Saturday, July 24, 2010

Hedychium - Ginger

Hedychium

A large genus of perennials native to the subtropics and tropics. They are evergreen in tropical climates and deciduous in cooler climates. They should be cut back when flowers fade to encourage new growth.
They prefer full sun and deep, light, rich, moist, well drained soil. Salt tolerant. During autumn, cut stems back to ground after they get frosted.
Propagation is from division during early spring or seed. The bulbils which are borne on the stems are also used to reproduce this plant.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


Hedychium aurantiacum
Also called Hedychium coccineum var aurantiacum. A perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 4 feet, that is native to northern India.
The leaves are narrow and pointed.
The red flowers are borne on spikes during autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in full sun.

Hedychium coccineum ( Scarlet Ginger )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 5 feet, that is native to the Himalayas.
The pointed, very narrow leaves are up to 24 x 2 inches. The foliage is gray-green to blue-green.
The deep orange to coral red flowers are borne on spikes up to 18 inches in length during mid summer into autumn. The flowers are not fragrant.
Hardy zones 7 to 12 ( zone 6 on a protected site ) in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Disney'
A vigorous spreading plant to 10 x 5 feet with blue-green ( reddish beneath ) leaves up to 20 inches in length and fragrant, intense orange-red flowers, borne in clusters up to 10 inches in length.

Hedychium coronarium ( White Ginger )
A fast growing, rhizomatous perennial native to Nepal and India that can form a clump up to 10 x 6 feet with luxuriant green, lance-shaped leaves, up to 24 x 5 inches.
The very fragrant, pure white flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne in clusters up to 12 inches in length during autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 12 with reports of zones 5 and 6 with deep mulch along a south facing wall. Thrives in sun or partial shade.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Hedychium densiflorum
A very large, rhizomatous perennial native to the Himalayas, that forms a rhizomatous spreading clump to a maximum size of 17 x 7 ( usually less than half that ) feet. The huge, pointed, oblong leaves are up to 16 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The very fragrant, orange flowers are borne on dense clusters, up to 8 inches long, during late summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Hedychium 'Dr. Moy'
A very beautiful, very fast growing perennial reaching up to 6 feet with heavily white stripe variegated leaves.
The fragrant, bright orange flowers are borne during autumn.
Hardy north to zone 7

Hedychium 'Elizabeth'
Very impressive, reaching up to 9 x 6 feet with very fragrant, large, intense coral-red, flowers up to 6 inches across.
Hardy north to zone 8 in Portland, Oregon; even zone 7 ( tolerating 0 F ) is possible with mulch on a protected location.

Hedychium flavum ( Golden Butterfly Ginger )
Native to the southern U.S. and hardy north to zone 8b. It can reach up to 9 feet in height with large leaves up to 20 x 4 inches. The flowers can be either yellow or orange.

Hedychium forrestii
A massive, robust, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 8 feet, that is native to southeastern China, Thailand, Burma and Laos. The plants are late to emerge during spring, but growth is very fast once hot weather arrives.
The large, lance-shaped, glossy green leaves turn yellow during autumn.
The fragrant, white ( with coral-red stamens ) flowers are borne in long terminal spikes during late summer.
Hardy zones 7a to 9 in partial shade on well drained soil, preferring woodland habitats. Winter mulch may be required for protection in zone 7.
It thrives in the hot humid southeastern U.S. but will also grow in the Pacific Northwest as long as it is irrigated during summer.
Propagation is fast from division pieces cut off the thick rhizomatous root system and replanted at the same depth ( on top of some bonemeal ) just under ground level.

Hedychium gardnerianum ( Kahali Ginger )
A long lived, very fast growing, large perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 7 feet, that is native from northern India to the Himalayas.
The leaves are large, up to 18 or rarely 24 inches in length and 6 inches in width.
The lightly fragrant flowers, up to 2 inches, are light yellow with red stamens and are borne on dense spikes, up to 24 inches in length, during summer into autumn.
Can be invasive on some sites and considered a weed in New Zealand, Hawaii and parts of Australia. Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( 7 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade. Very shade tolerant.

* photos taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Compactum' ( Compact Kahili Ginger Lily )
Reaches up to 5 feet with fragrant, very large, bright yellow ( with deep orange stigmas ) flower heads borne early to late autumn.

'Extendum' ( Giant Kahili Ginger Lily )
Reaches up to 8 feet, with very fragrant, bright yellow flower heads.

Hedychium greenii ( Green's Ginger Lily )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 4 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to Bhutan and northern India.
The very narrow leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are deep green above, deep red beneath.
The orange-red flowers are borne on spikes up to 5 inches in length, beginning during mid summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 12 ( tolerating as low as 0 F on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil.

Hedychium indica 'Bangkok'
Reaches up to 6 feet. This one is grown for its foliage which is luxuriant green and intensely variegated and striped creamy white on the inside.

Hedychium maximum ( Giant Ginger Lily )
Very large to 9 feet in height with large flowers that are creamy white darkening to deep yellow in the centers. Hardy north to zone 7b

Hedychium mioga 'Silver Arrow'

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


Hedychium 'Peachy'
Reaches up to 10 feet in height with peachy red flowers. Known to survive as far north as zone 6b behind a brick wall.

Hedychium pradhanii ( Pradhanii Ginger Lily )
Vigorous growing with many stalks reaching up to 7 feet.
The peach colored flowers are borne in large heads late summer to mid autumn.
Hardy north to zone 7b

Hedychium spicatum ( Spiked Ginger Lily )
A large perennial, reaching up to 7 x 4.5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet in size, that is native to the Himalayas from Nepal to southwest China.
The pointed, narrow, oblong leaves are up to 18 x 4 inches in size.
The fragrant, white flowers, borne on clusters up to 8 inches in length, are borne during autumn.
Hardy north to zone 8 ( 7 on very protected sites ) and even grows well in Seattle.

Hedychium 'Tara' ( Tara Scarlet Ginger )
May be a variety of Hedychium coccineum. Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 6 feet with gray-green foliage and large, bright orange flowers. The flowers are borne mid to late summer on spikes up to 16 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 7, thriving even in the Pacific Northwest.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA



Hedychium yunnanense ( Yunnan Ginger Lily )
A robust, sturdy, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 5 x 5 ( rarely over 3.3 ) feet, that is native to India, Guangxi & Yunnan Provinces in China, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma and Laos. The plants are late to emerge during spring, but growth is very fast once hot weather arrives.
The broad, oblong, glossy blue-green leaves, up to 16 x 4 inches, are very tropical in appearance.
The very fragrant, very showy, pure white ( with orange-red stamens ) flowers are borne in rounded terminal spikes, up to 8 inches in length, during mid to late summer to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 7a to 9 in full sun to partial shade on humus, rich, well drained soil, preferring woodland habitats. Winter mulch may be required for protection in zone 7.
It thrives in the hot humid southeastern U.S. but will also grow in the Pacific Northwest as long as it is irrigated during summer. It is even fully hardy in much of the southern British Isles.
Propagation is fast from division pieces cut off the thick rhizomatous root system and replanted at the same depth ( on top of some bonemeal ) just under ground level.

Related Plants

Alpina purpurata ( Red Ginger )
A very fast growing, evergreen perennial, forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 12 x 10 feet, that is native to eastern Asia and New Guinea.
Some records include: tallest on record - 23 ( extremely rare over 15 ) feet.
The leathery, lance-shaped leaves, up to 36 x 8 inches, are glossy green.
The large, red, flower plumes, up to 16 x 6 inches, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun to partial shade. It requires hot humid summers. Wet soil tolerant and moderately salt tolerant. Pest free.

* photos of unknown internet source



Alpina zerumbet ( Shell Ginger )
A rapid growing, evergreeen perennial, forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 12 x 10 feet, that is native to eastern Asia and New Guinea.
The leathery, lance-shaped leaves, up to 32 x 8 inches, are glossy green.
The white ( tinted purple ) flowers are borne on pendulous inflorescences up to 16 inches in length, during spring and summer. The flowers are pink in bud.
Hardy zones 8b to 11 ( possibly zone 7 as a dieback perennial with a deep mulch )
in partial to full shade. It requires hot humid summers. Clay tolerant and moderately salt tolerant.

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD


'Variegata' ( Variegated Shell Ginger )
Fast growing, reaching up to 6 feet, with attractive aromatic foliage is dramatically variegated with yellow stripes.
Hardy north to zone 8

* photos taken by Michael Duquette Fowler of West Palm Beach, Florida


* photos taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, D.C.






* photo taken on Jan 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida




Maranta sanguinea

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

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