smooth above and hairy beneath. The spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins and the acorns in fall are up to 1.5 inches. Native to Italy & sw Europe; it is naturalized in Belgium and planted in the British Isles.
Generally hardy only north to zone 7 ( tolorating -4F ) it can be grown much further north with careful selection. There is a clone sold by Oikos Tree Crops that is hardy to -20F. The Pyrenees Oak has however been largely untested in the U.S. where our hot summers make many trees tolorate more winter cold than they would do in Europe.
'Pendula' is very attractive large tree with strong weeping side shoots

Oak, Red ( Quercus rubra ) - The Northern Red Oak is a large tree often exceeding 100 feet in height with a trunk diamter of 4 feet. It can also live up to 700 years and some in the now mostly gone original Eastern Hardwood Forest grew to 200 x 130 feet in canopy and 10 feet in trunk diameter. Large trees exist today both in its native range ( 110 ft. height, 6.6 ft. trunk diameter in Harwich Township, Kent Co., Ontario ) and far outside its native range ( 90 feet in Colorado ).
It is fast growing and can grow to 3 feet in height in its very first year; then grow to 8 feet x 0.4 inches per year after that in ideal conditions. A Red Oak can grow 20 feet tall in just 5 years, to 70 x 70 feet in 25 years, and have a trunk diameter of 2 feet in 45 years, or 3.5 feet in 100 years.
Its leaves are papery to 10 x 8 inches and are matte green above and light green below. They are reddish in spring and turn scarlet and crimson in the fall sometimes persisting dried into the winter.
The bark is light grey and smooth when young becomming widely furrowed with age.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9 the Red Oak is drought, urban, salt and pollution tolorant but its deep wide roots hate compaction. They grow best on well drained deep acid soil in areas exceeding 30 inches of rainfall per year.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo of unknown source on internet


Oak, Rex ( Quercus rex )
A rare medium size Oak from se Tibet & Leos. The leaves looks like that of the Loquat and are up to 12 x 5 inches.




Quercus, Sand Live ( Quercus geminata )
Similar to the regular Live Oak but smaller. It makes an excellent patio tree with white christmas lights. Very fast growing to 20 feet tall and wide. It is hardy from zone 6 to 9 and evergreen from zone 7 and south.

Oak, Sandpaper ( Quercus pungens )
With dark green oval leaves and silver bark; this is an excellent tree for shade in arid regions. Native to the southwest U.S. & Mexico; it is very heat and extremely drought tolorant and hardy north to zone 7. Trees from the mountains of Sierra Madre, Mexico much like regular Vasey Oak but much larger and much happier in the heat and humidity of se Texas. They grow to 50 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter to 1.5 feet. A tree of 20 feet in height and width grows in Gladwyne, PA.

Oak, Sawtooth ( Quercus acutissima )
Native from the Himalayas to China, to Japan & Korea. Reaching up to 2 feet in its first year; the Sawtooth Oak is very fast growing and is considered at risk of becoming invasive in forests in parts of the eastern U.S. It can reach up to 35 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 8 inches in 6 years and can reach up to 37 feet in 10 years and 70 feet in 18 years. The Sawtooth Oak can eventually grow huge up to 115 feet tall; 100 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet. Though not native to the U.S. huge trees already exist both in Baltimore City ( 100 x 80 feet ) and at Morton Arboretum. The Sawtooth Oak can live up to 250 years.
The narrow oblong, chestnut-like leaves reach up to 9 x 3 inches and are smooth glossy lush dark green above ( smooth & paler below ). The leaves are margined with bristle-tipped teeth. They are early to leaf out in spring and turn yellow very late in the fall and the leaves persist dried into the winter. The spring flowers are yellow-green drooping catkins up to 4 inches long and the acorns are up to 1 inch long. These trees can produce acorns in as little as 4 years.
The gray-brown bark has deep fissures.
The Sawtooth Oak makes an excellent urban street tree and tolorates heat, drought and salt. It prefers acid well drained soil but can tolorate flooding.
Hardy from zone 4 to 10. Korean seed sources are the hardiest and can tolerate both -30F and late spring frosts with no dieback.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010


Oak, Scarlet ( Quercus coccinea )
Native to central and eastern U.S as well as Ontario; this is a large deciduous Oak with wide spreading branches on an ascending canopy ( young trees are more conical ) It grows fast ( 25 feet in 7 years; 30 feet in 10 years ) up to 60 feet tall and 40 feet wide in 20 years. 70 feet tall and wide with trunk diameter up to 2.5 feet has been recorded in 38 years. The most recorded in a single year is 6 feet and 3 is common. Often over 100 feet at maturity; some trees in the original hardwood forest that covered the eastern U.S. a few hundred years ago reached truly gigantic proportions. The largest ever recorded is 204 feet in height; 82 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. In England it has already reached 100 feet. Hardy from zone 2 to 9; ths Scarlet Oak can live up to 300 years. The bark is light brown and smooth becomming shallowly ridged with age.
Rating 9/10 EXCELLENT in Central Maryland. Very drought, pollution and heat tolorant and seen many add as much as 3 feet of new growth in hard core parking lot conditions ( this Oak does NOT tolorate flooding ) Can be prone to chlorosis leaf yellowing and stunting on alkaline soils ( though less than the Pin Oak ) in the Midwest and southern Canada. Recommend to test soil before planting. Also care should be taken with transplanting as root damage can impair growth for years to come. Scarlet Oaks tend to have deep taproots.
The leaves are oblong to 9 x 5 inches; usually with 3 lobes on each side; shiny dark green above and shiny but paler green below. Reddish at first in spring, in October the occasional leaf turns red on an otherwise green tree then the Scarlet Oak foliage begins to fire up when the Maple foliage drops, is rich maroon by early November and lasts all month, then turns brown and hangs on the tree through December or January ( in Maryland, earlier in New England ). Healthy foliage late into fall. Fall color is among the most vibrant red of all trees. Only the Nuttall Oak colors later in the fall.

The branches lack the "Pins" ( Pin like twigs ) and dropping lower branches of the Pin Oak
'Splendens' large leaf form with very deep red fall color

* photos taken 2008 in Columbia, MD






* photos of unknown source found on internet









Oak, Shingle ( Quercus imbricaria )

The Shingle Oak is a very large long lived tree native to the Eastern U.S. It is fast growing and can reach up to 120 feet in height and width with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet. It forms a lush massive dome shaped crown. The oblong leaves are reddish at first in spring turning very glossy dark green above ( grayish below ) and reach up to 10 x 3 inches though usually about 6 inches. They are smoooth edged and often turn attractive orange and redshades in the fall often persisting through winter.
The bark is gray-brown with wide shallow fissures.
The Shingle Oak is very drought, salt and urban tolorant. Very beautiful and makes an excellent street tree. hardy from zone 4 to 8; it grows best north of zone 7 b making it the northern counterpart to the Willow Oak. Grows better than the Pin Oak on alkaline soils.
Information on growth rates are inconsistant and depend heavily on growing conditions. Most recorded in a year is 5 feet. Known to grow 60 feet in Colorado and 100 feet in Oregon far outside its native range.

* photo taken July 2003 @ University of Maryland, College Park


* photos of unknown internet source






Oak, Shumard ( Quercus shumardii )

From the central and southeast U.S. and Ontario, Canada; this Oak can be cultivated from Ottawa to Miami. It is a large deciduous tree often reaching to 120 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 4 feet or more. It can also be among the tallest of all Oaks and some of the largest ever recorded in old growth river valley forests reach up to 230 feet in height and 80 feet in canopy width with trunk diameters up to 11 feet! Some extremely large Shumards still exists such as in Overton Park Forest in Memphis, Tennessee.
The Shumard oak makes a great shade tree and has a wide spreading canopy.
It is even known to grow 90 x 77 feet in drought prone Colorado far outside its native range. Fast growing with rates up to 6 feet in a year known.
The 5 to 7 deeply bristle-tip lobed leaves are dark green above and paler below. Usually around 6 inches; the leaves can reach up to 10 x 6 inches in size and turn orange and red in the fall. In spring it leafs out 2 weeks earlier than most other Red Oaks.
The bark is thick and furrowed with scaly gray ridges.
Growing best on moist soil; the Shumard Oak is long lived up to 480 years. It is very drought, flood, alkaline and clay tolorant. Also tolorant of pollution and compaction making it an excellent urban street tree. Hardy from zone 4 to 9. Endangered in Pennsylvania.

my August 2009 notes on Shumard Oak
- 10/10 more common in the Midwest and South, it is an EXCELLENT urban street and parking lot tree in the Mid Atlantic. Can tolerate flood & drought. Also alkaline soil tolorant unlike the similar Scarlet Oak. Shumard Oak is a FAST growing tree ( and Oaks are often alot more fast growing than alot of people think ). Healthy foliage late into fall. Seen one in August 2009 of extreme vigor with 4 foot growth in all directions in Sykesville, MD in the middle of a front lawn.

Oak, Silverleaf ( Quercus hypoleucoides )
Native to mountains of Arizona and New Mexico into northwest Mexico; this is a medium size evergreen Oak on good sites reaching about 60 feet. The largest trees on record approach 100 x 50 feet with trunk diameters of 52 inches. The lance shape, very thick, leathery foliage is up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size and lasts up to 13 months. The very attractive leaves are shiny dark green above and silvery white below. The acorns are small to only 0.5 inches. The black bark is deeply ridged and furrowed. This very rare tree prefers acid soil but is both very heat and drought tolorant and should be used more in arid climate landscapes. It is hardy north to zone 7.

Oak, Southern Red ( Quercus falcata ) - Personally one of my favorite large trees the Southern Red Oak is native from NYC to Missouri and anywhere south, however it can grow over a wider range being anywhere within zone 5 to 9. While it is difficult to transplant and often grows slowly after, a healthy seedling without competition from sod and weeds can quickly grow into a large tree. Being deeply rooted it is also extremely drought tolerant. It makes an excellent shade tree and its strong sturdy branches and root system make for an awesome street tree. It also loves heat and doesn't flinch from reflected heat off asphalt. It can grow up to 4 feet in a single year, sizes of 60 feet in 20 years are known, though more usually 30. Often exceeding 100 feet in time, trees up to 300 years old reached sizes up to 210 x 130 x 10 feet making this one of the worlds largest oaks. Some old giants still exist such as 10 x 130 x 8.3' in Thomaston, GA; 140 x 130' in Harwood, MD & Colonial Beach, VA. Seedlings can grow 18 inches in the first year. In cooler climates it is slower growing however it still grows large ( 75 feet in 75 years in Boston ). However unlike the Northern Red Oak, this Oak simply will not grow in most of Europe and the Pacific Northwest where the summers are too cool for it's liking.
The very attractive deeply cut leaves leaves are mostly disease resistant and are dark glossy green and smooth above, and covered with brown hairs below. They stay green late into the fall but eventually turn an orange color before finally falling.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Swamp Chestnut ( Quercus michauxii ) - The Cow Oak also called the Swamp Chestnut Oak, is native to the southeast U.S. though can be grown anywhere from zone 5 to 10 ( -23F ) and is a very fast growing long lived tree. A tree 200 feet tall, 150 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet grows in Marshall Co. TN and is the largest one ever recorded, though trunk diameters of 10 feet have been reported the above Oak is one of the worlds largest in total mass. Though very little original forest is left in the U.S. many Cow Oaks reach large size still and do not take long to do so. 100 feet or more is common and they can grow 4 feet in the 1st year and up to 18 feet in the 3 year. It is also a great tree for flood plains and grows fastest under those conditions though very tolerant of drier and urban conditions. Unlike alot of other Oaks this one continues to grow the entire summer even in extreme heat. Also unlike many fast growing trees, this one is very sturdy and its strong branches often survive even hurricanes.
Its glossy green above, silver white below foliage is obovate and coarsely margined and usually turns red in the fall. The leaves reaching up to 11 x 7 inches; its fall color is often as good as the Red Maple. The attractive bark is light grey.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Swamp White ( Quercus bicolor )
native to central & eastern U.S and Canada; this tree grows with a massive dome shape crown with large crooked branches. The oval leaves are shiny and lustrous deep green above; whitish felted below. They reach up to 10 x 7 inches ( 16 x 9 inches the largest on record ), are shallowly lobed and turn yellow-orange in the fall. They sometimes persist on the trees well into the winter. The bark is similar to that of Quercus alba White Oak. A fast growing tree; the Swamp White Oak can reach 18 feet in 3 years and 60 feet tall and wide in 30 years. Often over 100 feet; truly gigantic trees often grew in the original old growth forest that blanketed the continent a few hundred years ago. Sizes up to 160 feet tall; 135 feet wide with diameters up to 9 feet were recorded. One such tree with a 9 foot trunk diamter was recorded in Geneseo County, NY in 1880. Hardy from zone 3 to 8. Pest free and wind tolorant; this makes an excellent tree for planting on the prairies. Being compaction, clay, salt, heat, drought and pollution tolorant; this make an excellent urban street tree. It also tolerates flooding and swampy sites though prefers a deep acid loam in sun or part shade. Long lived up to 400 years.
Last summer I seen a street of these trees in Bowie, MD on Aug 25 2009 and these trees WERE ON FREAKIN STEROIDS!!! Huge glossy lush leaves were completely unbothered by either insect or disease and each tree had at least 4 feet on new growth in either direction. To compare, I have not seen one single street plantation of Maples of any kind be this vigorous this summer. These oaks showed remarkable heat and drought resistance. The bark was also unusually corked and extremely attractive. Seriously; I could have bought a house on that street just to stare at these trees



Oak, Sweet Acorn ( Quercus x deamii )

An extremely fast growing hybrid Oak of Quercus macrocarpa x muehlenbergii.
Has potential to grow to 200 feet tall; 80 feet across with trunk diameter of 9 feet
with extreme age. The foliage looks like that of Quercus prinus ( except somewhat downy below ); is up to 8 inches long and oblong with 7 to 9 lobes per side.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9.

Oak, Texas Red ( Quercus buckleyi )
Growing to 50 feet or rarely 80 feet with the largest on record being 106 x 82 feet with trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; this Oak is very drought and alkaline tolorant and is a native to Texas and Oklahoma. It is very close to the Shumard Oak but smaller in all its parts. The leaves are up to 4 x 5 inches and have up to 9 bristle tipped lobes. They turn vivid orange and red in late December before falling. Hardy north to zone 5. Highly regarded as an ornamental and shade tree!

Oak, Turbinella ( Quercus turbinella )

An evergreen Oak native to the sw U.S. and Baja California. It is a medium size tree growing up to 66 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter up to 4.5 feet. The leaves are evergreen up to 5 x 1.5 inches. Extremely drought tolorant growing in climate with between 16 and 32 inches of rain in a year.


Oak, Turkey ( Quercus cerris ) - A large very fast growing deciduous Oak growing to 13 feet in 5 years & 55 feet tall in 20 years. Growth up to 6 feet has been reported in a single year! Eventually it can become massive up to 150 feet tall, 100 feet wide and with a trunk up to 8 feet across with great age ( up to 300 years ). It is native from southern Europe to the Middle East. Having an open narrow crown when young; it becomes widely dome shaped as it ages. The bark is light gray to dark gray-brown, thick, rough and deeply ridged. The leaves grow to 8 x 3 inches, are oblong and shallowly lobed and coarsely toothed. They are rough in texture and remain on the trees late into the fall turning from glossy dark green to orange. Normally hardy north to zone 5 or 6 - one strain observed growing in Pennsylvania has been reported fully hardy in zone 5 and even tolerating - 30 F. The Turkey Oak loves hot summers and is lime, drought and very clay tolerant. It is among the last of all deciduous trees to turn colors in the fall.
The variety 'Variegata' has foliage with conspicuous yellow margins turning creamy white in summer and 'Laciniata' has foliage with narrow spreading lobes.

Oak, Turkey ( Quercus laevis )
Native to the southeast U.S.; this is a fast growing medium size tree to 50 feet with the largest on record being 90 feet tall and wide with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. A tree of 74 x 42 feet grows in Cockeysville, MD far outside its native range. The Turkey Oak has an open rounded irregular crown and can live up to 160 years. The very glossy dark green ( paler below ) foliage is deeply 3 to 7 bristle tip lobed and up to 8 x 6 or rarely 14 x 10 inches.
The leaves turn very intense scarlet late in the fall. The thick bark is almost black and deeply furrowed with rough scaly edges. Extremely drought tolorant and grows best in sandy, very acid ( PH 5 to 6 ), very well drained soil. Hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( tolorates - 3 F or possible colder ).

Oak, Turner ( Quercus turneri )

A hybrid between Quercus ilex & Quercus robur Oaks; this Oak is semi-evergreen to evergreen depending on climate. It can grow to 130 feet in height; 100 feet across with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet with a massive spreading dome shaped crown. Fast growing; the most yearly growth increase recorded is 5 feet.
The leaves are leathery with 3 to 5 triangular teeth on either side. They reach up to 5 x 2.5 inches and are dark green above, paler below. Yellow green drooping late spring catkins later become acorns that are few and small, less than an inch in size. The bark is dark gray and cracked into plates.
A very handsome tree; hardy from zone 6 to 9.



Oak, Ubame ( Quercus phillyroides ) - With the cultivar 'Emerald' being superior as a landscape tree, this rare evergreen oak from China and Japan is usually moderate growing however been known to grow 6 feet in a single year. It can grow to 27 x 10 feet in 20 years and one greew 30 x 50 feet in 50 years in North Carolina. It grows dense and rounded to a maximum size of 60 x 60 x 4 feet when mature.
Its 3 inch leaves are oval, leathery and glossy dark green on both sides all year other than being bronze red when first leafing in the spring.
The bark is dark gray with shallow vertical fissures.
It is hardy from zone 6 to 10. Very drought and pollution tolorant.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Oak, Valley ( Quercus lobata )

Also called California White Oak; this is a large tree living up to 600 years and fast growing. It is native to the central Valley of California where unfortunately the draining of groundwater to below 70 feet has killed thousands of mature trees. Otherwise it is very hardy and is NOT prone to Sudden Oak Death. Vigorous when young; it can reach 20 feet in 5 years; 40 feet in 10 years; 60 feet in 20 years and mature to a massive domed heavy set tree of over 100 feet in height. It is one of the worlds largest Oaks and some have approached heights of 180 feet with widths of 100 feet and trunk diameters up to 14 feet. It has been reported to grow to 90 feet in England but does not grow in the central and Eastern U.S due to its dislike of humid summers. The leaves reach up to 7 x 3.3 inches and are glossy dark green above and pale downy beneath with broad rounded lobes. The fall color is yellow to orange fading to brown late in the fall. Acorns are long ( up to 3 inches ) and pointed. The thick bark ( up to 6 inches thick )is light gray and broken into square plates. Prefers soil PH from 4.5 to 8. This tree grows far better on sites where there is no lawn and has total weed control beneath. It should not be watered in the summer once established and fungicides or insecticides should not be used near it. This is truly a Mediterranean climate tree typified by wet winters and dry summers. It is hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( unconfirmed reports from 5 - 6 )

Quercus macrolepis ( Vallonea Oak )

Native to the Balkans, southeast Turkey and Greece; this is a medium size tree reaching up to 85 feet tall and 50 feet wide; that has dark brown rugged bark on a massive trunk to 3.5 feet in diameter. The leaves are deeply cut often fiddle shaped to 6 x 2 inches. Drought tolorant; it grows best in Meditteranean climates and is hardy from zone 7 to 10. Hot summers are a necessity.

Oak, Water ( Quercus nigra )

From southern & Mid Atlantic U.S.A.' this broad dome shaped tree grows fast and large. It can reach 25 feet in 5 years and eventually 80 feet or more. Some giants have been recorded on old growth bottomland forests and have reached up to 150 feet in height; 100 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 8.3 feet. One of the largest Water Oaks ever known grows at Roseland Plantation, Concordia Parish, Louisiana.
The record single year growth increment is 6 feet.
The leaves have a distinct trident shape or also can be oval and variously lobed. They are up to 10 x 6 inches in size ( averaging half that ) and are glossy deep green above, glossy light green below. They remain green late in the fall and do not fall until well into December even in Ohio. Semi-evergreen in the Deep South. The bark is dark gray-black and develops scaly ridges.
Grows best in deep, fertile moist soil; this Oak is very tolorant of flooding and often grows in swamps in the wild. The acorns are an important food for waterfowl.
Easy to transplant. Hardy from zone 5 to 10 possibly even zone 4. Known to tolorate -23F in Michigan. A handsome extremely graceful shade tree that is very heat and clay tolerant.

Oak, White ( Quercus alba ) - A large deciduous hardwood Oak; the White Oak grows eventually huge at a moderate pace. While only 9 inches tall at most by the end of its first year; its growth will soon speed up unless put in transplant shock due to difficulty moving it's deep rootsystem. A 10 year old tree may reach 25 feet with ideal growing conditions and mature trees very often exceed 100 feet in height and the White Oak can live up to 1000 years. 70 year old trees can average 100 feet tall. It also grows large outside its native range and one in Colorado is over 70 feet. A huge White Oak with a trunk width well over 6 feet across grows as far north as near Peterborough, Ontario. The largest trees in the original old growth forest that blanketed the Eastern U.S. during the times of the Native Indians reached up to 240 feet in height, 160 feet in width and 11 feet in trunk diameter. This rivals the largest trees in the Amazon Valley of South America. A mature White Oak usually has a straight and massive trunk supporting spreading branches and a massive broad canopy of foliage. The White Oak lives up to 1000 years.
The leaves are oval, deeply and irregularly lobed; pinkish-red to soft green when young turning in summer to
deep green above and whitish below. In late fall the leaves turn purple-crimson and often remain very late on the trees. The leaves can reach up to 11 x 8 inches in size but are more often half that. The bark is light gray with lifting plates between deep parallel fissures.
The wood is hard heavy and strong and is excellent for furniture. The White Oak is hardy on most well drained soils in eastern North America from zone 3 to 9. It grows best with hot summers so it is not recommended in maritime western Europe where its growth is slow.
The White Oak produces acorns in 20 years. A 70 foot tall and 2 feet in diameter tree at 70 years old in Virginia was known to have produce 60 000 acorns. A grove of such can produce 200 000 acorns per acre. This tree is extremely valuable as winter food for wildlife and if the Oak every disappeared many of our birds and animals would disappear with it.
A one year old seedling may only be 4 inches tall yet have a taproot over 12 inches deep. The White Oak is best planted in its permanent location with protection from animals for it's first few years ( a screen cage is good ). Its deep taproot makes it difficult to transplant but also makes it extremely drought tolorant and tolorant of high winds. The White Oak is salt and pollution
tolorant but does not like disturbance and compaction of its roots.

* August 2009 Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania




* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010















Oak, Willow ( Quercus phellos ) - A massive stately tree the Willow Oak could easily be a state tree of Maryland or Virginia. It grows fast and sometimes to truly massive sizes of up to 160x130 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.5 feet. It grows very fast and seedlings can reach 5 feet in 2 years, 25' in 5 years, 50' in 17 years and 90 feet tall; 70 feet wide with a diameter of 3 feet in 38 years ( Columbia, MD ). The Willow Oak is also very long lived and pest and disease resistant and can live to 300 years. Record size trees with trunk diameters of 8.5 feet are known from both Nuxubee Co., GA and Memphis, TN. One of 126X106X8' grew in Easton, MD. Another tree of 7.2 foot diameter is recorded from Bryn Mawr, PA. In PA the Willow Oak was originally found wild from Philadelphia to the Delaware border; it is now endangered there.
It is a very common landscape tree and an excellent street tree in the mid Atlantic region. It is not only very beautiful, it is also very heat and moderate salt tolerant and deep rooted on drier sites yet adaptable to drier sites where it can tolerate up to 2 months submersion. While it is native from NYC to s. Missouri, it can be grown further north. It is hardy from zones 5 to 9 ( reported to tolorate - 25 F ) Awesome trees grow at Ohio State University and it successfully grows even in Minnesota.
Its leaves are long and narrow ( to 7x1" ) and lush shiny green. They stay green very late into the fall when they turn yellow, orange and sometimes red and often stay on the tree long into December. The bark is light brown and ridged. A young tree is pyramidal and shaped similarily to the Pin Oak, and an older tree is spreading and truly massive.


* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum












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