Saturday, February 13, 2010

Iris

An extremely large genus ( 35 species in just North America alone ) of perennial plants that are popular in landscaping all over the world except for tropical and desert climates.
Most Iris's are very easy to grow, except for the Bearded Iris Hybrids which may in some areas be prone to Iris Borer. The Iris Borer lays its eggs inside the leaves of the plant, then when the eggs hatch the larvae develop into green worms which tunnel down to the rhizome. Iris's are not generally eaten by rabbit and deer.
Highly recommended websites on Iris...
www.signa.org
http://www.rebloomingiris.com/list_of_iris_1.shtml


* photo of unknown internet source


Iris aucheri
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 x 16 inches, that is native to central Asia. The leaves, up to 10 x 2 inches, are glossy green above, gray-green beneath.
The leaves die down during summer and the plant goes dormant.
The fragrant, blue flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils in groups of 4 or more, during spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 2 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris brevicaulis ( Lamance Iris )
A perennial, forming a spreading clump up to 2 x 3 feet, that is native to moist to wet soils in the southeastern U.S. ( Kansas to Ohio; south to eastern Texas to Alabama ). The leaves, up to 28 inches in length, are light green.
The deep blue to blue-purple flowers, up to 4.5 inches across, are borne on zigzag stems during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on moist, acidic to neutral, humus-rich soil. Mulching is recommended during winter. Install new plants by spreading the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. Propagation is from division during early autumn or early spring.

Iris bucharica ( Bokara Iris )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 8 inches, that is native to Russia. The leaves, up to 12 x 2.5 inches, are glossy green above, gray-green beneath.
The leaves die down during summer and the plant goes dormant.
The fragrant, creamy-white ( with golden-yellow markings ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils in groups of 4 or more, during spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 2 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris bulleyana
A herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 feet x 20 inches, that is native to southwest China.
The leaves, up to 24 x 0.5 inches, are green.
The lilac ( with yellow falls that are veined purple ) flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne on branched stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, fertile soil.
They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out.

Iris chamaeiris
A slow, rhizome-spreading, dense mat-forming, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 8 x 8+ inches, with sword-shaped leaves up to 6 x 1 inches in size. It is native to open pine woodlands in southwestern Europe ( from southern France; south to northeastern Spain to Italy ).
The stemless, white, yellow or purple flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne singly or in pairs during mid spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil, thriving best where summers are hot. Plant very shallow leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center.

Iris chrysographes ( Black Iris )
A rhizomatous, clumping, herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3 feet, that is native to wet alpine meadows in Tibet, western China and northeast Burma.
The linear leaves, up to 28 x 0.6 inches, are gray-green.
The profuse, deep red flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne on branched stems during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, acidic, humus-rich, fertile soil. Easy to grow. They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out. In cold climates, it is recommended to plant during spring.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Black Knight'
Blackish-purple flowers.





'Margot Holmes'
Flowers are purplish-red with orange markings.

'Rubella'
Purplish-violet.

Iris confusa
A vigorous, rhizomatous, deciduous, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4 feet ( rarely over 3.3 feet ), that is native to western China.
The flat, lance-shaped leaves, up to 40 x 2 inches, are mid-green.
The white ( flushed purplish-pink and orange-yellow spotted ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on acidic, humus-rich soil. Easy to grow and tolerant of shade. Plant very shallow with the rhizome partially exposed. Propagation is from division immediately after flowering.

Iris cristata ( Dwarf Crested Iris )
A fast growing, rhizomatous, deciduous, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 5 feet, that is native to rich woods and floodplains of the eastern U.S.( from Missouri to southern Ohio to Maryland; south to Oklahoma to Georgia ). The Dwarf Crested Iris is endangered in some of the states where it is native. It makes an excellent, mat-forming woodland groundcover forming a dense carpet.
It is endangered in some of the states where it is native.
The flat, lance-shaped leaves, up to 12 x 1 inches ( rarely over 8 ), are mid-green.
The violet-blue flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during early to mid spring. The bloom season usually last around 2 weeks.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 if mulched and on a protected site ) in partial to medium shade on moist, acidic, fertile, humus-rich soil. Easy to grow and tolerant of deep shade. It is not prone to Iris Borer. Plant very shallow with the rhizome partially exposed. Propagation is from division immediately after flowering. It benefits from division every few years.

* photo taken on May 6 2011 in Harford Co., MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photos taken on May 1 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on May 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 27 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photos


'Alba'
Vigorous growing with pure white flowers.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Eco Bluebird'
Vigorous and compact, forming a dense colony reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 4 feet ( width up to 1 foot in just 3 months ).
The very abundant, blue ( with gold markings ) flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

* photos taken on May 10 2014 in Harford Co., MD


'Eco Purple Pomp'
Very deep violet flowers that are brushed bright yellow with orange.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Powder Blue Giant'
Forms a very vigorous foliage clump, up to 1 foot in height, with large, bright blue flowers ( with white and deep blue markings ), up to 3.5 inches across, that are crested golden-yellow. The flowers also have a white center patch.
The foliage is larger than regular Iris cristata. Its rhizomatous habit makes it an excellent groundcover.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jun 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 4 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Shenandoah Sky'
Forms a foliage clump, up to 7 inches in height, with deep blue flowers.

'Tennessee White'
A very fast growing, rhizomatous groundcover perennial, reaching at least 6 inches x 3 feet.
The flowers are pure white.

* photo taken on May 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 20 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Vein Mountain'
Forms a foliage clump, up to 8 inches in height, with flowers ( usually borne singly on the stem ) that are bright blue with a center patch that is white with a deep purple border. The crests of the flowers are orange.

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Iris danfordiae ( Danford Iris )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 inches, that is native to central Asia.
The tubular, pointed leaves, up to 12 inches, are green.
The fragrant, bright yellow ( brown spotted ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during late winter before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 5 inches deep during early autumn. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris delavayi ( Delavay Iris )
A clumping, herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4+ feet, that is native to high mountain meadows in Yunnan and southwest Sichuan Provinces in western China. Looks great in a moist border or next to the water.
The leaves, up to 40 x 1 inches, are green.
The violet-purple ( marked white ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne on slender stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, fertile soil. Tolerant of wet soil.
They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out.

Iris douglasiana
An evergreen perennial, reaching up to 40 inches x 4 feet, that is native to the Pacific Coast of North America from Oregon to southern California.
The ribbed, upright leaves, up to 40 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The whitish, lavender or lilac-purple flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne up to 5 on a stem during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, light, acidic to alkaline soil. They do not like root disturbance and should be divided only if necessary during early autumn ( Do not let the roots dry out ). Plant the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches deep.
They usually flower in 2 to 3 years from seed.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photo


'Canyon Snow'
Abundant, pure white ( with yellow patch ) flowers.

Iris ensata ( Japanese Iris )
Also called Iris kaempferi. A deciduous, herbaceous, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3.5+ ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to northeastern Asia ( from eastern Siberia; south to northeast China, Korea and Japan ).
The upright, sword-shaped leaves, up to 2.5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet x 0.5 inches in size, are mid-green.
The single or double flowers, up to 8 inches wide, are variable in color. The flowers are borne during early to mid summer. The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 3b on protected sites ), in full sun to partial shade on moist, deep, fertile, acidic soil, it can grow in water but during the growing season only. The prefer moist soil until they bloom then dryer conditions for the remainder of the growing season. They are heavy feeders and frequent fertilizing definately improves vigor.
They can be divided for propagation though division is rarely needed to retain vigor.

* photo taken on June 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


'Acclaim'
Reaches up to 4 feet with showy, red-violet, mid season flowers.

'Azure'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with lavender-blue flowers, up to 5 inches across, that are stripes with white. The flowers are borne during mid summer.

'Black Knight'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet in height, with very dark purple flowers that are centered bright yellow.

'Double Delight'
Large, intense blue flowers.

'Driven Snow'
The very large flowers are white.

* photo taken on June 28 2013 in Washington, DC


'Eden's Artist'
Reaches up to 3 feet with light purple flowers. The flowers have small white spots and are marked yellow near the throat.

'Eden's Blush'
Reaches up to 3 feet with white flowers that have small purple spots scattered on the petals.

'Eden's Charm'
Reaches up to 3 feet with huge flowers, that are white with small yellow markings near the throat.

'Eden's Harmony'
Reaches up to 3 feet with white flowers that are blushed pinkish to blue. The stamens are white.

'Eden's Starship'
Reaches up to 3 feet with very large, drooping, deep purple flowers with a bold yellow mark.

'Fascination'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet with a very large bright blue flower that are edged purple and are flared bright yellow.

'Geisha Girl'
Very attractive foliage variegated with cream striping.
The large flowers are lavender.

'Gracieuse'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with large white flowers that are edged in violet.

'Hercules'
Deep blue flowers.

'Jodle Song'
Reaches up to 32 inches, with flowers that are purplish-red, borne during early to mid summer. The flowers have a light yellow heart.

'Imperial Magic'

* photos taken on June 15 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Laughing Lion'
Reaches up to 34 inches, with huge 6-petalled, bright purple ( streaked creamy-white ) flowers.

* photos taken on June 25 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 20 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Lion King'
Reaches up to 4 feet in height, with violet ( streaked white with a yellow throat ) flowers, up to 8 inches wide, borne during early to mid summer.

'Manadzuru'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with white ( heavily veined pale blue ) flowers, up to 6.7 inches across.

'Moniji-No-Taki'
Flowers are deep purple ( veined deeper purple ) with red falls.

'Moonlight Waves'
Reaches up to 3 feet with pure white ( centered pale green ) flowers during early to mid summer.

'Pink Lady'
Reahes up to 3 feet with very large, pale pink flowers.

'Prairie Twilight'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with bicolor blue and lavender flowers ( with violet-blue halo and veining as well as yellow signals ).

'Ruby Giant'
Huge 7 inch, red flowers; otherwise similar to species.

'Sensation'

* photos taken on June 9 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Variegata'
Reaches up to 3 feet with foliage that is boldly edged in creamy-white.
The rich blue-violet flowers are borne early to mid summer.
Requires moist soil. Very beautiful planted next to water.

* photo taken on July 15 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by David Artis of Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 4 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 4 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jun 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 4 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Velvet Queen'
Reaches up to 3 feet with showy, very deep blue, 3-petaled flowers.

'Wake Musha'
The double flowers are purple.

'White Ladies'
Reaches up to 32 inches, with showy, pure-white, 6-petaled flowers.

Iris florentina ( Orris Root )
Closely related to Iris germanica, this is considered a "Tall Bearded Iris".
It reaches a maximum size of 4 feet, with fragrant, bluish-white ( bearded yellow ) flowers, up to 10 inches across, borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Plant very shallow leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center.


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Iris foetidissima ( Stinking Iris )
Also called Gladwyn Iris. A vigorous, rhizomatous, evergreen perennial, forming a clump up to 3 x 3+ feet, that is native to western Europe ( from southern England and south ) and northwest Africa.
The flat, glossy deep green, lance-shaped leaves, up to 32 x 1 inches, are borne in fan-shaped tufts. The foliage is evergreen down to 4 F.
The light purple ( tinged with yellow ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne several to a stalk during early to mid summer.
The are followed by pods that open up to reveal showy scarlet-red seeds.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial to deep shade on slightly acidic to neutral, well drained soil. Very heat tolerant if soil is moist during extreme heat. It is also tolerant of dry shade and alkaline soil. Deer resistant.

'Citrina'
Yellow flowers with pale lilac veining.

'Fructoalba'
The light purple ( tinged with yellow ) flowers, that are followed by white seeds.

'Lutescens'
Pure yellow flowers

'Variegata'
The beautiful foliage is striped to bright yellow to creamy-white.

Iris forrestii
A dense-clumping, herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 2+ feet, that is native to mountain meadowns in Yunnan and southern Sichuan Provinces in China; south into northeast Burma.
The leaves, up to 15 inches in length, are bright green.
The profuse, pale yellow ( with brown veined falls ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne on slender stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, fertile soil. Tolerant of wet soil.
They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out.

Iris fulva ( Copper Iris )
A fast growing perennial, forming a spreading clump up to 5 x 4+ feet ( rarely over 4 feet ), that is native to wet sites in the southeastern U.S. ( southeast Missouri to southwest Illinois; south to Louisiana & Mississippi. The leaves, up to 48 x 1 ( rarely over 40 ) inches in size, are light green.
The showy, pinkish to coppery-orange flowers, up to 4.5 inches across, are borne on zigzag stems during early to mid summer. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic to neutral, humus-rich soil. Mulching is recommended during winter. It goes semi-dormant during mid summer and can tolerate drought at that time. Install new plants by spreading the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. Propagation is from division during early autumn or early spring.

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Iris gatesii
A stolon spreading perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 feet, with semi-evergreen leaves, up to 12 inches in length, and white ( veined purple ) flowers, up to 4.7 inches across, that are borne solitary during late spring. This Iris is native to Turkey.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on very well drained soil and enjoys a limestone gravel mulch. Bulbs should be planted at a depth of 2 inches.

Iris germanica ( Flag Iris )
Considered a "Tall Bearded Iris", it is a perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5+ feet.
The leaves, up to 40 x 2 inches in size, are evergreen in mild climates.
The flowers, up to 6 inches across, are purple with a white beard, borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun on fertile, well drained soil that is rich in organic matter. They require abundant fertilizer ( early spring, late spring then again around the middle of August ).
Plant very shallow leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center.

* historic archive photo


Iris giganticaerulea ( Giant Blue Flag )
A perennial, forming a clump up to 6 x 3 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( southeast Texas and Louisiana ). The leaves, up to 1.5 inches wide, are light green.
The fragrant, blue or violet flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne on zigzag stems during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( 5 and 6 if protected ) in full sun on moist, acidic to neutral, humus-rich soil. Mulching is recommended during winter. Tolerant of brackish water and swampy conditions. Install new plants by spreading the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. Propagation is from division during early autumn or early spring.

* historic archive photo


Iris gracilipes
A rhizomatous, deciduous,clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet, that is native to mountain forests in Japan.
The very narrow, grass-like leaves, up to 16 x 1 inches ( rarely over 8 ), are mid-green.
The lilac-pink ( orange crested ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on acidic, humus-rich soil. Easy to grow and tolerant of shade. Plant very shallow with the rhizome partially exposed. Propagation is from division immediately after flowering.

'Alba'
White flowers, otherwise identical to species.

Iris graeberana
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 1 foot, that is native to Turkestan. The leaves, up to 17 x 2 inches, are glossy blue-green.
The leaves die down during summer and the plant goes dormant.
The bluish-pink ( falls silvery-blue with darker veins ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils in groups of 4 or more, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil that is dry during summer. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering. Thrives in England.
They are planted 2 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris graminea
A clump-forming perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 3 feet, that is native to meadows and open woodlands in temperate Eurasia ( France to Poland to the northern Caucasus ).
The very narrow, grass-like leaves, up to 40 x 1 inches, are blue-green.
The very fragrant, purple ( with white falls that are veined blue ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during solitary on the stem during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any humus-rich soil. They do not like root disturbance.

Iris hexagona

* historic archive photos


Iris histrioides 'Major'
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 9 x 3 inches, that is native to Turkey.
This Iris is excellent for using in pots and outdoor planters.
The tubular, pointed leaves, up to 20 inches in length, are glossy green.
The intense mid-blue ( spotted white ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during late winter before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 3 inches deep during early autumn. Propagation is from offsets.

* photos taken on Mar 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 1 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Iris hoogiana
A stolon spreading perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 feet, that is native to Turkestan. The leaves, up to 20 inches in length, are bright green.
This Iris goes dormant during summer when it prefers to be dry.
The fragrant, lavender-blue flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne 2 to 3 on a stem during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil. Bulbs should be planted at a depth of 2 inches.

Iris hookeri

* historic archive photo


Iris innominata ( Golden Iris )
A dense, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 1 x 2 feet, that is native to southwest Oregon and northwestern California.
The narrow leaves, up to 15 x 0.15 inches in size, are deep green.
The creamy to golden-yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne single or in pairs on a stem during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, sandy, well drained soil. They do not like root disturbance and should be divided only if necessary during early autumn ( Do not let the roots dry out ). Plant the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches deep.
They usually flower in 2 to 3 years from seed.

Iris japonica ( Japanese Fringed Iris )
A rhizomatous, evergreen, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 6.6 feet, that is native to mountain forests in eastern China and Japan. It is very attractive in the woodland garden and in pots.
The flat, lance-shaped leaves, up to 32 x 3 inches, are glossy mid to deep green.
The leaves are borne in "fans".
The lilac-purple ( with deep lilac spots and yellow crests ) flowers, up to 2.3 inches wide, are borne on branched stems during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( only north of zone 7 if mulched and on a protected site ) in partial to medium shade on acidic, humus-rich soil. Easy to grow and tolerant of shade. Plant very shallow with the rhizome partially exposed. Propagation is from division immediately after flowering.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




'Ledger's Variety'
Hardier

Iris kernerana
A clump forming perennial, reaching up to 20 inches, that is native to northern Turkey.
The very narrow, reed-like leaves, up to 18 x 0.2 inches in size, are bright green.
The yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun and easy to grow on just about any well drained soil. They do not like root disturbance.

Iris lacustris ( Dwarf Lake Iris )
A low rhizomatous Iris, that is similar to Iris cristata but is native to the Great Lakes region on the northern shores of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. It is also found in places around Lake Superior. It is considered threatened with extinction throughout its native range. The largest populations of Dwarf Lake Iris are found along the Lake Huron shoreline from Kincardine north to Tobermory but are under severe threat from shoreline development, especially for cottages. Another population on the southeast coast of Manitoulin Island is more secure. There are a few inland populations also found on the Bruce Peninsula, mostly along the edges of small lakes and marshes. It is most often found in the wild under the treeline along sandy or gravelly beaches. Protected populations can be found in Bruce Peninsula National Park and MacGregor Point Provincial Park in Ontario. It is recorded as native to the sandy soils in the western part of Windsor, Ontario before 1901 and may have also occurred on ideal habitat around Leamington/Point Pelee and Grand Bend before that. It was also native along the Vermillion River near Sandusky, Ohio but has not been seen there since the late 1800s. Dwarf Lake Iris was probably also widespread along the western shore of Lake Michigan to as far south as Milwaukee before 1900. It can eventually form very large colonies over a long period of time.
The leaves, up to 7 x 0.5 inches in size, are bright green.
The blue ( rarely white ) flowers, up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) inches wide, are borne atop a stem up to 4 inches tall. They appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 ( 7 in western Europe only ) in partial shade on moist, sandy soil. It is tolerant of both alkaline and acidic soil but does not enjoy drought or clay soil. It is illegal to collect wild Dwarf Lake Iris in both Canada or the U.S. It likely thrives in the British Isles where it would make a valuable landscape plant.

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Iris laevigata ( Japanese Water Iris )
A vigorous, rhizomatous, upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, that is native to eastern Asia ( from Lake Baikal to Kamchatka; south to northern China, Korea and Japan ).
The very narrow but sturdy, grassy leaves, up to 36 x 1.6 ( rarely over 24 ) inches in size, are pale-green.
The deep bluish-purple flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne in groups of 3 during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on wet, deep, humus-rich soil or shallow water. Tolerant of and actually prefers clay and swampy sites.

'Alba'
White flowers

'Albopurpurea'
Flowers are pale blue with white flecks

'Atropurpurea'
Flowers are violet-purple.

'Colchesteri'
Flowers are white with blue mottling.

'Elegantissima'
Also called 'Variegata'. Silver variegated foliage constrasts well with the bright blue flowers.

'Rose Queen'
Rose-pink flowers. Is actually a hybrid between Iris laevigata & I. kaempferi.

'Snowdrift'
Large white lowers with yellow mottling at the petal bases.

Iris magnifica
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 1 feet, that is native to central Asia and Russia. The leaves, up to 24 x 2 inches, are glossy green above, gray-green beneath.
The leaves die down during summer and the plant goes dormant.
The pale-lilac ( with deeper veins ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils in groups of 4 or more, during spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 2 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris missouriensis ( Rocky Mountain Iris )
A dense clumping perennial, reaching up to 20 inches x 4 + feet, that is native to the western North America ( from British Columbia to Athabasca, Alberta to central North Dakota; south to California to central New Mexico to western Nebraska ). It is endangered in Alberta, North Dakota and Nebraska.
The narrow leaves, up to 0.25 inches wide, are gray-green.
The white or bluish-purple flowers are borne late spring into summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, moist to wet soil. It is often found in the wild in marshy areas that finally dry out during the summer. Divide clumps during early autumn or early spring.

* photo taken by C.A. Kutzleb @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Iris x nelsonii ( Louisiana Iris Hybrids )
These are the hybrids between Iris brevicaulis, I fulva and I giganticaerulea.
They are perennials, forming a clump up to 3.5 x 4 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. Some records include: 2 years - 3.5 x 4 feet.
The strap-shaped leaves, up to 36 inches in length, are bright green.
The bright reddish-purple ( varies in some of the cultivars ) flowers, up to 5 inches across ( up to 8 inches in some of the cultivars beneath ), are borne on zigzag stems during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic to neutral, humus-rich soil. Very tolerant of summer heat as well as swampy conditions. Mulching is recommended during winter. Install new plants by spreading the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface. Propagation is from division during early autumn or early spring.

'Black Gamecock'
Vigorous but not invasive, only reaching up to 2 x 1.5 feet, bearing blackish-purple flowers during early summer. Very heat tolerant.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Dixie Deb'
Bright yellow flowers.

'Fulvala'
Flowers range from reddish-purple to bluish-purple.

'Marjorie Brummitt'
The bicolor flowers are red and pink.

'Pristine Beauty'
Intense greenish-blue flowers.

'Wheelhorse'
Red flowers.

Iris orchioides
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 8 inches, that is native to Turkestan. The leaves, up to 12 x 2 inches, are glossy green above, gray-green beneath.
The leaves die down during summer and the plant goes dormant.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils in groups of 4 or more, during spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 2 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris orientalis
A clump forming perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to wet meadows and marshes in Greece and Turkey.
The very narrow, reed-like leaves, up to 40 x 1.3 inches, are blue-green.
The creamy-white ( with golden-yellow marked falls ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on just about any soil including clay. They do not like root disturbance.

'Shelford Giant'
Larger, more vigorous form, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 feet.

Iris pallida ( Sweet Iris )
Considered a "Tall Bearded Iris"; it is a spreading, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4+ feet, that is native to northern Italy and the Balkans.
The handsome, sword-like leaves, up to 24 x 1.6 inches, are bright green to blue-green. In mild climates it becomes an evergreen.
The abundant, fragrant, light purple flowers, up to 4.3 inches across, are borne during early summer. The blue flowers have yellow beards.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on fertile, acidic, well drained soil. Plant very shallow leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center.
Easy to grow, rarely bothered by diseases.

'Argentea Variegata'
Gray-green leaves are striped white.

'Aurea Variegata'
Reaches up to 20 x 33 inches ( possibly more ), with golden-yellow striped leaves.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 4 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 8 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


Iris prismatica

* historic archive photos


Iris pseudoacorus ( Yellow Water Iris )
A vigorous, deciduous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 7 feet, that is native to Eurasia ( from Ireland to western Siberia; south to northern Africa and the Middle East ). It is also naturalized in much of North America. Yellow Water Iris is excellent next to the water where it is a much more colorful Cattail replacement.
The impressive, thick, narrow foliage, up to 6 feet x 1.2 inches in size, is blue-green.
The prolific, large, mid-yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne on glossy, branched stems up to 7 feet high during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun or partial shade. Tolerant of and actually requires permanently wet, deep, fertile soil.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken on May 26 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Alba'
Much shorter, only reaching up to 3 feet, with white flowers.

'Flore-Plena'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with double, mid-yellow flowers.

'Golden Queen'
Large flowers are golden-yellow.

'Variegata'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with foliage that is variegated golden-yellow when young.
The yellow flowers are hardly impressive but this form is grown for its foliage anyway.

Iris pumila ( Miniature Dwarf Bearded Iris )
A long lived, slow, rhizome spreading, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 20 x 32 inches, with sword-shaped leaves up to 6 x 0.6 inches. This plant looks great in the rock garden, even when not in bloom. It is native from eastern Europe to the Ural Mountains in western Russia.
The stemless, white, yellow or purple flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during mid spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( zones 2 to 4 with heavy mulch on protected sites ) in full sun on fertile, acidic, well drained soil. Plant very shallow leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center. These are much easier to grow than the Tall Bearded Iris. It is rarely bothered by pests or disease.

'Bee Wings'
The flowers are yellow ( patched brown )

'Blue Doll'
Lavender-blue flowers.

'Boo'
The flowers are white ( bearded violet )

'Bright White'
The white flowers are borne during early spring.

'Campbellii'
The flowers are violet-blue.

'Chieftain'
The flowers are bluish-black.

'Cyanea'
The flowers are pinkish-purple with a blue beard.

'Laced Lemonade'
Wavy petalled, golden-yellow flowers.

'Little Buccaneeer'
Flowers are red with an orange beard.

'Twink'
The flowers are purple with a beard that is white and veined in purple.

Iris reticulata
A bulbous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 9 x 6 inches, that is native to western Asia and Russia.
The tubular, pointed leaves, up to 20 inches, are glossy green above, gray-green beneath.
The very fragrant, purple ( with orange marked falls ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during late winter with the emerging foliage.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, very well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering. They go dormant during summer and should not have supplemental irrigation during that time. The bulbs are planted 5 inches deep and apart during early autumn. Propagation is from offsets.

* historical archive photo


'Cantab'
Bright blue flowers with orange marked falls.

'Clairette'
Bright blue flowers with deep blue falls that are marked white.

'Jeannine'
Fragrant, purple flowers with falls that are marked orange.

'J.S.Dijt'
Fragrant, reddish-purple flowers that are marked orange.

'Violet Beauty'
Flowers that are reddish-purple and marked orange.

Iris ruthenica
A dwarf, deciduous herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 8 x 6 inches, that is native to eastern Europe and Asia. Excellent for use in the rock garden.
The very narrow, grass-like leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are green.
The purple ( with white falls that are veined blue ) flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Tolerant of alkaline soil.

* historical archive photo


Iris sanguinea
Closely related to Iris sibirica, reaching up to 3 x 4 feet bearing large, bright blue flowers. It is native to eastern Russia, Korea, China and Japan.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Kamayama'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with striking purple flowers.
'Niche's White'
Wite flowers; otherwise similar to species.

Iris setosa ( Bristly Iris )
Also called Arctic Iris or Beachhead Iris. A compact, deciduous herbaceous perennial reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 3.5+ feet, that is native to eastern Siberia, Japan, Alaska and the Yukon. Excellent used as a groundcover when massed, an excellent northland substitute for Liriope. It is usually found in swamps in the wild.
The attractive, very narrow, grass-like leaves, up to 24 x 0.8 inches in size, are green.
The red-purple flowers, up to 3.5 inches wide, with wide falls are borne on branching stems during late spring into early summer. The flowers are similar to that of Iris sibirica.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


var. canadensis
Similar but lower growing, reaching only up to 2 x 1.5 feet, and is native to Canada ( Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Maine ).
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Iris sibirica ( Siberian Iris )
A very long lived, herbaceous, rhizomatous, dense clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet, that is native from eastern Europe to Lake Baikal region in Siberia. Looks great in a moist border or next to water.
Some of the more vigorous varieties form thick clumps which can even crowd out weeks, giving the Siberian Iris potential groundcover status on some sites.
The narrow, grassy leaves, up to 40 x 0.3 inches in size, are luxuriant mid-green.
The foliage remains attractive all season and turns to yellow late in autumn.
The profuse, blue or white flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on branched stems during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, fertile soil. Easy to grow - they are deep rooted however still prefer moist soil and are even tolerant of flooding as well as heat, wind, hail and fire. On heavier soils, the Siberian Iris is moderately drought tolerant however on sandy soils they are not. They are more tolerant of hot humid summers than the Bearded Iris's. Sturdy stemmed - these do not usually need to be staked.
They should be planted with the top of the rhizome 1 to 2 inches below the soil surface.
They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out. They are easy to grow but somewhat slow to establish ( usually 2 years ) and often don't bloom during the first year. Keep moist during the first year ( they become more drought tolerant later on ) and do not fertilize until established either.
They are not eaten by deer.




* photos taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


'All in the Stipple'
Reaching up to 38 inches, with ruffled, violet-blue flowers with a deeper violet-blue eye.

'Anniversary'
The flowers are white with falls that are marked yellow.

'Baby Sister'
Fast growing but in habit, only reaching up to 16 inches x 2 feet, with abundant, large, bright blue flowers.

'Blue King'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with large blue flowers borne during early summer.

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Bordoletta'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with clear deep blue flowers borne over a long season.

'Butter & Sugar'
Reaches up to 4 feet with white ( with bright yellow falls ) flowers.



'Caesar's Brother'
Vigorous in habit, reaching a maximum size of 4.5 x 4 feet, with deep violet-blue flowers, up to 3.5 inches across, borne during late spring. Tolerant of the occasional drought due to its deep roots.

* photos taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 2015 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 13 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Dreaming Yellow'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with bright yellow flowers with darker yellow markings.

'Ego'
Reaches up to 3 x 2 feet with broad, ruffled, bluish-violet flowers.

'Eric The Red'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with deep red-purple flowers blotched with white on the falls.

'Ewan'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with velvety flowers that are rich wine-red with golden-yellow markings.

'Ego'
The ruffled flowers are blue.

'Flight of the Butterflies'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with violet-blue flowers that are intricately veined white.

'Forrest McCord'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with medium-blue ( with white and golden-yellow blazed falls ) flowers with a distinctive white rim., borne during late spring.

'Fourfold White'
Reaches up to 4 x 3 feet, with large, waxy, pure white ( with yellow hafts ) flowers, borne during early to mid summer.

'Frosty Rim'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with velvety, deep bluish-violet flowers with falls that have a thin white edge. The flowers are borne during late spring into early summer.

'Harpswell Happiness'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with creamy-white flowers.

'Harpswell Haze'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with pastel pale-blue flowers with mid-blue falls, borne during early summer.

'Little White'
A low growing, dwarf form, reaching a maximum height of 2 feet, with white ( with golden-yellow halfs ) flowers, up to 3.5 inches across.

'Lydia Winter'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with white flowers that have pink falls that fade to lavender, borne during early to mid summer.

'Miss Duluth'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with deep reddish-purple flowers, up to 4.5 inches across, borne during early to mid summer.

'Navy Brass'
The deep blue flowers are marked with golden-yellow.

'Orville Fay'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with mid-blue ( deeper veined ) flowers, up to 5 inches across.

'Pansy Purple'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with purple flowers.

'Papillon'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with soft pale blue flowers.

'Persimmon'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with rich, medium blue flowers.

'Pirate Prince'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with deep bluish-purple ( with rich purple falls ) flowers, up to 4.5 inches across, borne during early summer.

'Polly Dodge'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with deep wine-red flowers.

'Red Passion'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with deep red flowers, up to 4 inches across, borne during early summer.

'Royal Blue'

* photo taken on May 9 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Royal Herald'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with rich purple flowers, borne during early summer.

'Ruffled Velvet'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with ruffled, velvety-purple ( with black and golden-yellow markings ) flowers borne during early summer.

'Sea Shadows'
The flowers are bright blue with deep blue falls.

'Shirley Pope'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with showy, velvety, deep reddish-purple flowers with contrasting white signals, borne during early to mid summer.

'Silver Edge'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with bright blue ( edged in silver ) flowers borne early to mid summer.

* photos taken on May 21 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Sky Wings'
Reaches up to 3 x 2.5 feet, with light blue ( marked yellow ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, borne during early summer.

* photos taken on May 11 2015 in Towson, MD


'Snow Queen'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with pure white flowers.



* photo taken on June 1 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City
* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 2 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Sparkling Rose'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with purplish-pink ( with bronze veining ) flowers.

'Summer Skies'
Reaches up to 32 inches, with flowers, up to 3.3 inches across, that are borne during early summer. The pastel violet flowers have bright blue falls and yellow hafts.

'Teal Velvet'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very velvety, deep red-purple flowers, up to 5.5 inches across, borne during late spring into early summer.

'Tealwood'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very deep purple flowers.

'True Blue'
Reaches up to 2 feet with deep blue flowers.

'White Sails'
Reaches up to 3 feet with white flowers.

'White Swirl'
Vigorous growing, reaching up to 4 feet, with ruffled white flowers.

Iris spuria ( Butterfly Iris )
A rhizomatous, attractive, upright, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 7 feet ( usually under 3 feet ), that is native to saline marshes and wet meadows in Europe ( England to Hungary and southeast ) and northern Iran.
The very narrow, reed-like leaves, up to 12 inches, are blue-green.
The bluish-purple flowers, up to 4 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on just about any moist, fertile soil. Tolerant of wet soil, alkaline soil, saline soil and even saline marshes. They prefer hot summers and do not like root disturbance.

subsp ochroleuca
Fragrant flowers are white with a yellow blotch.

'Shelford Giant'
Reaches up to 6.5 feet with creamy-white flowers with golden-yellow marked falls.

Iris stolonifera
A stolon spreading perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 feet, with leaves, up to 2 feet in length, and brown ( marked blue with a blue beard ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, that are borne during late spring. It is native to central Asia.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil that is preferably dry during summer. Bulbs should be planted at a depth of 2 inches.

'Zwanenburg Beauty'
The blue flowers are edged in bronze ( bearded bronze-red )

Iris susiana ( Morning Iris )
A stolon spreading perennial, reaching up to 16 inches x 1 feet, that is native to Lebanon where it may be extinct in the wild. The leaves are up to 12 x 1 inches in size.
The gray ( veined and blotched deep purple ) flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on very well drained soil. Bulbs should be planted at a depth of 2 inches.

'Chione'
The bluish-white ( deeper veined ) flowers have a brown blotched beard.

'Clara'
Flowers are white ( veined black )

'Clotho'
The flowers are violet with a black beard.

'Mercury'
Violet-purple flowers with a bronze beard.

'Thor'
The flowers are gray and veined with purple.

'Vera'
The flowers are brown and tinted with purple.

Iris taochia
A deciduous, dense, clumping perennial, reaching up to 14 inches, that is native to northeastern Turkey.
The upright leaves are up to 1 inch wide.
The flowers, up to 2.8 inches wide, are purple with a beard that is white tipped yellow. They are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on dryish, well drained soils in regions with hot summers.

Iris tectorum ( Japanese Roof Iris )
A rapid spreading, rhizomatous, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 6 feet ( usually 1.5 x 3 ), that is native from central China; south to Burma. It is now naturalized in Japan.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 24 x 2 inches, are mid-green. The dense foliage clumps remain attractive through the summer.
The bluish-purple flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne late spring into early summer. The flowers have frilled white crests and are spotted purple.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to medium shade, thriving best where winters are cold and dry while summers are hot with abundant rainfall. Easy to grow and tolerant of shade and heat but prefers partial to medium shade on acidic, humus-rich, well drained soil. Easy to grow and tolerant of full shade, heat, wet and alkaline soil. Insect pests or disease are extremely rare. Plant very shallow with the rhizome partially exposed. Propagation is from division ( every 2 years ) immediately after flowering. Easy to raise from seed.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City


'Alba'
Flowers are white.

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Ikeda Sunbeam'

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Variegata'
Foliage is striped and streaked creamy-white.




Iris tenax ( Oregon Iris )
A herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 14 inches x 2 feet, that is native to open grassy sites on the Pacific Coast of North America ( from southwest Washington to southwest Oregon ). The leaves, up to 2 feet in length, are deep green.
The cream, pink or lavender-blue flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne singly or in pairs on a stem during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on moist, acidic to alkaline soil. They do not like root disturbance and should be divided only if necessary during early autumn ( Do not let the roots dry out ). Plant the rhizomes 1 to 2 inches deep.
They usually flower in 2 to 3 years from seed.

Iris tingiana
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 8 inches ( usually around 2 feet ), that is native to the Mediterranean. The tubular, reed-like leaves, up to 18 inches, are glossy green. The foliage goes dormant during summer.
The blue ( with yellow marked falls ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne singly or in pairs on the stems during spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on light well drained soil. They prefer hot summers, a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 8 inches deep during early autumn. They are prone to damage from late spring frost in regions where this is an occurance.
Forced bulbs do not establish well in the landscape.

Iris tridentata ( Bay Blueflag )
A perennial, reaching a height of 1.5 feet, that is native to wetlands in the southeastern U.S.
The foliage is blue at first, turning to green.
The blue-violet ( with white and yellow interior markings ) flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil.

* historic archive photos


Iris unguicularis ( Algerian Iris )
Also called Iris stylosa and Winter Iris. A dense clump forming, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet, that is native to Tunisia and northern Algeria as well as western Turkey and Syria.
The arching, grassy leaves are up to 38 x 1 inches. The foliage is gray-green.
The fragrant, short-stemmed, lavender ( marked white and yellow ) flowers, up to 3 inches in length, are borne all winter long ( or early spring in colder parts of its range ). The flowering is best after a hot summer. Due to its long season of bloom, a single hard freeze may kill some of the flowers however more will flush from buds underground.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on dryish, poor, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a hot, dry, sunny sheltered site such as along a south facing wall. In warmer regions such as the southeastern U.S. any sunny site will do. Trim the foliage during late summer to ripen the rhizomes. Algerian Iris strongly dislikes root disturbance - they are better off not divided.

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=602

'Mary Barnard'
Wide foliage and violet flowers.

'Starker's Pink'
Narrow leaves and purplish-pink flowers.

Iris verna ( Dwarf Violet Iris )
A fast spreading perennial that is similar to Iris cristata but with foliage that is more upright and deeper glossier green. It is native to the eastern U.S. ( from Missouri to southern Ohio to central Pennsylvania to Ocean City, MD; south to Arkansas to northwest Florida to central South Carolina...it is absent from the Mississippi Valley ). It is endangered in Missouri, Arkansas, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland. A low growing, groundcover Iris, it reaches around 6 inches in height and its foliage persists during the winter unlike similar Iris cristata. The leaves are up to 12 x 0.3 inches in size.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade preferring wooded conditions where it is easy to grow on dryish, acidic, well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Aug 25 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Iris versicolor ( Northern Blue Flag Iris )
A very vigorous, rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4 feet, that is native to wet rich swamps in eastern North America ( from British Columbia to east-central Saskatchewan to Winisk, Ontario to Labrador; south to California to Missouri to Wisconsin to Ohio to Virginia ). It is critically endangered in Saskatchewan. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was widespread and abundant throughout there as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It will even grow in wet soil to shallow water and is great for the waters edge.
The attractive, upright foliage clumps are composed of sword-shaped, blue-green leaves, up to 40 x 1.5 inches. The foliage remains attractive all season long.
The bluish-purple flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in sun to partial shade on average to wet, fertile, heavy soil. It can survive in up to 6 inches of water.
It is not eaten by rabbits or deer.

* photos taken on May 25 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville


Iris virginica ( Southern Blue Flag )
A dense, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from Texas to northern Virginia & Prince Georges C., Maryland, south to central Florida ).
The deep green to gray-green leaves are up to 40 x 2.3 inches, though rarely as much as 6 feet.
The fragrant, blue flowers are up to 4 inches across, borne during late spring.
It is evergreen from zone 7 and south.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on rich, moist to wet, acidic soil. It thrives especially well in shallow water. Southern Blue Flag is rarely bothered by insect pests or diseases.

* photo taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photos


'Contraband Girl'
Very vigorous, forming huge clumps, up to 6 + feet across, bearing large, bluish-purple flowers on stems up to 6 feet high.
The leaves are exceptionally large, reaching up to 5 feet.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville


var shrevei ( Shreve's Iris )
More compact in habit, reaching up to 3 feet in height, but still eventually forming sizable clumps. Shreve's Iris is native to Midwestern North America ( Nebraska to Minnesota to Ontario to western New York; south to Texas to South Carolina ).
The attractive, narrow, sword-shaped leaves, up to 30 x 1 inch, are deep green.
The flowers very similar to that of the species.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.


Iris winogradowii
A stoloniferous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 3 inches, that is native to the Caucasus mountains of Russia. The tubular, pointed leaves, up to 16 inches, are glossy green above.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during late winter before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on light, alkaline, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site and require wet summers, dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 3 inches deep during early autumn ( carefully - the fleshy roots are easily damaged ) and may need protection ( such as old window screening pegged on soil ) from mice. Propagation is from offsets.

Iris xiphioides ( English Iris )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 foot x 8 inches, that is native to the Mediterranean. Excellent for naturalizing.
The tubular, reed-like leaves, up to 1.5 feet, are glossy green.
The deep blue ( falls marked golden-yellow ) flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne singly or paired on the stems, during mid summer. The are hybrid forms that also come in white, pink, purple and blue.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on fertile, moist soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 8 inches deep during early autumn. Propagation is from offsets.
Forced bulbs do not establish well in the landscape.

Iris xiphium ( Spanish Iris )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 x 8 inches, that is native the Mediterranean. The tubular, reed-like leaves, up to 28 inches, are glossy green.
The purple ( falls streaked with yellow ) flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne singly or paired on the stem, during early summer. There are many Spanish Iris hybrids that come in yellow, purple or bronze flowering forms.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on light, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 8 inches deep during early autumn. It is often recommended to lift the bulbs after flowering to ripen them and then to replant them in early autumn.
Forced bulbs to not establish well in the landscape.
Propagation is from offsets.

* historic archive photos


HYBRIDS OF COMPLEX PARENTAGE

Long lived perennials with sword shaped leaves for full sun. After blooming cut the flower stalks back to 1 inch to prevent seed formation.
Fertilize all Iris with a 5-10-10 fertilizer during early spring. Too much nitrogen may impede blooming so always use a fertilizer with higher phosphorous or potassium content. Reblooming Iris's should be fertilized again just after the spring flowering.
Fertilize around the plants and not directly on them as a direct hit can burn the rhizomes.
Mulching is not recommended and can encourage rot on these plants that prefer good drainage ( an exception is mulching up to 4 inches deep after soil freeze during early winter to protect roots in regions with severe winters ).
Iris borer sometimes occurs and are deadly because they eat the tuber. They are easily controlled by squishing them within the leaf then removing and burning that leaf. If they are not killed, they eventually tunnel down the leaf where they will finally eat the tuber. Leaf spot also occurs though rarely. It can be also controlled by removing and burning the affected leaf.
Plant the rhizomes slightly below the soil surface with feeder roots penetrating the soil beneath. Planting is best done in very early spring.

* photo of unknown internet source


STANDARD DWARF BEARDED
These Iris pumila hybrids reach up to 16 inches x 1 foot, with flowers, up to 4 inches across, borne during mid spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

'Baby Snowflake'
White flowers.

'Baby Blessed'
Repeat bloomer with bright yellow flowers.

'Bingo'
Deep purple flowers.

'Blue Denim'
Bright blue flowers.

'Bronze Babe'
Flowers are yellow with a bronze beard.

'Cherry Garden'
The velvety flowers are rich red.

'Church Stroke'
The flowers are bright purple with a lighter colored beard.

'Golden Fair'
Golden-yellow flowers.

* photos taken on Apr 18 2017 in Pikesville, MD


'Green Spot'
Flowers are creamy-white with a green patch beard.

'Hammered Copper'
Flowers are orangish-copper.

'Irish Sea'
The flowers are bright green with a blue beard.

'Jewel Baby'
Repeat bloomer with deep purple flowers.

'Katy Petts'
The flowers are mid-blue patched with violet ( with a pale blue beard )

'Melon Honey'
Soft apricot-orange flowers.

* photo taken on May 18 2014 in Columbia, MD

'Plum Wine'
Repeat bloomer with purple-red flowers shaded violet.

'Refined'
Repeat bloomer with pale yellow flowers.

'Royal Contrast'
Rich purple flowers are bearded white.

'Ruby Crown'
Reddish-purple flowers.

'Sun Doll'
Repeat bloomer with yellow flowers

'Sweetie'
Mid-pink flowers.

'White Gem'
White flowers.

* photo taken on May 18 2014 in Columbia, MD


INTERMEDIATE AND BORDER BEARDED
These hybrids reach up to 32 inches x 1 foot, with flowers , up to 4.7 inches across.

'Blessed Again'
Repeat bloomer with light yellow flowers.

'Double Up'
Repeat bloomer with blue and white bicolor flowers that have a violet-purple border.

'Drummer Boy'
The light blue ( with darker beard ) flowers are borne during late spring.

'Frenchi'
The purplish-pink ( with red-purple ) flowers are borne during early summer.

'Honey Glazed'
Repeat bloomer with pale yellow flowers with deep yellow falls.

'I Bless'
Creamy-white flowers nearly all summer.

'Little Reb'
The white and purple flowers are borne during early summer.

'Low Ho Silver'
Silvery-white flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Red Orchid'
The deep red ( with golden-yellow beard ) flowers are borne during late spring.

'Solo'
The flowers are creamy-yellow ( with golden-yellow patches ) flowers are borne during late spring.

'Tulare'
The golden-yellow ( bearded orange ) flowers are borne during late spring.

'Ultra Echo'
Repeat bloomer with lavender flowers.

TALL BEARDED

Also called Iris barbatus. Creeping rhizome spreading perennials, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5+ feet ( unless otherwise noted ).
The leaves, up to 40 inches in length, are evergreen in mild climates. The flowers, up to 10 inches ( rarely over 6 inches ) across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( possibly to zone 2 if very well mulched on a protected site ) in full sun on well drained soil. They do not enjoy the excessively humid summers of the Gulf Coast region or Florida and are prone to rot on soils that are poorly drained. They should be planted with the top of the rhizome exposed to fresh air and sun. In climates where winters are severe and snowfall does not occur, the rhizomes can be covered in light straw for the winter. Fertilizers with high nitrogen content should not be used as they can encourage rot. Remove old flower stalks immediately after blooming...especially during autumn when frozen stalks provide a pathway for bacterial rot to get down to the rhizome. Plant very shallow just barely leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed but packing them in wall. Mulch newly planted Iris with straw to protect from freeze/thaw damage during the first winter ( snowcover also provides protection ). A mid-summer fertilizer will coax repeat bloomers into blooming again. They are propagated from division after flowering ( every 3 to 4 years ) disposing the old woody center. Tall Bearded Irises should be planted during late summer in cold climates, early autumn in mild climates. Cut back foliage by at least 1/2 before transplanting to prevent water loss while the rhizomes settle in to their new site.
Iris borer ( eats and hollows out the tubers ) may be a problem in some areas. Removing and disposing of dead foliage in late February or early March will remove the eggs and much of the resulting larvae.




* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on May 6 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on May 8 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos showing tuberous root structure on vigorous Bearded Iris...taken Mar 28 in Odenton, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 in Odenton, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD


* this is not a complete listing, that would take an entire website in itself

'Allegiance'
Nave blue flowers.

'Batik'



'Best Bet'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very pale blue standards and deep blue falls. Repeat blooming.

* photos taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Bountiful Harvest'
White and purple flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Blue Note Blues'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with very fragrant, ruffled, bright blue flowers with broad blue falls with white beards.

'Buckwheat'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very fragrant, golden-yellow flowers that repeat bloom.

'Cantina'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with fragrant, red-violet flowers that are somewhat flushed blue. Repeat blooming.

'Champagne Elegance'
Flowers with ruffled petals are white and pink bicolor. Repeat bloomer.

'Christmas Time'
Flowers are white with red beard.

'Clarence'
Flowers are white with violet-falls. This is one of the best repeat bloomers.

'Credo'
Deep red flowers with a bronze-tipped beard.

'Cup Race'
White flowers

'Dawn of Change'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with light lavender-blue flowers with pale yellow falls.

'Decadence'
Reaches up to 4 feet with stunning blooms with frilled orange standards, purplish-red falls edged in orangish-yellow and bright orange beards. The flowers appear during early summer.

'Eleanor's Pride'
Pale blue flowers.

'Eternal Bliss'
Flowers are violet with orange falls on this repeat bloomer blooming spring and again August into October.

* photos taken on May 21 2011 @ Brookside Gardens "Party with the Peonies" tour



'Feed Back'
Mid blue-violet flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Firebreather'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with intense yellowish-orange flowers during early summer.

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Foggy Dew'
Flowers are white stippled with blue.

'Glazed Gold'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with intense yellowish-orange flowers with a deep yellow beard.

'Grape Adventure'
Reaches up to 45 inches, with velvety, deep violet-purple flowers.



* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Gypsy Jewels'
Intense red flowers.

'Immortality'
Reaches up to 3 feet. Fragrant, pure white flowers on this repeat bloomer that may even bloom 3 times in a year.

* photos taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 17 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Late Lilac'
Lilac pink flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Latin Lover'
Flowers are white ( veined with purple ) with a deep purple beard.




* photo taken on May 26 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Loop the Loop'
The flowers are pure white, edged in violet.

'Lord Baltimore'
Flowers are bright blue with a violet-blue beard.

'Misty Twilight'
Pale violet-blue flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Monet's Blue'
Reaches up to 3.3 feet.



* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD





'Mother Earth'
Reaches up to 37 inches, with bright pink standards and lilac-purple falls. Repeat blooming.

One Desire'
Mid pink flowers.

'Orange Harvest'
Reaches up to 2 feet, with very fragrant, intense orange flowers. Repeat bloomer.

'Painted Clouds'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with deep pink ( with light pink falls ) flowers that are borne during early summer, often repeating late summer if deadheaded.

'Patrician'
White and golden-yellow flowers.

'Perilous Journey'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with deep purple flowers with blue beards and a blue zone.

'Pink Attraction'
Reaches up to 3 feet. Ruffled, intense bright pink flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'Princess Amarantha'
Flowers are reddish-purple with a red beard.

'Queen Dorothy'
Flowers are white with violet edged on a plant that is nearly everblooming.

'Radiant Light'
Flowers are orange.

'Rapture in Blue'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with ruffled, bright blue flowers borne on well branched stems during early summer.

'Raspberry Ripples'
Flowers are raspberry-pink with a red beard.

'Red at Night'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with velvety flowers that are deep red with yellow beards that are tipped red.

'Rippling Waters'
Flowers are bright violet-blue with a red beard.

'Rondo'
White flowers are edged in red-violet.

'Rosalie Figge'
Reaches up to 38 inches, with lightly ruffled, solidly purple flowers. Repeat blooming.

'Royal Touch'
The satiny flowers are deep blue.

'Sea Captain'
Sky blue flowers.

'Silver Dividends'
White flowers on this everbloomer.

'Silver Fox'
Reaches up to 33 inches, with ruffled white flowers that have a bluish tinge contrasting with a beard that is intense orange-red tipped in reddish-purple.

'Skating Party'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet, with pure white flowers and light yellow beards.

'Smart Girl'
Orange flowers have a red beard.

'Snow Cloud'
The bluish-white flowers have a pale blue beard.

'Spartan'
Reaches up to 3 feet with ruffled, deep red flowers during late spring.

'Spreckles'
The flowers are yellow and speckled with red.

'Stepping Out'
The white flowers are edged in violet.

'Study in Back'
The flowers are deep red and black.

'Sugar Blues'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very fragrant, deep blue flowers. Repeat blooming.

'Suky'
Flowers are violet with a white zone on this repeat bloomer.

'Summer Olympics'
Light yellow flowers on this repeat bloomer.

* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Symphony'
The flowers are bright blue with deeper veins.

'Tangerine Sky'
Orange flowers.

'The Citadel'
The flowers are pure white.

'The Monarch'
The flowers are plum-purple with a golden-yellow beard.

'Titan's Glory'

Very vigorous, reaching up to 3 feet with fragrant, intense deep violet-purple, ruffled flowers during mid to late spring.

* photos taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD


'Tuxedo'
Bluish-black flowers.

* photos taken on May 11 2011 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on May 24 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Violet Music'
Violet flowers on this repeat bloomer.

'War Lord'
Red flowers.

'Warm Laughter'
Purplish-pink flowers.

'West Coast'
Flowers are orangish-gold in color.

'White Lightning'
The flowers are white with a yellow beard.

'Zurich'
This repeat bloomer bears flowers that are white with yellow beards.

DUTCH HYBRIDS ( Dutch Iris )
Perennial bulbs, reaching a maximum size of 2 feet x 8 inches, that is native the Mediterranean. The tubular, reed-like leaves, up to 28 inches, are glossy green.
The flowers, up to 9 inches across, are borne singly or paired on the stem, during early summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on light, well drained soil. They prefer a sheltered site, and require dead-heading and fertilizing after flowering.
They are planted 8 inches deep during early autumn.
Forced bulbs to not establish well in the landscape.
Propagation is from offsets.

'Frans Hals'
The flowers are reddish-purple with violet-bronze falls.

'Golden Emperor'
Golden-yellow flowers.

'Imperator'
Deep blue flowers with orange marked falls.

'Lemon Queen'
Bright yellow flowers.

'Professor Blaauw'
Mid blue flowers with yellow marked falls.

'Wedgewood'
Pale blue flowers.

'White Van Vliet'
Flowers are white with golden-yellow blotching

'White Excelsior'
White flowers with falls that are streaked green-yellow.

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