Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Deciduous Hollies

The Hollys are an extremely large and diverse group of evergreen and deciduous shrubs that are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also South America, South Africa and even in Borneo. This article below features the deciduous members of the group ( see second article for evergreen Hollies ). Some thrive in cold regions, some only in the tropics. Selection is important because much of having a Holly thrive in your yard, is choosing the right one.
Many Hollies have male and female flowers on separate trees, so that having both sexes are important to getting berries. Often times one neighborhood will have enough Hollies present where this may not be a worry. Still there are some such as the Burford Holly that are self-fertile and will fruit without a pollinators.
Most Hollies require just about any fertile, well drained soil. The ones that require acidic soil will be mentioned in the below descriptions, since some such as Ilex aquifolium really don't care about soil acidity. For the Hollies that require acidic soil, it is recommend to test your soil before planting since alkalinity may cause chlorosis ( stunting of growth along with yellowing of the leaves ).
Propagation from seed is slow and may take 2 or even 3 years to get germination. Propagation from half hardened cuttings taken late summer or early fall is recommended for cultivars to get pure bred stock.

Ilex asprella ( Rough-Leaved Holly )
A medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 13 feet, that is native to southeast China, Taiwan, Vietnam and the Phillipines.
The finely-toothed, ovate to elliptical leaves, up to 3 x 2 inches in size, are glossy bright green. The flowers can be white or pink. They are followed by black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, on female plants only. Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Ilex decidua ( Possumhaw )
The Possumhaw is an upright deciduous tree, reaching up to 30 feet, that is native to central and southeastern U.S. ( southeast Nebraska to central Illinois to Maryland; south to central Texas to central Florida ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 12 years - 16 feet; 20 years - 20 x 27 feet; largest on record is 50 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.1 foot.
The leaves appear late in the spring. They are scalloped, oval, up to 4 x 1.2 inches in size, and often crowded in short spurs. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The berries ( up to 0.5 inches wide ) are orange or red and often last all winter sometimes into early spring.
The thin, smooth bark is brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. The Possumhaw is both very heat as well as flood and wind tolerant and will grow well even in harsh climates such as Kansas. Grows well in sun or shade and prefers a soil PH from 3.5 to 6.5.

* photo of unknown origin


* photo taken on Aug 2012 in Towson, MD

* photo taken by Rex Hamilton @ USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


'Byers Golden'
The berries, up to 0.25 inches wide, are yellow and up to 0.25 inches and often keep their color into February.
The foliage is dark green and turns to yellow during autumn.
Otherwise similar to regular species.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Council Fire'
The berries remains orange even into March long after most Possumhaws fade.
The deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
Hardy zone 5 to 9. Likely grows to same size as Ilex decidua. Bushy & upright.

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Pendula'
Strongly weeping in habit, reaching up to 20 x 20 feet, with scarlet-red berries that persist well into winter.
The foliage often persists very late, even into early winter.

'Red Cascade'
Bark is pale-gray to almost white, further showing off the long-persistent orange-red berries.
It is similar in habit to the species.

* photo of unknown origin


'Sentry' ( Sentry Possumhaw )
Vigorous and strongly upright, columnar or pyramidal in habit.
It abundantly bears very persistent, scarlet-red berries it a male pollinator is nearby.

'Warren Red'
Similar to Ilex decidua with very abundant scarlet berries.


* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


Ilex laevigata ( Smooth Winterberry )
Similar to Ilex verticillata; the Smooth Winterberry is native to the Eastern U.S. ( from central New York to Vermont to southern Maine; south to South Carolina with disjunct locals in southwestern P.A. and far southwest Virginia ). Most of its natural range is swamps within the coastal plain, it is endangered in Vermont. It forms a rounded, large, deciduous shrub, reaching around 12 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 20 feet.
The finely-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The glossy mid-green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The tiny, creamy-white flowers are followed by scarlet-red berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, ripening during early autumn, persisting through winter.
The bark is smooth.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( clones from Vermont may be hardy to zone 3 and it has thrived at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada ).

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on June 17 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on on Aug 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 10 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2018 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


Ilex longipes ( Georgia Holly )
A rare, deciduous, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 25 x 20 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from southwest Arkansas to south-central Tennessee to south-central North Carolina; south to eastern Texas to northwest Florida to central South Carolina ).
The toothed, obovate leaves are up to 2 x 1.3 inches in size. The leathery foliage is mid-green, turning to reddish-purple during autumn.
The tiny white flowers appear during late spring.
They are followed by showy, glossy red berries that ripen during early autumn and persist into early winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on upland, acidic, well drained soil. Very heat tolerant. It is often found as an understory plant in pine-oak-hickory forests.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photos


Ilex macrocarpa ( Bigfruit Holly )
It is a very beautiful, fast growing, upright, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 30 feet, that is native to eastern China ( not including Manchuria ). One tree already grew to 45 feet in England. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is moderately long-lived, lasting over 100 years. Extremely rare in the U.S. however it makes for an excellent landscape tree.
The sawtooth-edged, oval to elliptical leaves are up to 7 x 2.5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size. The foliage is very glossy, very deep green. The foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
The tiny white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by cherry-like, black, rounded berries, up to 0.6 inches wide, that are very large for a Holly.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, thriving in the hot humid summers of the southeast and Mid-Atlantic U.S.. It is tolerant of temporary flooding.


* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




Ilex macropoda
A deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum height of 57 ( rarely over 30 ) feet, that is native to eastern China ( not incl. Manchuria ), Korea and Japan.
The toothed, oval leaves are up to 3 x 1.8 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, pale green beneath; turning to golden-yellow during autumn. The young leaves can be used to make tea.
The tiny white flowers appear during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, glossy red berries, up to 0.25 inches wide, during mid to late autumn.
The smooth bark is whitish-gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

Ilex serrata ( Japanese Winterberry )
A large, bushy, dense deciduous shrub native to southeast China and Japan that can easily reach up to 10 feet in height. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 31 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The finely-toothed, oval or elliptical leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size. The new foliage in spring is often plum purple in color. The leaves later turn to deep green above, downy on both sides.
The tiny pink flowers are followed by an abundance of showy red berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, lasting from late August into December.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possibly 4b as it has thrived at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada ). It is tolerant of flooding ( native to swampy areas in its native Asia ). This plant is basically the Asian cousin of our native Ilex verticillata.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


'Leucocarpa' ( White Japanese Winterberry )
Similar except with bright green foliage and creamy white berries that keep their color well into winter. Truly spectacular in front of a darker background such as darker conifers.

Ilex 'Sparkleberry' ( Sparkleberry Holly )
The Sparkleberry Holly is a decidious Holly that is a hybrid between the North American Ilex verticillata & the Japanese Ilex serrata. Fast growing and upright, it reaches a maximum size of 17 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 inches.
The oval leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The deep green foliage often falls off during autumn without coloring.
In fall this female hybrid Holly is covered in glowing scarlet-red berries that last through the winter often into March.
Hardy zones 3 to 8



* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Sep 23 2013 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on Nov 10 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* photos taken on Sep 26 2018 in Columbia, MD


Ilex verticillata ( Winterberry )
A fast growing, deciduous suckering shrub, reaching around 10 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from International Falls, Minnesota to Batchewana, Ontario to Gogama, Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to southeastern Quebec to Newfoundland; south to Missouri to Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle ). It is also native further north locally around Chapleau, Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in Lasalle, around Leamington, Point Pelee as well as the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 20 years - 20 x 17 feet; largest on record - 40 x 33 feet with stem diameters up to 7 inches. The Winterberry can reach up to 18 inches in height from seed during the first year. It is found in swamps and lakeshores in the wild.
The toothed, obovate leaves are up to 6 x 4 ( rarely over 5 x 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is bright green above with some down felting beneath. The foliage is often purplish-green at first and turns to yellow before dropping late in the fall. The leaves do not contain caffeine but do make a good tea.
The tiny, white flowers appear during late spring.
They are followed by long lasting red berries, up to 0.5 inches in size, during late summer into winter.
This is a variable plant and careful selection is important to get that truly spectacular unforgettable winter display of berries that this plant is known for. Berry production is usually much better on plants in mass plantings as a male pollinator is needed.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Very tolerant of swampy sites and grows well in both light and heavy soils; prefers moist, fertile, acidic (pH 4.5 to 6.5), soils with lots of humus; will develop chlorosis in high pH soils. It is often found wild in areas where its roots are submerged for months at a time over the winter season. Established plants are moderately drought tolerant. This species of Holly improves the soil it grows on due to its roots that have bacteria in the root nodules that fix nitrogen. Winterberry often produces too many stems which become congested and compete with each other...thinning clumps to 5 to 8 stems will produce more vigorous growth. Insect pest and disease problems are very rare. The cultivars can be reproduced by cuttings taken during early summer.




* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Oct 31 2018 @ Howard Comm College, Columbia, MD


'Afterglow'
Reaches up to 10 x 10 feet with glossy deep green foliage.
It flowers earlier than most clones.
A female clone, it bears abundant large orange-red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 4 +.

'Apollo'
A very fast growing male clone to 15 x 15 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 7 x 6 feet. This Ilex serrata x verticillata hybrid is used as the pollinator to 'Bonfire'.
The foliage is purplish-red at first.
Hardy north to zone 3.

'Aurantiaca'
Reaches a maximum size of 15 x 15 feet.
The abundant, bright orange berries do not last as long as some of the other cultivers.
The deep green foliage turns to yellow and purple during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9.

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Oct 1 2018 in Columbia, MD


'Autumn Glow'
Actually a hybrid between Ilex verticillata & serrata and grows with hybrid vigor to 10 x 12 feet in 20 years and eventually 12 x 20 feet with a rounded habit.
The deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
It bears abundant, scarlet-red berries, up to 0.25 inches in size, during autumn, lasting until Christmas.
Hardy zone 5 to 8.

'Berry Heavy'
Reaches up to 15 x 15 feet.
The deep green foliage is mildew resistant.
During autumn, this shrub is cropped with a very heavy crop of long-lasting, large, scarlet-red berries.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9. 'Jim Dandy' is an excellent male pollinator for this cultiver.

'Berry Nice'
Almost identical to 'Berry Heavy' but only growing to 8 x 6.5 feet.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Bonfire'
Actually a hybrid between Ilex verticillata & serrata. It grows with hybrid vigor, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 23.3 feet with a rounded habit.
The deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
It bears abundant scarlet-red berries, up to 0.25 inches in size, during autumn. 'Apollo' is the recommended pollinator.

'Cacapon'
Compact, upright and rounded, reaching up to 10 x 14 ( rarely over 6 ) feet in size.
The crinkled, glossy deep green foliage, turns to yellow and purple during autumn.
The abundant, scarlet-red berries are very long-lasting.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 and is very tolerant of summers in the Deep South.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Carolina Cardinal'
Dense in habit, reaching up to 14 feet in height; it is a hybrid between Ilex serrata and Ilex verticillata.
The foliage is purplish at first, turning to mid-green.
The abundant, large berries are scarlet-red.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

* photo taken on June 26 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Harvest Red'
Vigorous and spreading, reaching up to 10 x 16 feet in less than 20 years.
The glossy deep green foliage turns to red and purple during autumn.
The deep red berries, up to 0.25 inches in size, cover the plant during fall and early winter.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9. Actually a hybrid between Ilex verticillata & I. serrata.

'Jim Dandy'
Compact, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in 6 years, with an eventual maxium size of 10 x 10 feet.
This male form has deep green foliage and no berries. A single plant can pollinate up to 6 'Red Sprite' and 'Cacapon'. The long blooming season makes it a good pollinator.

* photos taken on July 7 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 28 2018 @ Howard Comm College, Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 13 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 7 2019 @ Univ. of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on June 11 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 11 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 8 2020 in Columbia, MD


'Maryland Beauty'
Fast growing, but dome-shaped and compact in habit, reaching up to 7.5 x 9 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 7 x 5 feet. It tends not to sucker.
The attractive foliage is glossy deep green, turning to yellow or bronze during autumn.
The abundant, deep red berries persist into mid-winter.
Hardy zones 4 +.

* photo taken on Sep 23 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Red Sprite'
A dwarf female, reaching up to 4 x 5 feet in 10 years ( eventually to 5 x 5 feet though 8 x 8 has been recorded ). It needs an early flowering male pollinator ( 'Jim Dandy' or 'Apollo' to get its trademark heavy crop of persistent, large, 0.5 inch, scarlet-red berries.
The luxuriant glossy deep green foliage turns yellow and purple during autumn.

* photos taken on October 15 2010 in Clarksville, MD





* photos taken on Apr 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 14 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Mar 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Mar 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jun 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on May 17 2017 in Annapolis, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Sep 20 2018 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 28 2018 @ Howard Comm College, Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 31 2018 @ Howard Comm College, Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Dec 3 2018 in Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on Nov 28 2018 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 22 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Feb 21 2020 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on June 8 2020 in Columbia, MD


'Southern Gentleman'
Vigorous and upright to rounded, reaching up to 15 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually slightly larger.
The glossy deep green foliage turns to yellow or purplish-bronze during autumn.
This is a male clone so it does not produce berries, however is a great pollinator for 'Winter Red' and 'Winter Gold' in which case it can be planted with a ratio of 1 male for up to 5 females.
Hardy to -35 F.

* photo taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 1 2018 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 7 2019 @ Univ. of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on June 18 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 4 2020 in Columbia, MD


'Stoplight'
Dense and upright to rounded in habit, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep green.
The abundant, large berries are intense bright scarlet-red, up to 0.5 inches wide. 'Jim Dandy' is an ideal pollinater.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, this northerly clone is great for cold climates.

'Sunset'
Similar to 'Winter Red' but only reaching to 9 x 9 feet with even longer lasting berries.

'Sunsplash'
The mid-green foliage is heavily splashed bright yellow.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Winter Gold'
Identical to 'Winter Red' below except with gold berries. Looks best with a background of dark conifers in the winter to offset its bright colored berries.

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Winter Red'
Reaches up to 8 x 8 feet in 10 years and eventually to 15 x 18 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
Bears crops of bright red, 0.4 inch wide fruits of great abundance, maintaining they're intense color well into February.
The luxuriant deep green foliage turns to yellow or purple during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9


* photo taken on Oct 6 2012 in Howard Co, MD

* photos taken on Dec 5 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 24 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Dec 13 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014
* photos taken on Oct 3 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Mar 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 27 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* photos taken on Nov 3 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2018 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 18 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 11 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 22 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 3 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 25 2019 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jan 15 2020 in Columbia, MD

19 comments:

  1. I've always thought that 'Sparkleberry' was my favorite but your photos of 'Winter Red' may make me change my mind. I think they are so great. I wish I had room for some in my garden.

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  2. Just added 3 more Winter Red photos this evening. Winter Red is extremely abundant here in central Maryland and while a well grown Winter Red can be really stunning...I really like all of them, however have had a real hard time finding and photographing some of the less common cultivars such as Berry Heavy, Bonfire, Stoplight and Sunset. Hoping to add more photos at a later date.

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