Sunday, October 17, 2010

Firethorn

Pyracantha
A genus of 9 species of rapid growing evergreen shrubs and small trees that are part of the large Rose family. They are very useful as free standing shrubs as well as for espaliers and hedging.
Most have toothed, deep green evergreen leaves and spiny stems. The flowers on all are white and are followed by persistant yellow to orange or red berries.
Honey Bees love the flowers and birds ( especially Cedar Waxwings love the berries )
Most prefer cool moist climates and full sun on fertile, well drained soil. They are best installed from containerized nursery stock and do not like to be moved once established.
Pruning is not required but hedges may be pruned in early or mid summer to control size.
Propagation is from seed ( sown in cold frame during mid-autumn ) or 4 inch cuttings of fresh growth taken during summer for the cultivars.
Pyracantha roots easily from softwood, semi-hardwood or hardwood cuttings under mist, 1000 to 5000 ppm IBA solution in 4 to 6 weeks.
Some species may be prone to scab, fireblight and wilt fungus.

* photos taken on May 8 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Nov 4 2013 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on Sep 30 2014 in Howard Co., MD


Pyracantha angustifolia ( Narrowleaf Firethorn )
Also called Gibb's Firethorn. A spiny, large bushy horizontally branched shrub native to southwest China. Some records include: 10 years - 20 x 20 feet; largest on record - 33 x 33 feet. Some individual plants are nearly spineless.
The leaves, up to 3.5 x 1 inch are glossy deep green above and furry gray beneath.
The small white flowers are borne in corymbs of up to 30 in early summer.
They are followed by densely clustered berries that are yellow to deep orange and persist until March.
Hardy zones 5 to 10

Pyracantha atlantoides ( Chinese Firethorn )
A large, vigorous, upright, vase shaped shrub with long spined arching branches that is native to south and western China. Some records include: largest on record - 23 x 15 feet. Makes an excellent hedge or screen.
The broadly-oval leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The small white flowers are borne in corymbs of up to 20 during summer.
They are followed by clusters of scarlet berries up to 0.5 inches across during autumn often lasting through winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in sun to partial shade, preferring a site sheltered from sweeping winter winds.

'Aurea'
Bright yellow berries

Pyracantha coccinea ( European Firethorn )
A vigorous, dense, very large shrub native from southern Europe and Turkey to the Caucasus. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 20 x 20 feet; largest on record - 33 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches.
The toothed ovate leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is finely downy at first, later turning glossy deep green.
The small white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in corymbs during late spring.
They are followed by dense clusters of abundant showy scarlet-red berries ( up to 0.25 inches wide ) borne on downy stalks.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( Slovakian seed stock being the hardiest, down to -20 F ).

* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD


'Kasan'
Orange-red berries.

'Lalandei'
Strong growing and upright, reaching up to 20 feet or more.
Bears profuse glossy bright orange-scarlet berries.
Hardy to -20 F ( hardier on protected sites having reached a size of 3 x 6.5 feet at zone 4b Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada though any growth above that height freezes off during severe winters ).

'Northern Beauty'
A slow growing, semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 8 x 6 feet.
The white flowers are followed by showy orange berries during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun.

* photos taken on Sep 23 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 5 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Rutgers'
A fast growing, low, spreading form, reaching up to 3 x 10.5 feet in 10 years, eventually reaching a maximum size of 5 x 12 feet.
The narrowly-oval leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The abundant, orange berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, persist well into winter.
Hardy zones 5 +. It is highly resistant to fireblight and scab.

'Walker's Pride'
A dwarf form, reaching just 8 x 5 feet in 7 years, eventually slightly larger; originating in Nebraska.
The deciduous foliage turns to deep red during autumn.
The bright orange berries persist well into winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4b on protected sites ).

'Wyatti'
A fast growing cold hardy form with intense orangish-red flowers.

Pyracantha crenulata ( Himalayan Firethorn )
A rapid growing spiny vase shaped shrub to small tree reaching up to 20 x 12 feet that is native to the southern slope of the Himalayan Mountains in Asia.
The oval leaves with finely notched margins, reach up to 3 x 0.7 inches in size and are glossy deep green.
The small white flowers are borne in corymbs of up to 30.
They are followed by clusters of dark red berries.
Hardy zone 7 to 10

Pyracantha fortuneana ( Yunnan Firethorn )
Also called Pyracantha crenatoserrata. It is a fast growing, large shrub native to central and western China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 18 x 12 feet.
The shallow toothed, round tipped, oval leaves up to 3 x 1 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The white flowers borne in late spring are followed by profuse small berries that are orange before finally ripening to red and persisting into the following spring.
Hardy zone 6 to 10. Drought tolerant and also very heat tolerant.

'Graberi'
Vigorous with red berries.

Pyracantha koidzumii ( Taiwan Firethorn )
A rapid growing, densely branched shrub reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 feet that is native to Taiwan.
The oblanceolate leaves, up to 3 inches in length are glossy deep green above, lighter beneath.
The small white flowers are borne in corymbs containing up to 15 during late spring.
They are followed by loose clusters of orange-scarlet berries ( each up to 0.25 inches wide ) that persist into winter.
The shoots are reddish and downy when young, later becoming purplish and smooth.
Hardy zone 7 to 10, it thrives in the Deep South where Pyracantha coccinea and its cultivars do not. In very hot climates it should not be planted where there is reflected heat such as next to parking lots or along south or west facing walls. It is very drought tolerant.

'Pueblo'
Reaches up to 7 x 14 feet in 15 years and is completely scab and blight resistant.
The deep green leaves, up to 3 x 1 inches in size are evergreen north to zone 7a.
The scarlet fruits are very persistant.

'Santa Cruz'
A fast growing, semi-prostrate shrub reaching up to 3.3 x 8 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 5 x 10 feet, bearing red berries.
It has lush deep green foliage that is resistant to scab and is an excellent choices for covering embankments.

'Silver Lining'
Fast growing but compact, reaching up to 7 x 7 feet, bearing foliage that is boldly margined silvery-white, later deepening to green. The foliage turns bronze and rosy-red during winter. The foliage is very heat tolerant and rarely scorches.
The late spring flowers are followed by intense orange-red fruits.
The stems are less thorny than most Firethorn. It is highly resistant to fireblight.

* photo taken on June 1 2013 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on Oct 1 2016 in Annapolis, MD


Pyracantha rogersiana ( Roger's Pyracantha )
A very rapid growing wide dense spreading to erect shrub native to China that can reach a maximum size of 17 x 17 feet. Makes an excellent hedge.
The oblong leaves, up to 1.5 x 0.5 inches are glossy deep green.
In late spring, up to 15 small white flowers are borne in corymbs that occur on mostly 2 year old wood.
They are followed by very clusters of yellow to orange berries, up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

'Flava'
Similar except for yellow berries

PYRACANTHA HYBRIDS

'Apache'
A compact, semi-dwarf, evergreen Pyracantha shrub, reaching up to 6 x 8 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 6 x 3 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The white flowers are followed by glossy scarlet-red berries that persist well into winter.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. It is highly resistant to scab and fireblight.

'Fiery Cascade'
An upright shrub reaching a maximum size of 11 x 10 feet with small glossy green leaves and profuse small orange-red berries in autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Golden Charmer'
A vigorous, dense, long branched arching shrub reaches 16 x 10 feet ( though potentially up to 33 x 33 feet with great age if trained as a tree ).
The finely-toothed narrowly oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length are glossy bright green.
The foliage is scab and fireblight resistant.
The white early summer flowers are followed by profuse large rounded bright orange berries.
Hardy zone 5 to 9 in sun to partial shade.

'Golden Dome'
Arching branches form a spiny dome shaped shrub up to 7 x 10 feet ( largest on record - 10 x 10 feet ).
The narrowly oval foliage is glossy deep green.
Profuse small white flowers in early summer are followed by an abundance of small deep golden-yellow fruits.
Hardy zone 5 to 9 in sun to partial shade

'Gold Rush'
A fast growing, upright, large shrub, reaching up to 11 feet in 4 years, eventually 16 x 10 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The white flowers are followed by abundant golden-yellow fruit.
Hardy zones 7 +.

'Harlequin'
Moderately thorny and moderate growing, reaching an average size of 6 x 6 feet.
The foliage is attractively variegated with a creamy margin that turns pink in winter. The leaves are up to 2 inches in length.
The berries are intense orange-red.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Mohave'
A hybrid originating from Pyracantha koidzumii & P. coccinea 'Wyattii. A very fast growing, dense, spreading shrub reaching up to 13 x 13 feet in 7 years, 18 x 15 feet in 20 years, eventually to 18 x 20 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green. The foliage is both scab and fireblight resistant. Evergreen zones 7 and south, in zone 5 and 6 if is usually deciduous.
The flowers are white.
The abundant, large bright orange-red berries are very persistent, lasting from August to late winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade, perferring sandy loam ( PH 6 to 6.5 ). Very easy to grow and is tolerant of drought and urban conditions.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on Aug 30 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Navaho'
A low growing, dense rounded variety reaching up to 6 x 7.5 feet bearing intense orange-red berries. The Navaho Firethorn is scab resistant.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 in Howard County, MD


* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Howard Co., MD
* photos taken on Dec 2 2012 in Catonsville, MD

* photo taken on Nov 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Orange Charmer'
A vigorous shrub reaching up to 10 x 12 feet with deep green leaves up to 2 inches in length.
The orange-red berries are very persistant.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Orange Glow'
A dense, vigorous shrub reaching up to 12 x 15 feet.
The bright orange-scarlet berries persist into winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Red Elf'
A low, densely mounding shrub with deep green foliage and scarlet red berries.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Teton'
Fast growing and upright in habit, reaching up to 16 x 15 feet, with yellowish-orange berries.
The leaves are up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 +. It is considered to be more disease resistant than most.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.








'Waterei'
Vigorous and thornless, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet. It is part Pyracantha rogersiana in parentage.
The glossy deep green leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. In early summer the entire plant is covered in white flowers that are replaced in autumn with profuse bright scarlet red fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

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