Friday, December 30, 2011

Robles and Antarctic Beech

Nothofagus
A genus of 35 species of evergreen and deciduous trees native to the Southern Hemisphere that are closely related. They often produce pure stands in the wild that are so thick that very little grows in the dense shade beneath.
Most species prefer full sun to partial shade on deep, fertile, light, acidic, well drained soil. They also prefer humid air and a site protected from excessive wind. They are a dominant tree of temperate coastal rainforests in southern Chile, Tasmania and New Zealand though also thrive in other parts of the world with moist maritime conditions such as the British Isles and the Pacific Northwest of North America.
Robles do not like root disturbance or transplanting and must be planted while small for them to establish...considering how fast they grow who would want to pay extra for an already large tree anyway. Keep young trees well watered until established - more mature trees of many species can tolerate summer drought.
Pests and diseases rarely bother the Robles.
Pruning generally consists of pruning to a single leader when young and feathering ( shortening excessively long side-branches, spacing main limbs and thinning branches. Pruning is rarely necessary on older trees other than removal of lower branches for clearance if needed.
Robles are easy to germinate from fresh seed during autumn, they can also be grown from hardwood cuttings taken during summer or layering if seed is not available.
A well grown Roble is among the most spectacular of all temperate climate hardwood trees. They are the Southern Hemisphere equivalent of the Oaks and Beeches.

* historic archive photo


Nothofagus aequilateralis
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. It is native to mountains of New Caledonia.
The leaves are up to 5 x 1.6 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus alessandri ( Ruil )
A large, deciduous tree, that is only native to the Maule region in Chile where it is endangered with extinction and continues to decline. Many of it's native stands have been replaced by fast growing timber plantations of Pinus radiata. Some records for the Ruil include: largest on record - 135 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The sharply-toothed, deeply-veined, oval to ovate leaves, up to 7 x 4 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, are green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a small fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts. The fruits are clusters in groups of 7.
The bark is gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, it thrives in the British Isles where trees have already exceeded 70 feet. It is more drought tolerant than most Robles.

Nothofagus antarctica ( Antarctic Beech )
Also called Nirre. A fast growing, graceful, elegant, open, broadly-columnar large, deciduous tree, native to far southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 82 x 40 feet; largest on record - 140 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. The trunk and limbs are often twisted, especially when growing on windblown harsh environments. Moderately long-lived, it can persist up to 200 years.
The irregularly finely-toothed, oval to rounded leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green. The fine-textured foliage turns to yellow or bright orange during late autumn.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The brown bark cracks and becomes plated with age.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in cool maritime climates. It does not grow where summers are hot.
Vigorous and fully hardy in North America's Pacific Northwest, the British Isles, western Norway as well as Copenhagen, Denmark.
Trees originating from the very far southern seed source even thrives in the Faroe Islands.

* photo of unknown internet source


Nothofagus balansae
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 40 feet, that is native to mountains of New Caledonia.
The leaves are up to 3 x 1.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics to tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus baumanniae
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 50 x 50 feet, that is native to New Caledonia.
The oblong leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus betuloides ( Birchleaf Beech )
A dense, broad-columnar large, evergreen tree, native to southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet; 50 years - 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; largest on record - 120 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
Extremely long-lived, Birchleaf Beech is known to live as much as 600 years.
The bluntly-toothed, deeply-veined, oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 1 inches, are glossy deep blackish-green above; glossy pale green beneath. The leaves are smooth on both sides.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a bristly husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The plated and flaky bark is very dark gray.
The moderately heavy, hard wood is highly valued for construction and furniture.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -4 F ) in full sun to partial shade, requiring acidic to neutral soil. It thrives in Scotland and trees originating from the very far southern seed source even thrives in the Faroe Islands.

Nothofagus brassii
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 150 feet, that is native to mountains of New Guinea
The leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus carrii
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 150 feet, that is native to New Guinea.
The leaves are up to 2.5 x 1.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus codonandra
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 120 ( rarely over 100 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is native to mountains of New Caledonia.
The oblong leaves are up to 5 x 2.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus crenata
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet, that is native to New Guinea.
The oblong leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus cunninghamii ( Myrtle Beech )
A fast growing, straight-trunked, dense, large tree, native to Victoria in southeast Australia as well as Tasmania. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 220 ( rarely over 150 ) x 78 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet.
The Myrtle Beech is long-lived and can persist up to 500 years.
The minutely-toothed, triangular leaves, up to 1 x 1 inches, are brilliant red, pink, orange or bronze during spring, turning to glossy deep green. The leaves are borne on fan-like sprays.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The scaly bark is dark brown. The timber is highly valued for furniture and veneer.
The close-grained, pinkish, hard wood is highly valued for cabinetry work.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( possibly 7 for hardiest seed source ), it thrives in maritime climates such as the British Isles on just about any well drained soil.
Trees originating from seed source originating from high elevations in Tasmania may tolerate temperatures below 5 F and even thrive in the Scottish highlands.
They can thrives where temperatures average around 32 F during January and with heavy winter snowfall. Trees originating from lowland seed source may not be much hardier than zone 9 or a low of 19 F. The Myrtle Beech is also more heat tolerant than many Robles, tolerating as high as 113 F.

Nothofagus discoidea
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. It is native to New Caledonia.
The leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 requiring a cool alpine climate within the tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus dombeyi ( Dombey Beech )
A graceful, fast growing, somewhat open, deciduous to evergreen, broadly-columnar, large tree, native to southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 13 x 7 feet; 45 years - 92 feet ( England ); 82 years - 113 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; largest on record - 170 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. Very long-lived, this tree can persist up to 700 years.
The finely-toothed, narrowly-ovate to oval leaves, up to 2 x 0.5 inches, are glossy deep green above, glossy pale green beneath. The leaves are smooth on both sides.
In cold climates, the Dombey Beech is deciduous.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a bristly husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The smooth bark is dark gray.
The decay resistant wood is highly valued for construction, flooring and furniture.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating -4 F ) in full sun. Clay tolerant. It thrives and is often planted in North America's Pacific Northwest as well as the British Isles.

* photo of unknown internet source

* largest in world @ 49min 10 seconds in video


Nothofagus flaviramea
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 170 ( rarely over 150 ) feet, with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is native to New Guinea.
The oblong leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus fusca ( New Zealand Red Beech )
A highly ornamental, fast growing, massive, large evergreen tree, native to New Zealand. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 140 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet. It has been proven to have once grown on Antarctica due to fossil evidence.
The coarsely-toothed, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches, are glossy deep green. The foliage turns to bright red during winter though older trees may remain just plain green. The leaves sometimes fall during early spring, just weeks before the new leaves appear.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The often buttressed trunk has deep orangish-brown to almost black furrowed bark which becomes flaking on older trees.
The valuable timber is used for flooring in New Zealand.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in mild maritime climates on acidic, well drained soil. It thrives in England where trees have already reached very large sizes.

* photos of unknown internet source



Nothofagus glauca ( Hualo )
A moderate to fast growing, straight-trunked, large evergreen tree, native to central Chile where it is threatened with extinction. Some records include: 30 years - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches; largest on record - 135 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. Nearly all of the original pure stands in the coastal range have been logged and been replaced by Monterey Pine plantations.
Reproductions is good in the few remaining native stands.
It is the only Roble native to Santiago and Valparaíso.
It is an excellent tree for reforestation in mild climate prone to summer drought.
The toothed leaves, up to 3.5 x 2 inches, are blue-green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The rough bark is reddish-gray.
Hardy zones 9 ( 7 ). Unlike most other Roble, the Hualo will grow in mediterranean climates with long dry summers however also thrives in more maritime climates such as milder parts of the British Isles.

Nothofagus grandis
A huge tree, reaching a maximum height of 170 ( rarely over 150 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. It is native to high elevation cloudforests of New Guinea.
The leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus gunnii ( Tanglefoot Beech )
A slow growing, deciduous, shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 50
( rarely even half that ) feet, that is native to high mountains of Tasmania.
Long-lived, it can persist up to 350 years.
It is a close relative to N. pumilio of Chile.
The Tanglefoot Beech is threatened with extinction in the wild, it also does not
recover well from forest fires.
The round-toothed margined, deeply-veined, triangular leaves are up to 1.7 inches in length. The foliage is bright green, turning intense yellow, orange or red during autumn.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 in a cool maritime climate. Due to its requirement of permanent moist conditions or about 6 + feet of average annual precipition evenly distributed throughout the year, it is difficult to cultivate in most of the world outside its native range or wetter parts of Ireland / Scotland.
Can be propagated from seed or cuttings.

Nothofagus menziesii ( Silver Beech )
An attractive, graceful, very sturdy, massive, dense, upright to dome-shaped, large evergreen tree, native to New Zealand. Some records include: fastest growth rate - feet; largest on record - 100 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 feet.
A very long-lived tree, it can persist up to 600 years.
The double-toothed, rounded leaves, up to 0.6 x 0.5 inches, are bright green at first, turning to deep green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The flaking bark is silvery however trees with brownish or whitish bark are sometimes found.
The wood is hard and mostly used for furniture.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

* photos of unknown internet source



Nothofagus moorei ( Australian Beech )
A sturdy trunked, dense-canopied, large, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree, native to mountainous regions of southern Queensland into northern New South Wales in Australia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 170 x 71 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 feet.
Trees have already reached 80 feet in Ireland.
The leaves, up to 5 x 2.5 inches, are brilliant orange or red at first, turning to deep green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a prickly husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The scaly bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating 1 F for seed source originating from Barrington Tops or other high mountain habitats ). Seed source originating from milder parts of its range may not be much more hardy than zone 9 or 8b. It is found in the wild in cool temperate rainforests and would likely thrive in parts of the Pacific Northwest or rainier milder parts of the British Isles. Due to global warming, it is no longer naturally reproducing in its native range. In its preferred cool maritime climates it prefers full sun, where summers are hot partial shade may be required.

* photo of unknown internet source


Nothofagus nitida ( Coigüe )
A fast growing, large, evergreen tree, native to southern Chile ( from Valdivia south ) where it is rare. Some records include: 28 years - 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; largest on record - 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. Long-lived, this tree can reach up to 350 years of age.
It is closely related to Nothofagus betuloides.
The hard, coarsely-toothed, ovate to rounded leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a smooth husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The bark gray.
The wood is valued for construction.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 preferring very wet soil.

Nothofagus nuda
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 133 ( rarely over 60 ) feet, that is native to the Tauri River in the Gulf province of Papua New Guinea where it is nearly extinct.
The leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
This plant is poisonous and deaths have occured from people attempting to eat it.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics to tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus obliqua ( Roble Beech )
A fast growing, graceful, slightly weeping, broad-columnar, large, deciduous tree, native to southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 7 feet; 9 years - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; 20 years - 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.4 feet; 60 years - 115 feet; 80 years- trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest on record - 170 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. The Roble Beech often continues to put out new growth into early autumn. These trees are very long-lived, surviving up to 450 years. This tree is very well adapted to the British Isles and as existing cultivated trees age, they will likely reach the same massive sizes that are found in their native range.
The toothed, ovate to oval leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 inches, are deep green above, blue-green beneath. The leaves are smooth textured on both sides. The foliage turns to orange and red during autumn. The leaves are borne on 2 opposite rows on fan-like sprays. The Roble Beech was once extremely abundant and formed extensive forests in Chile's Central Valley, it is now usually found there only as isolated trees.
The very small, greenish flowers are borne in clusters of 3 ( females ) or single ( male ) from the leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a scaly husk, up to 0.5 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The twigs are slender. The light gray bark is smooth on young trees, becoming reddish-gray, plated and furrowed on older trees.
The oak-like timber is highly valuable.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade, the Roble Beech thrives in cool summer temperate regions around the world including the British Isles and North America's Pacific Northwest. Flood tolerant. Trees originating from the very far southern seed source will thrive in the Scotland highlands. It is tolerant of dry summers found in Mediterranean climates as long as summers aren't extremely hot.

Nothofagus perryi
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. It is native to high mountains of Papua New Guinea.
The ovate to oblong leaves are up to 4.5 x 1.8 (rarely over 3 x 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, pale green beneath.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus procera ( Rauli Beech )
Also called Nothofagus alpina. A very fast growing, broadly-conical, large deciduous tree, native to southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growing - 7 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; 9 years - 50 feet; 11 years - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; 20 years - 80 feet; 40 years - trunk diameter of 2.1 feet; 82 years - 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet; largest on record - 160 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. Extremely fast growing, they are known to grow as much as 6 inches weekly during periods of ideal weather from late spring to early autumn.
It is a long-lived tree, that can persist up to 450 years.
The finely-toothed, deeply-veined, oval to oblong leaves, up to 10 x 4 ( rarely over 5 x 2 ) inches, are bronze at first, turning to matte deep green. The foliage is appears early during spring and is hairy on both sides. The leaves turn intense orange and red during autumn.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a bristly husk, up to 0.5 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The dark gray bark is smooth when young, becoming fissured as the tree matures.
It is sometimes planted for timber plantations in the British Isles. The very valuable fine-grained wood is used for flooring, doors and veneers.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun in maritime climates with 30 or more inches of average annual precipitation. It thrives in the British Isles where as trees age, they will surely reach sizes equal to larger than that found in their natural habitat. It is not very tolerant of urban pollution.

Nothofagus pullei
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 165 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. It is native to New Guinea. Very long-lived, it can persist up to 600 years.
The oblong leaves are up to 2 x 1 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus pumilio ( Lenga )
A massive, fast growing, broadly-columnar, large deciduous tree, native to far southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 6.5 feet; 8 years - 14 feet; 10 years - 18 feet; 20 years - 80 feet; 44 years - trunk diameter of 2.8 feet; largest on record - 135 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
Long-lived, the Lenga can live up to 350 years.
The blunt-toothed, elliptical to oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are glossy, deep blackish-green above, paler green beneath. The foliage turns to yellow and orange during autumn.
The very small flowers are borne singly from the leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a scaly husk, up to 0.5 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The silvery bark is smooth with horizontal lenticels on young trees, with older trees becoming purplish-brown and fissured towards the base.
The wood is valued for use in construction and making furniture and cabinets.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerates as low as -22 F ).
Very hardy in Bergen, Norway and moderately hardy in Copenhagen, Denmark. It thrives especially well in Scotland.
This extremely hardy tree can tolerate frosts in any month of the year however it not adapted to regions with hot summers.

* photos of unknown internet source







Nothofagus resinosa
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 165 feet, that is native to New Guinea.
The leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus rubra
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 150 feet, that is native to New Guinea.
The ovate leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus solandri ( Black Beech )
A broad-conical, large, evergreen tree, native to mountains of New Zealand. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 27 feet; 25 years - 57 feet; 50 years - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.2 feet; largest on record - 100 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. The Black Beech is a long lived tree that can survive up to 400 years.
The smooth-edged, oblong to rounded leaves, up to 1 x 0.5 inches, are glossy deep green above, gray hairy beneath. The leaves are borne on fan-like sprays.
The very small, reddish-brown flowers are borne in pairs from the leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a scaly husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The stems are slender and black.
The rough, furrowed bark is dark gray to almost black.
The valuable timber is used for construction.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( possibly 7 ) in maritime climates. It tolerates high elevations near treeline and also thrives in the British Isles and has already reached heights of 70 feet in Ireland. Very tolerant of drought as well as wet conditions.

* photo of unknown internet source


var cliffortioides
Similar except for having smaller, more sharply-toothed leaves, up to 0.7 x 0.5 inches, that are oval. It is also smaller growing, reaching a maximum size of 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in maritime climates.

Nothofagus starkenborghii
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 150 feet, that is native to mountains of New Guinea
The leaves are up to 3 x 1.3 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 requiring a cool alpine climate within the tropics to thrive.

Nothofagus truncata ( Hard Beech )
A fast growing, large evergreen tree, native to lowland forests in New Zealand. Some records include: largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. This tree is very long lived, up to 500 years. Hard Beech is a close relative of N. fusca.
The thick, bluntly-toothed, broad-ovate leaves, up to 1.5 x 1 inches, are dull green.
The very small flowers are borne in clusters of 3 from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by a fruit that includes a scaly husk, up to 0.25 inches in length, that encloses 3 small nuts.
The thick, furrowed bark is dark gray.
The very hard timber is highly valuable.
Hardy zones 8 to 9.

* photo of unknown internet source


Nothofagus womersleyi
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 133 ( rarely over 60 ) feet, that is native to single site on Bukit Irau in the Kebar Valley on Vogelkop Peninsula in western Papua New Guinea where it is highly endangered with extinction.
The ovate leaves are up to 4 x 1.6 inches in size.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 requiring a cool alpine climate within the subtropics and tropics to thrive.

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