Monday, December 5, 2011

Snowberry, Coralberry & Wolfberry

Symphoricarpos

Close relatives of the Lonicera - Honeysuckle that are native to North America and are grown mostly for their decorative berries. Propagation is from seed ( nicked then soaked in water for 12 hours ) or for cultivars - a) rooted suckers during autumn b) softwood cuttings taken in summer c) hardwood cuttings of 8 inch length taken during autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


Symphoricarpos albus ( Eastern Snowberry )
A fast growing, medium-size but wide-spreading, suckering, wiry-stemmed shrub that is native to North America ( from Skagway, Alaska to British Columbia to south-central Northwest Territories to Norway House, Manitoba to to Sandy Lake, Ontario to Kingfisher Lake, Ontario to Fort Albany, Ontario to Gaspe region of Quebec to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to Colorado to Minnesota to central Ohio to western Virginia to northern Delaware ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It has also naturalized in the British Isles. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 8 feet; largest on record - 10 x 13 feet, however one clone was found to be over 660 feet wide in Minnesota.
The oppositely arranged, blunt tipped leaves are up to 4 x 1.2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is blue-green with no fall color.
The small pink flowers, up to 0.25 inches wide, are borne in clusters during spring.
They are followed by showy persistent berries, up to 0.5 inches across, that ripen to pure white. The berries often persists through most of the winter.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 on well drained soil in sun or shade, thriving in climates with average yearly precip. over 25 inches.
Very tolerant of drought, wind, salt, clay and alkaline soil.

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on July 24 2015 in Goderich, ON

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* historic archive photo


var 'laevigatus'
Also called Symphoricarpos rivularis; it is native to western North America ( Alaska to Wyoming; south to California ) and is more upright forming dense thickets. Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 20 ( rarely over 6 ) feet. It also fruits more profusely, with glossy white berries persisting through the winter.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


'Tilden Pink'
Reaches up to 5 x 5 feet, with blue-green foliage contrasting with bright pink flowers.
The white berries, up to 0.6 inches wide, ripen during autumn, persisting into winter.

'Variegatus'
Only reached 4 feet in height, with foliage that is boldly margined creamy-white.

Symphoricarpos x chenaultii ( Chenault Coralberry )
A fast growing, spreading, medium size deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Symphoricarpos microphyllus & S. orbiculatus. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 13 ( usually half that ) feet; largest on record - 10 x 13 feet.
The oppositely arranged, blunt tipped leaves are up to 1.3 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green above, slightly downy, blue-white beneath.
The foliage colors well in autumn.
The pink flowers are borne in small spikes during spring.
They are followed by long persisting berries that are white and spotted with red.
The berries ripen during autumn but persist well into winter.
The young stems are downy.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to deep shade;.

'Blade of Sun'
Moderate growing, dense and low, reaching up to 1.5 feet in height. It is very attractive as groundcover or trailing over walls.
The bright golden-yellow foliage later turns to lime-green. The tough foliage is resistant to sun scorch.
The pink flowers are borne early summer to early autumn.
They are followed by purple berries.

* photo taken on July 10 2013 in Howard Co., MD


'Elegance'
Foliage is reddish at first.

'Hancock'
Low spreading, reaching a up to 2 x 10 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 3 x 13 feet, making it an excellent groundcover choice. It rarely exceeds 2 feet in height.
The foliage is blue-green.
It produces abundant, small, coral-pink berries that ripen during autumn.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


Symphoricarpos x doorenbosii ( Doorenbos Coralberry )
A vigorous medium size deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus & S. x chenaultii.
Some records include: largest on record - 6.5 x 13 ( rarely over 5 ) feet.
The oppositely arranged, blunt-tipped, rounded leaves are up to 1.7 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green.
The bell-shaped pink to white flowers are borne in clusters during spring.
They are followed with white berries that are pink flushed if exposed to sun.
The berries ripen during late summer.
The stems are downy.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It looks best cut to a woody framework 10 inches from ground during late winter.

'Amethyst'
Abundant purplish-pink fruit borne during late summer; otherwise identical to species.

'Magic Berry'
Compact in habit, reaching up to 4 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually to 6.5 x 8 feet with profuse deep pink berries.
The foliage is blue-green..

'Marleen'
A fast growing shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet in height.
The foliage is blue-green.
The pinkish-white flowers are borne early summer to early autumn.
They are followed by abundant, showy, bright pinkish-purple berries during early autumn, persisting into early winter.

'Mother of Pearl'
Vigorous, dense and arching in habit ( reaching up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet in 10 years ) with large berries that are white and mottled in pink, borne during autumn.
The very attractive small pink flowers are borne during early summer.

'White Hedge'
Stiff and upright in habit with very profuse berries that are small and white.
Some records include: 10 years - 5 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 8 x 6.5 feet.

Symphoricarpos mollis ( Creeping Snowberry )
A rhizomatous and trailing, deciduous groundcover shrub, reaching up to 1.5 x 8 feet. The stems root as they go. It is great for erosion control on steep hills and embankments. It is native to western North America ( from Vancouver Island to near Penticton, British Columbia to northern Idaho; south to southern California to northwest Nevada ). The ovate to rounded, small leaves, up to 1 inch long, are mid blue-green. The leaves are often 3 lobed.
The small pink flowers are borne late spring to mid-summer.
They are followed by abundant white berries during autumn, persisting into winter.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on dry or well drained soil. It is great as groundcover in dry shade under trees.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Symphoricarpos occidentalis ( Wolfberry )
A low but spreading to invasive shrub native to northern North America ( from Iskut, British Columbia to southwest Northwest Territories to extreme northeast Alberta to Dauphin, Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario to the north shore of Lake Superior to Haliburton, Ontario and bordering Quebec; south to Washington State to central Utah to western Oklahoma to northern Missouri to far northwest Indiana to central Michigan ). Some records include: 1 st year - 1.5 feet; 5 years - 3.5 x 4 feet; largest on record - 6 x 6 feet. Wolfberry is rhizomatous and sometimes forms large colonies with age. It is found in savanna and dry open prairie in the wild. It is valuable for erosion control.
The oppositely arranged, blunt-tipped, oblong leaves are up to 4 x 3 ( rarely over 3 x 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is blue-green, turning to yellow or red during autumn.
The pale pink flowers appear at the stem tips during early summer.
They are followed by greenish-white berries, up to 0.4 inches, that persist into winter.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in sun or shade on well drained soil, it thrives on the northern Great Plains where it makes a great landscape plant. Drought and shade tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo


Symphoricarpos orbiculatus ( Coralberry )
A fast growing, dense, bushy, medium size shrub native to the eastern U.S. ( from central South Dakota to central Minnesota to far northern Illinois to northwest Ohio to northeast Pennsylvania; south to Mexico, Texas to northern Georgia to central South Carolina ). It is endangered in South Dakota and Minnesota. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 10 feet; largest on record - 8 x 13 feet.
The oppositely arranged, blunt tipped, oval leaves are up to 2.5 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in length.
The foliage is downy deep green above, gray beneath, often turning red during late autumn.
The white, bell-shaped flowers are borne throughout summer and are followed by berries, up to 0.25 inches across, that are dull white, later turning to deep red persisting into January. Because the age of the berries vary, you may have many different shades of color on the same plant.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile soil. It is fully hardy on the northern Great Plains. Berry production is best where summers are hot. Tolerant of heat, drought, coastal conditions, deep shade and urban pollution. It may be prone to powdery mildew on some sites.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Apr 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Central Avenue'
Dense and rounded in habit but otherwise similar to species.
The foliage is deep green.
The pinkish-white flowers during summer are followed by abundant, small, violet-red berries that persist well into winter.

'Variegatus'
Also known as 'Foliis Variegatis'. A fast growing, bushy, suckering shrub reaching a maximum size of 8 x 13 feet.
The foliage is green with yellow margins.

Symphoricarpos oreophilus ( Mountain Snowberry )
A small shrub native to western North America ( from south-central British Columbia to central Montana to far western South Dakota; south to central California to southern Arizona to western Texas ). There is a report that a wild population was found far north of its typical natural range at Kotcho Lake in northeast British Columbia in 1983. It is endangered in British Columbia, South Dakota and Oklahoma. Some records include: largest on record - 5 feet
The oppositely arranged, blunt tipped leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are gray-green.
The flowers are rose-pink.
They are followed by white berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

Symphoricarpos rotundifolius ( Round-Leaved Snowberry )
A shrub reaching up to 5 x 5 feet that is native to the southwestern U.S. ( from north-central California to central Idaho to north-central Colorado to far western Oklahoma; south to southern California to El Paso, Texas. It is a common understory plant under Aspen forests in the Rocky Mountains. It is endangered in Idaho and Oklahoma.
The elliptical or oval leaves, up to 0.7 inches long, are mid-green above, bright green beneath. The foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
The white to pink flowers, up to 0.4 inches long are borne from the leaf axils during early to mid summer.
They are followed by a white berry up to 0.4 inches wide.
The twigs are covered in fuzzy hairs, the older trunks have shredded gray bark.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial shade on well drained soil. It prefers 30+ inches of yearly precip.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

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