Thursday, November 3, 2011

Bottlebrush

Callistemon

A genus of close to 30 species of trees and shrubs within the larger Myrtacaceae family. They are all native to Australia.
They can be propagated from seed during fall or spring, or for the cultivars from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.
They are more winter hardy where summers are sunny and hot. Most species are tolerant of salt, lime, drought and wet soil though unfortunately many species do not like clay. Many species are preferrably cut back hard every few years to induce vigor.
The flowers attract nectar feeding birds such as Hummingbirds. The Bottlebrushes are deer resistant.
Freeze damaged plants can be cut back hard during early spring, even to the ground. They will often quickly regenerate.

* photos of unknown internet source





* photos taken on Jan 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida

* excellent videos found on internet






Callistemon acuminatus ( Twin Leafed Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 12 feet, that is native to Australia's east coast.
The wavy-edged, narrow leaves, up to 5 x 1 inches, are mid-green.
The deep red, dense bottlebrush flowers, up to 9 inches in length, are borne heavily during spring and sporadically for the remainder of the year.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. Very wind tolerant making it an excellent choice for coastal areas. Drought tolerant.

'Nabiac Red'
Intense deep red flower spikes that are wider than usual.

Callistemon brachyandrus ( Pricky Bottlebrush )
A vigorous, bushy, large, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 17 x 13 feet, that is native to inland parts of eastern Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 23 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It is moderately long lived, up to 180 years.
The needle-like leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are green.
The orange-red ( tipped golden-yellow ) bottlebrush flowers, up to 1.6 inches, are borne over a long season during summer, sporadically the remainder of the year.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun to partial shade. Tolerant of wet soils, clay and both acidic and alkaline soils. Very drought tolerant.

Callistemon citrinus ( Lemon Bottlebrush )
A very fast growing, stiff, dense, rounded, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 33 feet, that is native to Australia's east coast. Some records include: 5 years - 27 x 20 feet.
The aromatic, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 1 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are silky pink at first, turning to gray-green. The foliage is lemon-scented.
The profuse, scarlet-red, bottlebrush flower spikes, up to 6 x 2.5 inches, are borne during spring and often repeating during autumn. In tropical climates it may bloom sporadically during the entire year. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
The exfoliating bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, it is known to have survived -2 F however with dieback, with regrowth during spring. Thrives in full sun or partial shade, preferring fertile, acidic, sandy, well drained soil along with a climate with hot summers.. Tolerant of severe drought, wet poorly drained soil and moderately tolerant of salt breezes. Prune after blooming to promote vigor.
Young trees will often need pruning to develop a good tree-like habit. Serious insect pests and disease problems are rare, however root rot may occur on poorly drained sites.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. The species can be grown from seed which germinates easily without pretreatment.

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD

* excellent video found on internet


'Austraflora Firebrand'
Low and arching, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 13 feet. The foliage is silvery-pink at first, turning to green.
The profuse flowers are bright scarlet-red.

'Burgundy'
Dense in habit, with foliage that is attractive pinkish-red at first.
The profuse, deep red flowers are borne on spikes, up to 4 inches in length.

'Jeffersii'
Dwarf in habit, reaching up to 6 feet.
Hardy zones 8b+

'Red Giant'
Very vigorous and dense, reaching over 10 feet in height.
The large leaves are gray-green.
The huge red bottlebrush flower spikes are borne during spring.
Hardier, north to zone 8b+ ( possibly zone 8a in hot summer climates )

'Reeves Pink'
Bottlebrush clusters of flowers that are pink and tipped in golden-yellow.

'Splendens'
Broader leaves and profuse intense scarlet-red flowers borne over a long season.
The foliage is bronzy-red at first, turning to grayish-green.

'Violaceous'
Upright with rather broad leaves.
Hardier, north to zone 8b ( tolerating 12 F )

'White Anzac'
Reaches a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, with foliage that is bright green at first and bearing white bottlebrush flowers. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 8 feet.

Callistemon 'Clemson'
An upright, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.
The very large, brilliant red bottlebrushes are intense scarlet-red.
This along with C. 'Woodlanders Hardy' is among the best Bottlebrushes for the southeastern U.S. Hardy zones 7a+ ( tolerating as low as -9 F ).

Callistemon comboyensis ( Comboy Bottlebrush )
An attractive, moderate growing, bushy, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, that is native to mountainous areas along Australia's east coast.
The narrow leaves, up to 4 x 0.5 inches, are silky pink at first, turning to green.
The very profuse, intense oragne-red bottlebrush flowers, up to 6 inches in length, are borne spring through fall.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, no damage at 21 F, it has not been tested in zone 8. It requires excellent drainage but is clay tolerant on slopes. Prune after flowering to encourage dense habit.

Callistemon formosus ( Cliff Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, weeping evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 13 feet, that is native to a tiny area in southestern Queensland in Australia.
The pointed, narrow leaves are bright red at first, turning to green.
The profuse, pale yellow, dense bottlebrush flowers are borne winter and spring.
Hardy zones 10 to 11

'Carmina'
Intense deep red flowers.

Callistemon glaucus ( Albany Bottlebrush )
A very attractive, moderate growing, upright, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are dull green.
The deep red, dense bottlebrush flowers, up to 6 x 3 inches, are borne over a long season during spring and summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, thriving on moist to swampy sites.

Callistemon 'Harkness'
A moderate growing, semi-pendulous, rounded, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum height of 20 feet.
The leaves, up to 7 x 0.5 inches, are pinkish at first.
The profuse, very long, scarlet-red bottlebrush flowers, up to 10 inches in length, during late spring and fall, weigh the branches down.
Hardy zones 8b to 11. Remove lower limbs to encourage a tree like habit.

Callistemon 'King's Park Special'
A moderate growing, bushy, evergreen, large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 13 feet.
Makes a great screen.
The profuse, scarlet-red bottlebrush flowers are borne spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 8b to 11, tolerates drought and is somewhat tolerant of salt spray.

Callistemon linearis ( Narrow-Leafed Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, open, stiffly branched, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 33 ( rarely over 17 ) feet, that is native to temperate regions in eastern Australia. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 8 feet.
The thick, very narrow leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid-green.
The deep red, dense bottlebrush flowers, up to 5 x 2.5 inches, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, tolerating as low as 0 F, in full sun to partial shade. Tolerant of wet soil, clay, some salt spray, acidic and alkaline soils. It typically branches low unless pruned otherwise.

Callistemon 'Little John'
A bushy, evergreen small shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet. Some records include: 15 years - 5 feet.
The profuse deep red flowers are borne spring through fall.
Hardy zones 8b to 11

Callistemon 'Mauve Mist'
A moderate growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 12 feet.
The leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are silky and silvery at first.
The purplish-pink bottlebrush flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 8b to 11

Callistemon montanus ( Mountain Bottlebrush )
A handsome, upright, evergreen, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 8 ( rarely over 12 ) feet, that is native to Australia's east coast.
The narrow-oblanceolate leaves, up to 4 x 0.4 inches, are pinkish at first, turning to glossy bright green.
The deep red bottlbrush flowers, up to 3 inches in length, are borne during spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 9b to 10 ( tolerating 18 F ). Drought tolerant.

Callistemon 'Old Duninald'
A compact, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 7 feet.
The pointed, narrow-elliptical leaves are green.
The scarlet-red ( with yellow stamens ) bottlebrush flowers spikes are borne during late spring and summer.

Callistemon pachyphyllus ( Wallum Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, open, spreading, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 7 feet, that is native to coastal eastern Australia.
The thick leaves, up to 3 x 0.5 inches, are dull green.
The scarlet-red bottlebrush flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne spring and summer, randomly for the remainder of the year.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerates coastal exposure and wet soil. To encourage dense habit, prune hard after flowering.

Callistemon pallidus ( Lemon Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, gracefully arching, dense, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 20 ( rarely over 15 x 10 ) feet, that is native to southeastern Australia. Some records include: 5 years - 12 x 8 feet.
The aromatic leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are silky silvery-pink at first, turning to gray-green.
The pale yellow, dense, bottlebrush flower-spikes, up to 5 x 2 inches, are borne late spring and summer. Cultivars with red flowers are known.
The bark is attractive and peeling.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 2 F ) in full sun to partial shade; preferring moist, fertile, acidic, well drained soil. It is among the very few Bottlebrushes that will grow in Washington state. It also tolerates annual rainfall as low as 18 inches. Typically branches down to the ground unless pruned otherwise. Tolerates heavy pruning, drought and even reflected heat against a south facing wall.

'Austraflora Candle Glow'
Spreading and low growing, with foliage that is silvery at first. The pale yellow bottlebrush flowers are up to 4 x 2 inches.

'Best Blues'
Dense in habit, with striking, aromatic foliage that is silky and silvery at first, turning to blue.
Hardy zones 8a+

'Eleanor'
Vigorous, compact, dense and arching, reaching up to 6 x 4 feet in 5 years, eventually more.
The attractive foliage is blue-gray.
The flowers are reddish-violet.
Hardy zones 8b to 10 ( tolerating 12 F ).

Callistemon pearsonii ( Blackdown Bottlebrush )
A handsome, moderate growing, somewhat open, multi-stemmed, evergreen small shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 feet, that is native to eastern Queensland in Australia.
The crowded, sharp-pointed, stiff leaves, up to 1 inch, are very silky at first, turning to green.
The scarlet-red bottlebrush flowers are borne over a long season from spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Prune regularly to keep a dense habit.

Callistemon 'Perth Pink'
A compact, dense, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 16 x 20 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 6.5 x 10 feet.
The foliage is pinkish at first.
The large, deep pink, bottlebrush flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 8b to 11. Moderately drought tolerant.

Callistemon phoeniceus ( Fiery Bottlebrush )
A fast growing, sturdy, somewhat pendulous, bushy, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 20 feet, that is native to far southwestern Australia.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 6.5 feet.
The thick, narrow leaves, up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in length, are gray-green.
The scarlet-red, bottlebrush flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne early spring through summer.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerating as low as 18 F. Tolerates wet soil, clay, drought, acidic and alkaline soils.

'Demesne Western Royal'
Compact and spreading in habit, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 5 feet.

'Pink Ice'
Pink flowers.

Callistemon pinifolius ( Pine-Leafed Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, somewhat pendulous, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet, that is native to eastern Australia.
The leaves, up to inches, are green.
The green ( rarely red ) bottlebrush flowers, up to 3 inches in length, are borne over a long season during spring.
Hardy zones 8b to 11, thriving in cool summer climates only. Very wet, clay and drought tolerant. Prune frequently to encourage dense habit.

Callistemon pityoides ( Mountain Bottlebrush )
A fast growing to invasive, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 8 feet, that is native to high mountains of eastern Australia. Some records include: 8 years - 12 feet. From a distance, it looks like a conifer.
The sharp-tipped, needle-like, linear leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are pinkish at first, turning to green.
The creamy-yellow, bottlebrush flowers, up to 6 x 1 inches, are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 ( tolerating 0 F ) in full sun on acidic well drained soil. It enjoys a cool climate and regular water, tolerating wet conditions, snow and almost any soil. Thrives in parts of England. Deer resistant.

'Excellent'
A very hardy clone, tolerating as low as 0 F.
It blooms during late spring, repeating heavily during autumn.

Callistemon polandii ( Goldtip Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, pendulous, dense, evergreen large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 10 feet, that is native to the coast of central Queensland in Australia. Makes a great screen or windbreak.
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are silky silvery-pink at first, turning to bright green.
The scarlet-red ( tipped yellow ), bottlebrush flowers, up to 6 inches in length, are over a long season during winter and spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 on moist soil.

'Peak Downs'
Foliage is red at first.

Callistemon recurvus ( Tinaroo Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, bushy evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 8 feet, that is native to the northern tip of Queensland in Australia.
The foliage is silky bright pink at first, turning to deep green
The profuse, deep red, bottlebrush flowers are borne on spikes during late winter and spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Prune after flowering to encourage dense habit.

Callistemon rigidus ( Stiff Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, stiff, erect, evergreen, small tree that is native to Australia's eastern coast.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 62 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. Makes a great windbreak or screen.
The stiff, pointed narrow leaves, up to 6 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in length, are silky at first, turning to dull green.
The very showy, deep red, dense, bottlebrush flowers, up to 4.5 inches in length, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 7b to 11, tolerating as low as 2 F, preferring full sun on fertile, acidic, sandy, well drained soil. It is known to grow in the Pacific Northwest. Tolerates wet soil,drought and hard pruning. Young trees may need to be trained to a good tree form. May be prone to mites in some regions.

'Clemson'
Compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 8 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.
The very large, scarlet-red flowers persist from late spring until autumn freeze.
Hardy north to zone 7, tolerating as low as - 8 F.
Known to grow in Louisville, Kentucky.

Callistemon rugulosus ( Scarlet Bottlebrush )
Also called Callistemon macropunctatus. A moderate growing, dense, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 17 feet, that is native to southern Australia. It makes a great windbreak or hedge.
Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 17 feet.
The leathery, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, are green.
The showy, deep red ( tipped golden-yellow ) bottlebrush flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne on spikes from spring through fall.
The attractive bark is peeling and white.
Hardy zones 8b to 11 ( tolerating 10 F ) in full sun to partial shade. It tolerates moderate frost, clay, drought and wet poorly drained soil.

Callistemon salignus ( White Bottlebrush )
An attractive, fast growing, dense, semi-weeping, evergreen medium-size tree, reaching a maximum size of 60 x 40 feet, that is native to coastal eastern Australia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 40 x 20 feet.
The leaves, up to 4.5 x 0.3 inches, are silky reddish-pink at first, turning to green.
The profuse, creamy-white, bottlebrush flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne during spring into early summer. There is a form with red flowers.
The attractive papery bark is white.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, ( tolerating as low as 0 F ) on moist soil. It is known to grow in the Pacific Northwest. It is tolerant of both flooding and drought.
Prune off lower branches when young to encourage tree-like habit. Deer resistant.

'Eureka'
Bushy and upright in habit. The young foliage is purplish-red.
The flowers are intense mid-pink.

Callistemon sieberi ( River Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, pendulous, bushy evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 17 ( rarely over 17 ) feet, that is native to much of southeastern Australia.
Some records incldue: 5 years - 5 x 5 feet; 10 years - 6.5 x 6 feet.
The thick, prickly, narrow leaves, up to 2.5 ( rarely over 1.6 ) inches, are gray-green to deep olive-green.
The creamy-yellow, bottlebrush flowers, up to 6 inches in length, are borne late spring and summer. It often repeat blooms in the fall.
The young shoots are silky pink.
The papery bark is very attractive.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( possibly zone 7 and has been reported to tolerate -9 F with no injury ) in full sun to partial shade. Alpine clones should be tested as far north as zone 5 for winter hardiness.
Very tolerant of drought and clay.

Callistemon speciosus
An erect tree, reaching a maximum size of 50 x 40 feet.
The narrow leaves, up to 6 x 0.3 inches, are blue-green.
The deep red ( with golden-yellow anthers ) flowers are up to 6 x 3.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 on moist soil.

* historic archive photo


Callistemon subulatus ( Tonghi Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, dense, arching, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 9 ( rarely over 5 ) feet. Some records include: 10 years - 5 x 6.5 feet.
The shart-tipped, needle-like leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are glossy green.
The profuse, showy, deep-red bottlebrush flowers, up to 3.2 inches in length, are borne late spring through summer. The flowers are heavy enough to weigh down the branches.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ) in full sun to partial shade on moist soil.
It is among the few Bottlebrushes that grow in Washington State.
Tolerant of wet poorly drained soil as well as clay and drought ( prefers dry summers ). Prune after flowering to encourage dense compact habit.

'Dawn of Time'
Reported to be even hardier, north to zone 7b

'Hot Pink'
Similar except for having deep pink flowers.
Hardy zones 8+ ( tolerating as low as 5 F )

Callistemon teretifolius ( Needle-Leafed Bottlebrush )
A handsome, moderate growing, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 13 feet, that is native to drier parts of South Australia.
The sharp-tipped, green leaves, up to 6 inches in length, resemble pine needles.
The profuse, dense, deep red flowers are borne on bottlebrush spikes, up to 5 inches in length, over a long season during spring and summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. Tolerates moderate frosts and is very drought tolerant.

Callistemon viminalis ( Weeping Bottlebrush )
A very attractive, strong branched, fast growing, weeping, large, evergreen tree, that is native to Australia's east coast. Some records include: 20 years - 60 x 27 feet; largest on record - 70 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet; largest in Arizona - 60 feet in 60 years.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are hairy bronze turning to bright green.
The showy, scarlet-red, bottlebrush flowers, up to 8 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in length, are borne during spring and early summer ( sporadically for the remainder of the year ).
The attractive bark is whitish and scaly.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade. Tolerant of both very wet soil, drought, clay and alkaline soil; it can grow in climates with as little as 16 inches of annual rainfall. Moderately salt tolerant.

'Captain Cook'
Dense and bushy, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 16 feet.
The foliage is reddish-pink at first.
The dennse, red, bottlebrush flowers are up to 6 inches in length.

'Dawson River'
A weeping tree, reaching a maximum size of 60 x 40 feet.
The deep red, bottlebrush flowers are up to 5 inches in length.

'Hannah Ray'
A weeping tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 20 feet.
The flowers are intense red.

'Wild River'
A dense, bushy, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 feet.
The leaves are very narrow. The broad bottlebrush flowers are red.

'Wilderness White'
A large white flowering form.

Callistemon viridiflorus ( Green Bottlebrush )
A moderate growing, erect, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 8 feet, that is native to Tasmania. It makes a great hedge.
The stiff leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.4 inches, are deep green. The foliage turns to deep reddish-purple during winter.
The greenish-yellow bottlebrush flowers are borne on dense bottlebrush spikes, up to 4 x 1.5 inches, during late spring and summer.
The attractive bark is light tan color.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, tolerating as low as -2 F. It is among the few Bottlebrushes to thrive in Washington State. Very tolerant of poorly drained wet soil as well as heat and drought. Prune after flowering for dense habit.

Callistemon 'Western Glory'
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 10 feet.
The leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
The profuse, pinkish-red, bottlebrush flowers are borne during spring, often repeating in fall.
Hardy zones 8b to 11. Drought tolerant once fully established.

Callistemon 'Woodlander's Hardy'
A very attractive, fast growing, arching, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 8 feet, that originated at Woodlander's Nursery at Aiken, South Carolina. It likely has Callistemon sieberi in its parentage. Some records include; 5 years - 4 x 4 feet.
The needle-like leaves are green.
The scarlet-red bottlebrush flowers are borne during early summer.
The bark is very attractive.
Hardy zones 6+. Tolerates hot humid summers in the southeastern U.S. and is known to
grow in North Carolina as well as in the Pacific Northwest. Drought tolerant.
Prune after flowering to encourage dense habit.

2 comments:

  1. Holy cow....what a long post!!! I like your shots. I didn't know butterflies were attracted to this plant.....we have a similiar bottlebrush that grows here in Tucson. Great plant for our climate.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you! I've been wanting to do a botanical garden/landscape/botanical tour of Arizona for a long time. So far the only arid climate region that I've visited was Chile north of Santiago.

    ReplyDelete