Sunday, November 28, 2010

Strawberry Trees, Madrone and Manzanitas

Arbutus

A small genus of 8 species of trees that are part of the larger Ericaceae family.
All Madrones are EVERGREEEN. The branches are often twisted giving them a picturesque effect.
The Madrone's prefer full sun, moderate moisture and deep, fertile well drained soil on a site sheltered from excessive wind. They should be installed as containerized plants at a young age since they resent root disturbance and older trees are difficult to transplant. Insect pest and disease problems rarely occur.
Young trees should be pruned to a single leader, side shoots should be retained but shortened. Eventually prune to limb up and expose the trunk. Trees may occasionally need thinning. Pruning is typically done in early April.
Propagation is from seed sown in autumn or semi-ripe cuttings taken late in summer, autumn or winter.

Arbutus andrachne ( Greek Madrone )
A dense, heavy set, broadly-spreading, medium-size tree native from southeast Europe to southwest Asia including southern Crimea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 40 x 40 feet; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The smooth-edged, oval leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is smooth glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, are greenish in bud opening to white and are borne on short stalks in an upright terminal cluster up to 4 x 4 inches during early spring.
The nearly smooth, rounded fruits are an orange-red berry up to an inch across.
The red bark peels and flakes away in thin strips to expose fresh orange-brown bark beneath.
Hardy north to zone 6 though young trees may need some extra protection against the cold north of zone 8.

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=663

Arbutus x andrachnoides ( Hybrid Madrone )
A heavy set, spreading medium size tree that is the hybrid between Arbutus andrachne & A. unedo. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 80 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 52 inches.
The toothed, elliptical leaves, up to 5.3 x 2 inches are smooth glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small, white, urn shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length are borne on short stalks in an drooping terminal cluster over a long season between fall and spring.
The warty, strawberry-like fruits are red and up to 0.65 inches across.
The orange-red bark peels vertically in long thin strips.
Hardy zone 7 to 9 and is tolerant of alkaline soil. Propagated from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer.

'Marina'
Larger, glossy leaves, to 6 inches in length. A handsome tree; it is also fast growing when young, moderate growing after reaching around 50 feet and growing at rates of up to 3 feet per year.
The flowers are pinkish-white.
The attractive bark is red.
Tolerates as low as 0 F and is drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


Arbutus arizonica ( Arizona Madrone )
A rare, heavy set, broadly columnar, handsome, large tree native to the mountains of eastern Arizona and western New Mexico, south in mountains in western Mexico to Jalisco. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 82 x 52 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; oldest tree on record - 225 years. This beautiful tree should be much more frequently used in landscaping, especially in moist summer climates where other Madrones will not grow.
The smooth edged, thick, lance shaped leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 inches
The handsome foliage is glossy deep green above, pale brown-green beneath.
The small, white to pink, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, are borne on loose panicles up to 2.5 inches in length during summer.
The rough, warty, strawberry-like fruits are orange-red and up to 0.3 inches across.
On young trees the shiny orange-red bark flakes away to reveal fresh green bark beneath. The bark on very old trees is scaly and ashy-gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade preferring moderate to ample summer moisture. It is drought and heat tolerant though trees should be kept moist until establishment. Highly resistant to storm damage. It is not known to grow in the humid eastern U.S.

* historic archive photo


Arbutus canariensis ( Canary Island Madrone )
A dense, heavy set, broadly dome-shaped medium-size tree that is similar to Arbutus unedo ( except for larger leaves ) and is native to the Canary Islands where it is highly endangered. Old trees are gnarled in appearance. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2.5 feet; 10 years - 25 feet; 20 years - 40 x 40 feet; largest on record - 50 x 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.8 feet.
The toothed, oblong leathery leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches are smooth very glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small, white to pale pink, urn shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length are borne on short stalks in loose panicles up to 6 inches in length from late summer to early fall.
The warty, strawberry-like fruits are red and up to 1.5 inches across. They ripen during autumn from previous years flowers which is why this tree flowers and fruits both at the same time. The fruits are edible though gritty in texture.
The red-brown bark is flaking and rough and does not peel unlike that of most other Arbutus.
Hardy zones 8 to 10, it grows in sun or shade and while preferring sandy soil, it is soil tolerant, even tolerating lime.
It is easily grown from tissue culture but not cuttings.

* photo of unknown internet source


Arbutus glandulosa
A dense, heavy set, broadly spreading medium size tree, up to 40 x 20 feet that is native to mountain Pine-Oak forests in southern Mexico. It is threatened with extinction in its native range.
The smooth edged, oval leaves, up to 5 x 3 inches are smooth glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small, pinkish flowers are borne in terminal clusters during winter.
They are followed months later by smooth, orange, rounded fruits.
The light pinkish-brown bark peels and flakes away in thin strips to expose fresh creamy bark beneath. The bark is extremely attractive.
Hardy zones 9 to 10.

Arbutus menziesii ( Pacific Madrone )
A heavy set, broadly columnar, handsome, large tree native to western North America from southwest British Columbia to California.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet ( 10 feet recorded on sprouts ); 20 years - 40 x 40 feet; 30 years - trunk diameter of 1.2 feet; largest on record - 162 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet; oldest tree on record - 600 years. Though not native there, very large trees already occur in the British Isles.
The smooth edged, oval leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches are smooth glossy deep green above, smooth blue-white beneath.
The small, white, urn shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, are greenish in bud opening to white and are borne on large, upright to drooping clusters up to 9 x 6 inches during mid to late spring.
The rough, warty, strawberry-like fruits are orange to red and up to 1 inches across.
The fruit make a good juice but are not good eaten fresh due to the large seeds.
The red bark peels and flakes away in thin strips to expose fresh olive-green bark beneath. Bark on very old trees becomes darker and fissured.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it prefers humid areas and acidic well drained soil that is dry during summer ( in fact this tree only grows in climates with little or no summer rainfall ). It is drought tolerant and excessive irrigation can kill a mature tree as can changing soil grade/drainage. Transplant seedling before they reach a foot in height, or you risk serious damage or death of plant.

* photo of unknown internet source



* photo taken by Frank A. Waugh @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photos taken by C. Ray Clar and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library, University of California


'Palisades'
A new cultivar developed by The Desert Northwest in Sequim, WA that originates from a grove high up in the Cascades mountains. Similar in appearance but much hardier than regular Arbutus menziesii, it has much potential for expanding this most attractive trees range into the Intermountain West as well as eastern Washington / Oregon.
Likely hardy north to zone 5a, it can tolerate as low as -20 F!

Arbutus texana ( Texas Madrone )
Also called Arbutus xalapensis var texana. A rare, heavy set, broadly columnar, handsome, large tree native to the mountains of western Texas, south into mountains of eastern Mexico through to Nicaragua.
. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The smooth edged, thick, oval leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 inches though usually much smaller.
The handsome, leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, smooth blue-white beneath.
The small, white to pale pink, urn shaped flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne on clusters up to 2.5 inches in length during mid to late spring.
The rough, warty, strawberry-like fruits are orange to red and up to 0.3 inches across.
The bark is orange-red and peels in thin sheets.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( trees of western Texas mountain origin are hardier north to zone 5b, easily tolerating -15 F and possibly below -20 F ). It is drought and heat tolerant though trees should be kept moist until establishment. Highly resistant to storm damage. It does sometimes grow on limestone bluffs in the wild and therefore unlike other species, alkaline tolerant yet it also grows on acidic soil.

* photo taken by D.M. Earl @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Arbutus unedo ( Strawberry Tree )
A moderate growing, dense, heavy set, broadly dome-shaped medium-size tree reaching around 40 feet that is native the Mediterranean region and also southwest Ireland. Old trees are gnarled in appearance. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2.5 feet; 10 years - 25 ( 10 is average ) feet; 20 years - 40 x 40 feet; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is moderately long-lived, up to 230 years or more.
The toothed, oblong leathery leaves are up to 4.3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is smooth very glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small, white ( rarely pink ), urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length are borne on short stalks in an drooping terminal cluster up to 2 inches during autumn. Up to 20 flowers may appear on a cluster.
The warty, strawberry-like fruits are red and up to 1.5 inches across. They ripen during autumn from previous years flowers which is why this tree flowers and fruits both at the same time. The fruits are edible though gritty in texture.
The red-brown bark is rough, fissured and does not peel unlike that of most other Arbutus.
Hardy zones 6 to 10, it grows in sun or shade and while preferring sandy soil, it is soil tolerant, even tolerating lime. A clone from Ireland is known to have survived -22 F

* photos taken Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=667

'Compacta'
A miniature form, rarely reaching as large as 12 x 10 feet ( typically about half that ).

'Rubra'
Pink flowers

Arctostaphylos ( MANZANITA )

A genus of plants mostly native to coastal California and mountains of the western U.S, with exception of 2 species native to cool to cold northerly climates around the world. They are part of the larger Ericaceae family and likewise prefers acidic, well drained soil and protection from excessive cold winds. They should be installed while small as they hate root disturbance. They also hate root confinement which makes them poor container plants. Do not water overhead during hot weather, in fact most species prefer deep soil that is not watered at all during summer once established. When first installed, water them weekly but taper off once they establish and begin to grow. They prefer a stone mulch or bark rather than organic mulch. Fertilizing is generally not recommended.
Most Manzanitas are at home in a Mediterranean climate such as California or Europe's Mediterranean, MOST MANZANITAS DO NOT GROW IN THE HUMID EASTERN U.S. unless otherwise noted. A true Mediterranean plant, most Manzanita's are easy to grow if treated as such.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies. They flower on previous year wood which is something to keep in mind when pruning.
The fruits make a good tea if boiled briefly.
A semi-popular drink in the Manzanita's native range is Manzanita Cider ( check external link - http://honest-food.net/2010/08/22/manzanita-cider/ ).
Another good drink is made from the pulp of the berries if the seeds are removed.
Manzanita has a natural adaptation to fire. The plants burn easily however being that they burn away quickly during a forest fire, there is rarely enough heat to damage the roots which quickly resprout. The fire actually rejuvenates the plant as its roots hold the soil from rains that may follow.
Manzanita burns with an oily black smoke. It may be a fire hazard in some areas so it should be mixed with either plants that do NOT burn easily or used on sites where they are surrounded by non vegetation.
Propagation is from cuttings ( difficult ) or seed which should be soaked in boiling water, scarified in acid or covered by pine needles and lit on fire. The seeds have a very hard shell and are programed in the wild to sprout after forest fire in order to take advantage of abundant light.
Pharmacology: The leaves contain Arbutin, which is also found in Cranberries. Arbutin is a diuretic and also kills urinary infections.
The leaves can be used for tea but have strong medicinal properties.
Smoking Manzanita and drinking alcohol at the same time may bring intoxication however it can bring along the side effect of central nervous system depression.
The very early spring flowers are an important source of nectar of Honey Bees. They also attract butterflies and hummingbirds. The berries are an important source of food for wildlife.
The wood is rarely used since large plants are rare, however the finely grained wood is very valuable to wood carvers and cabinet makers. The wood is extremely hard.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photos


Arctostaphylos alpina ( Alpine Bearberry )
Similar to A. uva-ursi and is native to heaths in cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere ( from Scotland thru Russia to Alaska as well as northern North America incl. Greenland; south to B.C., New Hampshire & Maine ). In Europe it ranges south to the Pyrenees & the Alps, and in Russia it is found wild as far south as the Altai Mountains. It is creeping in habit and reaches a maximum size of 1 x 10 feet.
The finely-toothed, lance-shaped leaves are deep green above, bright green beneath. The foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
Unlike other species of Arctostaphylos, this one is not evergreen.
The pendulous white flowers are borne in axilliary racemes.
The berries are similar to A. uva-ursi but taste better and are juicier. Cooking still however does improve the taste. They are red then later ripening to deep purple during autumn.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. It usually resents transplanting. It is among the best groundcover shrubs for interior Alaska.

Arctostaphylos andersonii ( Santa Cruz Manzanita )
An evergreen, slow growing, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 15 feet, that is native to redwood forest openings in the Santa Cruz Mountains in California. It is endangered in the wild.
The toothed, oblong leaves, up to 2.8 x 1 inches, are deeply lobed at the base. The foliage ranges from glaucous powdery white to green.
The white flowers are borne in racemes during early spring.
They are followed by sticky fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The smooth bark is dark reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun ( partial shade where summers hot ) on well drained soil. Drought tolerant and prefers a mediterranean climate. Propagation is from seed only. Unlike many other Manzanita, this one does not resprout after fire.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos auriculata ( Mount Diablo Manzanita )
An evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 15 x 15 feet, that is native to the Mount Diablo area in Contra Costa County in California.
The leaves, up to 2.8 x 1.3 inches, are deeply lobed at the base. The overlapping leaves are woolly and silvery.
The abundant, white flowers are borne in racemes during early spring.
They are followed by hairy fruit, up to 0.4 inches.
Hardy zone 9 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant. Propagation is from seed only. Unlike many other Manzanita, this one does not resprout after fire.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos 'Austin Griffith'
A fast growing, long-lived, twisted tree, reaching up to 12 x 8 feet, that is basically a larger leaved 'Dr Hurd' in appearance.
The ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage is healthy and glossy gray-green all year.
The bright pink flowers are borne on large clusters during late winter and lasting up to 6 weeks.
The attractive trunk is smooth and mahogany-red.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 in full sun.

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos bakeri ( Baker's Manzanita )
An attractive, slow growing, upright, mid-sized, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 8 feet, that is native to mountain scrub and woodlands in Sonoma Co., California.
The oval leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.8 inches in size, are rough and dull to glossy deep green.
The showy, pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense racemes during late winter.
They are followed by smooth, rounded, red berries, up to 0.4 inches wide.
The attractive bark is mahogany-red.
Hardy zones 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Very heat and drought tolerant but also tolerates monthly deep watering during summer.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


'Louie Edmonds'
It is upright and rounded in habit, reaching up to 6 x 4 feet in 5 years, eventually reaching a maximum size of 10 x 8 feet.
The foliage is gray-green.
The flowers are pink.
The bark is smooth and deep red to purple.
Hardy north to zone 7a, tolerating 0 F.

Arctostaphylos canescens ( Hoary Manzanita )
A slow growing, compact, upright shrub reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 feet, that is native to forests from southwest Oregon and northern California. It is long lived and can live up to 100 years.
The smooth-edged, pointed, rounded or oblong leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches, are densely white felted, later turning to green. The leaves gradually loose their downy texture.
The white to pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense clusters during early to late spring.
They are followed by brown berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The twigs are smooth and deep red.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained, acidic soil, thriving where yearly precip. exceeds 30 inches. Drought and heat tolerant.

* historic archive photo

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos catalinae ( Santa Catalina Manzanita )
A slow growing, evergreen shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 18 x 10 feet, that is native to Santa Catalina Island off the coast of California. It is endangered in the wild.
The smooth-edged to toothed, ovate or elliptical leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches, are bright green.
The white to pale pink flowers are borne late winter to mid-spring.
The attractive bark is smooth and red. The twigs are bristly.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in partial shade. Tolerant of persistent salt wind. Drought tolerant but prefers a monthly deep watering during summer.

Arctostaphylos x coloradoensis
An attractive, vigorous, evergreen, groundcover shrub, reaching up to 15 inches x 6 feet.
The showy, exfoliating bark is orange-red.
The bright pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by red fruit during autumn.
Hardy zones 4b to 8 in partial shade on sandy, well drained soil. Drought tolerant. Water regularly for the first few summers until it is fully established. Rabbit and deer resistant.

Arctostaphylos columbiana ( Columbia Manzanita )
Also called Hairy Manzanita. A slow growing, dense, erect evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 15 feet ( rarely over 18 ) with trunk diameter of 5 inches, that is native to coniferous forests from southwest British Columbia to northern California. It is fast growing, at least for a Manzanita and can be trained as a small tree. It is also often used for screening.
The oval leaves are up to 3 x 1.3 inches, are fuzzy dull blue-green.
The small, white or light pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on pendulous racemes.
They are followed by red fruit, up to 0.3 inches across, that persist into winter.
The branches are hairy. The older trunks are smooth and reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerates as low 0 F - possibly below -10 F for inland mountain clones ) in full sun to partial shade, especially enjoying the shade under tall pines. It thrives where annual precip. exceeds 35 inches. This Manzanita tolerates wetter climates than most but is also very tolerant of summer drought. Columbia Manzanita requires full sun or partial shade and can tolerate a soil PH from 3 to 7 as well as extreme heat. The seeds need consumption by animals ( scarification going thru digestive system ) or fire to germinate.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Arctostaphylos confertiflora ( Santa Rosa Island Manzanita )
A twisted small shrub reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 8 feet, that is native to the Channel Islands and Santa Rosa Islands where it is endangered.
The broad ovate to round leaves, up to 1.8 x 1.5 inches, are dull bright green.
The creamy-white flowers are borne in dense racemes.
They are followed by fuzzy fruit, up to 0.4 inches across.
The bark is gray to deep red.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Arctostaphylos cruzensis ( La Cruz Manzanita )
A slow growing, dense, mat-forming, groundcover, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3 x 10 ( rarely over 2 x 6 ) feet; that is native to the shoreline in San Luis Opispo & Monterey Counties in California. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The small, pointed, oval leaves, up to 1.3 x 1 inches, are bright green with a thin red edge.
The very pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in racemes during mid to late winter.
They are followed by fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The shredded bark is red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Arctostaphylos densiflora ( Vine Hill Manzanita )
A slow growing, spreading shrub reaching a maximum size of 5 x 7 feet, that is native to scrubland in Sonoma County, California. It is critically endangered with all remaining wild plants growing in one stand. Some records include: 5 years - x 7 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are glossy mid-green.
The abundant, white to pinkish-white flowers are borne in short upright panicles. The flowers attract hummingbirds to the garden.
They are followed by deep orange-red berries, up to 0.25 inches across.
The bark is smooth and dark red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil. Heat and drought tolerant but tolerate monthly deep watering during summer. It can tolerate clay if sloped.

'Emerald Carpet'
A handsome, moderate growing, trailing, dense, low spreading groundcover shrub, reaching up to 1.2 x 7 feet, forming a dense groundcover.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The flowers are white.
Clay tolerant and easy to grow.

'Harmony'
A very attractive, slow growing, upright, rounded shrub, reaching up to 7 x 6 feet.
The glossy green leaves are the largest of any cultivar.
The showy, bright pink flowers are borne on clusters during late winter and lasting up to 6 weeks.
Hardy zones 7a to 10. Easy to grow and drought tolerant.

'Howard McMinn'
A very attractive, fast growing, dense, mounding, large shrub to small tree. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 1 foot; 5 years - x 7 feet; largest on record - 12 x 22 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The urn-shaped flowers, borne on 3 inch clusters over a 6 week period beginning late winter, are pink at first then fading to white.
They are followed by deep red fruit.
Hardy zones 7b to 10, minor damage to foliage at 0 F.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* excellent vidoe found on youtube


'Sentinel'
Vigorous and upright in habit, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet in 5 years, with a maximum size of 12 x 10 ( rarely over 10 x 7 ) feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet. The deep green foliage is felted at first.
The leaves are heavily downy.
The deep pink flowers borne on large clusters during late winter to early spring.
They followed by deep reddish-orange berries.
The trunk and stems are smooth and deep orange.
Hardy zones 6+

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos diversifolia ( Summer Holly )
Also called Comarostaphylis diversifolia. A moderate growing upright, evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 20 feet, that is native from southern California into the Baja Peninsula.
The leathery, toothed leaves, up to 6 x 3.2 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, hairy white beneath.
The white flowers are borne in downy racemes, up to 2.5 inches in length, during late spring into summer.
They are followed by somewhat wrinkled, small, red berries.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( populations from lower elevations more likely zone 8 + ) in full sun on well drained soil. It thrives in Mediterranean climates at least north to Victoria BC on the North American west coast. Older plants can be cut to near ground to renovate.

Arctostaphylos edmundsii ( Little Sur Manzanita )
A fast growing, prostrate, low shrub reaching a maximum size of 3 x 20 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to coastal cliffs in Monterey County in California. The stems root as they touch the ground. Makes a great groundcover, especially in pine-oak woodland understory. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The leathery, ovate to rounded leaves are up to 1.3 inches in length. The foliage is bronze at first, later turning glossy deep green. The young foliage is edged in red.
The small, white to very light pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on dense racemes during mid-winter to early spring. They are followed by glossy red-brown berries, up to 0.3 inches across.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil., tolerant of heavy and wet soil, also tolerant of occasional summer irrigation.

'Little Sur'
Moderate growing, dense and lower in habit, reaching up to 10 inches x 5 feet in size.
The white flowers are borne mid-winter to early spring.
Hardy zones 8b to 10.

'Rosy Dawn'
A moderate growing, groundcover form, reaching up to 1 x 8 feet.
The foliage is red at first, turning to gray-green.
The pink flowers are borne mid-winter to early spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Arctostaphylos 'Emerald Carpet'
A hybrid between Arctostaphylos uva-ursi x nummularia 'Emerald Carpet'.
A low, dense, mounding, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 10 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 1.5 feet.
The thick, broadly-oval leaves, are glossy bright green.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense panicles during spring.
The smooth bark is purplish.

* excellent video found on youtube



Arctostaphylos gabilanensis ( Gabilan Manzanita )
An evergreen erect shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum height of 17 feet, that is native to scrubland and coulter pine woodland on the border of Monterey & San Benito Counties in California where it is extremely endangered.
The oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 1 inches, are waxy gray-green.
The white to pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in racemes, up to 3 inches in length.
They are followed by rounded, red-brown fruit, up to 0.6 inches across.

Arctostaphylos gabrielensis ( San Gabriel Manzanita )
A slow growing, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in size, that is native to the San Gabriel Mountains in California. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The smooth-edged leaves, up to 1.6 inches in length, are smooth glossy bright green above. The white flowers are borne on dense clusters during mid-winter to early spring. The are followed by round, red fruits up to 0.6 inches wide.

Arctostaphylos glandulosa ( Eastwood Manzanita )
A very attractive, vigorous, erect to broad and flat topped, mid-sized evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 15 feet, that is native from Oregon to the Baja Peninsula.
Some records include: 10 years - 13 feet.
The ovate to elliptic leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, range from bright green to glaucous blue.
The white flowers are followed by red berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.
Very fungus and leaf spot resistant.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


var 'Adamsii'

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos glauca ( Bigberry Manzanita )
A moderate growing, small tree reaching around 25 feet, that is native to California. Some records include: 2 years - 3 feet from 1 gallon; largest on record - 43 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It is long lived, living up to 100 years.
The leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in length, are dull gray-green.
The white to pale pink flowers are followed by sticky brown berries up to 0.5 inches wide.
Berries taste better than most Manzanitas.
The showy bark is dark red.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( tolerating as low as -4 F ) in full sun on well drained soil.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos glutinosa ( Schreibers Manzanita )
A dense, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 8 x 10 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to scrubland on the western slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains in California where it is endangered.
The densely arranged, stemless leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches, are woolly and dull greenish-gray.
The urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense racemes.
They are followed by hairy, red fruit.
The attractive bark is red.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos hookeri ( Monterey Manzanita )
A slow growing, mat-forming to mounded shrub reaching a maximum size of 4 x 15 feet, that is native to central California including San Francisco.
The small, oval to spatulate leaves, up to 1.2 x 0.6 inches in size, are glossy mid-green.
The white to pink flowers are borne in dense racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by oval to rounded, glossy red berries up to 0.4 inches wide.
The smooth bark is reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It thrives in the understory of open pine woods.

subsp. var 'franciscana' ( Franciscan Manzanita )
An attractive, very low, prostate groundcover shrub, reaching up to 3 x 8 feet. It makes a great groundcover for slopes. It is native to San Francisco in vincinity of the Golden Gate Bridge and is critically endanagered in the wild and for a long time was considered extinct.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 0.8 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is gray-green.
The flowers are white to pale pink.
Hardy zones 8a to 10. It enjoys a monthly deep watering during summer.

* excellent video found on youtube


'Ken Taylor'
Moderate growing and dense in habit, reaching up to 2 x 8 feet. The deep red stems root as they touch the ground. It makes a great groundcover plant.
The foliage is glossy bright green.
Hardy zones 7a to 10. Clay tolerant if very well drained.

'Wayside'
Very vigorous and spreading, reaching up to 4 x 12 ( usually under 2.5 ) feet, making an excellent groundcover for dry sunny banks.
The leaves are small and luxuriant bright green.
The flowers are bright pink.
The stems are reddish.
Full sun to partial shade, tolerates as low as 5 F.

Arctostaphylos imbricata ( San Bruno Mountain Manzanita )
A slow growing, mat forming to mounded, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 6 ( often under 1.5 ) feet, that is native to scrubland on San Bruno Mountain in San Mateo County where it is endangered.
The stem-clasping, smooth to tooth-edged, rough, oval to rounded leaves, up to 1.6 x 1.3 inches, are bright green.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.2 inches, are borne on dense racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by hairy fruit, up to 0.2 inches.
Requires fire for reproduction.

Arctostaphylos insularis ( Island Manzanita )
A moderate growing, large, upright to spreading evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 17 x 16 feet, that is native to Santa Cruz Island in California where it is rare.
The oval leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches, are smooth, glossy bright green.
The white, urn-shaped, flowers are borne in dense inflorescences during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by orange-brown fruit, up to 0.6 inches wide.
The smooth bark is reddish.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -5 F ) in full sun on well drained soil. Tolerant of heavy soil and drought. It prefers a deep monthly watering in hot inland locations.

Arctostaphylos 'John Dourley'
A handsome, moderate growing, dense, low, spreading shrub, reaching up to 3 x 4 feet in 5 years, eventually up to 5 x 8 feet in size.
The very attractive foliage is orange-red at first, turning to blue-green with a narrow red edge.
The abundant, very light pink flowers are borne late winter to early spring.
They are followed by red berries.
The showy bark is deep mahogany-red.
Hardy zones 7a to 9 ( tolerating 0 F ) in full sun preferring a mediterranean climate with a dry summer. It is clay tolerant but only with no irrigation. It can tolerate occasional deep watering during summer on sandy soils.

Arctostaphylos klamathensis ( Klamath Manzanita )
A low, spreading shrub, reaching up to 1.8 feet tall, that is native to semi-wooded serpentine outcrops in mountains of north-central California. It was not discovered until 1982 and is endangered in the wild.
The elliptical to obovate leaves, up to 1.6 x 1 inches in size, are silvery-gray.
The white flowers appear during late spring.
They are followed by rounded fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide. Hardy zones 6 to 7 ( est ). It requires 55+ inches of average yearly precip and prefers cool summers.

Arctostaphylos luciana ( Santa Lucia Manzanita )
A slow growing, upright, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 17 ( rarely over 7 ) feet, that is native to coastal slope scrubland in the Santa Lucia Mountains in San Luis Opispo Co, California. It is endangered in its natural range.
The smooth-edged, oval to rounded leaves, up to 1.6 x 1 inches, are woolly to smooth and green above, whitish beneath.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes from mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by red fruit, up to 0.5 inches.
The bark is red.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant but requires 18 + inches of rainfall per year.

Arctostaphylos malloryi ( Mallory's Manzanita )
A domed, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 10 x 8 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to north-central California. It is endangered in the wild.
The oval leaves are up to 1.2 x 1 inches in size. They are bright gray above, downy white beneath.
The flowers are white.
The fruits are up to 0.3 inches wide.

Arctostaphylos manzanita ( Manzanita )
A very attractive, moderate growing, rounded, evergreen, large shrub to small tree. Some records include: 25 years - 19 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches; largest on record - 40 x 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.7 feet. It often forms large thickets in the wild.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 1.7 inches, are hairy and glossy bright green on both sides.
The deep pink flowers are borne on racemes, up to 1.2 inches long, during early spring.
They are followed by berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, that are white, later ripening to reddish-brown in autumn.
The attractive deep red peels to expose brighter red fresh bark.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. Very tolerant of extended drought. Boil seeds for 15 minutes before sowing to loosen seed coat and improve germination.

* historic archive photo

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


'Dr. Hurd'
Fast growing and upright in habit, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 20 feet, can be pruned as a small tree.
Larger rounded leaves, up to 3 inches.
Tolerates temperatures as low as 0 F.

'St Helena'
Vigorous and tree-like, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 feet.
The flowers are white and the foliage is bluer than the species.
Tolerates as low as 5 F. Leaf spot resistant.

Arctostaphylos mewukka ( Indian Manzanita )
A multi-stemmed, upright shrub reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet, that is native to the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. It is great for use on steep slopes and under tall pines.
The ovate to rounded leaves are up to 2.8 x 2.8 inches in size. The foliage is bronze-red at first, turning to smooth and gray-green to dull green.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in loose racemes.
They are followed by rounded, red-brown fruit, up to 0.6 inches. The very attractive, smooth bark is glossy purplish-red.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant but requires 26 + of rainfall yearly.

Arctostaphylos montaraensis ( Montara Manzanita )
A slow growing, dense, upright, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 ( rarely over 15 ) feet, that is native to Montara and San Bruno Mountain in San Mateo County, California where it is extremely endangered.
The rough, stem-clasping, ovate leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are dull green.
The white to pale pink, cone-shaped flowers, up to 0.3 inches, are borne on dense racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are hairy fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The stems are deep red with papery peeling bark.
Hardy zone 9 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It thrives from Oregon to central coastal California and is not adapted to extremely hot inland summers. Drought tolerant, it makes an attractive landscape plant.

* photos of unknown internet source




Arctostaphylos montereyensis ( Toro Manzanita )
A shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 8 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to sandy maritime scrubland near Salinas in Monterey County, California where it is highly endangered.
The rough, smooth-edged, oval to round leaves, up to 1.8 x 1 inches, are deep green.
The urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense racemes.
They are followed by bristly drupes, up to 0.3 inches across.
The attractive smooth bark is dark purplish-red to purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 9 ( est ) in full sun on sandy soil only.

Arctostaphylos morroensis ( Morro Manzanita )
A slow growing, dense, upright to spreading, evergreen, large shrub to mini-tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 ( rarely over 10 x 10 ) feet. It is native to sandy scrubland in Morro Bay in San Luis Opispo Co. California where it is critically endangered.
The oval leaves are reddish at first, turning to deep green above, dull gray-green beneath.
The very light pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in abundant, dense racemes.
They are followed by red fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The shredded bark is reddish-gray.
Hardy zones 8a to 10 ( some forms may tolerate as low as 0 F ) in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil. Drought tolerant but requires 16 + inches of rainfall per year.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Arctostaphylos myrtifolia ( Ione Manzanita )
A shrub reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6.5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to scrub and open woodlands in Calaveras & w Amador Counties in central California. Extremely rare, it is listed federally as threatened with extinction. It will like soon be relisted as endangered as Phytophthora cinnamomi and newly introduced Phytophthora cambivora are killing the few remaining natural stands. The stems often root or self layer as they grow.
The elliptic leaves, up to 0.7 x 0.3 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The small pink, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.8 inches, are borne on racemes during late winter.
They are followed by berries during
The attractive, smooth, waxy bark is reddish in color. The stems are bright red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. Clay tolerant on slopes.

Arctostaphylos nevadensis ( Pine Mat Manzanita )
A very beautiful, slow growing, mat-forming, low, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 2 x 8 feet, that is native to coniferous mountain forests from British Columbia; south to central California to northwest Nevada. It is similar in habit to Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and is often used for groundcover or trailing over walls. It thrives especially well under tall pines.
The thickly-arranged, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.6 inches, are bright green.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes up to 3 inches long.
They are followed by reddish-brown fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The stems are dull red.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on PH 6 to 7.5, well drained soil ( if does however require abundant sunshine for blooming ). Requires cool winters and snow cover but is tolerant of heat and drought. Great for the British Isles and the Pacific Northwest. A great groundcover used to stabilize slopes.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Arctostaphylos nummularia ( Glossyleaf Manzanita )
Also called Fort Bragg Manzanita. A dense evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 17 feet, that is native to forested mountains in California north of San Francisco.
The very finely toothed to smooth-edge, oblong leaves, up to 1 x 0.7 inches in size, are very glossy deep green above, paler beneath.
The hanging, white to pinkish-white flowers are borne in racemes during early spring.
They are followed by red berries, up to 0.2 inches.
The attractive bark is red.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil. Easy to grow, esp in western Oregon and coastal northern California. It thrives especially well under tall pines.

Arctostaphylos obispoensis ( Serpentine Manzanita )
Also called Bishop Manzanita. A slow growing, upright, mid-sized to large, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 20 x 8 ( averaging 4 ) feet, that is native to coastal range forests of the southern Santa Lucia Mountains of San Luis Opispo County,
California. During severe extended drought it may become semi-deciduous.
The pointed, broadly lance-shaped to oblong leaves, up to 1.8 x 1 inches, are fuzzy and gray-green. The foliage is woolly at first, later becoming smooth.
The white, urn-shaped flowers are borne on dense racemes.
They are followed by fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The attractive stems are deep red.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

* historic archive photo


Arctostaphylos oppositifolia ( Baja California Birdbush )
Also called Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia. A large evergreen shrub that is native from San Diego, California to the Baja Peninsula. It is critically endangered in the wild. Some records include: largest on record - 33 feet.
The narrow, lance-shaped leaves, up to 3.3 x 0.2 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The pure white flowers are borne on short racemes.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun on well drained soil. It requires 20 + inches of yearly rainfall.

Arctostaphylos osoensis ( Oso Manzanita )
A dense, spreading evergreen shrub reaching a maximum height of 13+ ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to the western Los Oso Valley in San Luis Obispo County in California where it is endangered.
The smooth-edged to toothed leaves, up to 1.3 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green.
The leaves are stem clasping and strongly overlapping. The foliage is reddish at first.
The urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.2 inches across, are borne in racemes.
They are followed by smooth fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The shredded bark is gray. Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on very well drained soil. It requires 13 + inches of yearly rainfall but also gets alot of fog in in its natural habitat.

Arctostaphylos otayensis ( Otay Manzanita )
A slow growing, dens, erect, large, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 15 x 9 ( rarely over 9 x 6 ) feet, that is native to mountains of San Diego County in California.
The smooth-edged, pointed, oval leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.8 inches, are green.
The bright pink flowers are borne in dense racemes.
They are followed by red fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The shredded bark is red turning to gray.
Hardy zones 7a to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is both heat and cold tolerant. Very drought tolerant.

* photo taken by Herbert A. Jensen and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos 'Pacific Mist'
The hybrid between Arctostaphylos hookerii & pajaroensis. A handsome, fast growing, dense, trailing, low, spreading evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 10 feet. A great groundcover for parking medians and under Oaks.
The narrow, pointed-ovate leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are striking blue-gray. The pure white flowers are borne on small clusters.
Hardy zones 7a to 10 in full sun to partial shade on any well drained soil ranging from beach sand to clay. Very drought tolerant but also tolerates irrigation if planted on very well drained soil. It requires 28 + inches of yearly rainfall to thrive. Prune during late spring. Pinch tips regularly for denser habit.

Arctostaphylos pajaroensis ( Pajaro Manzanita )
A slow growing, dense, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 13 x 12 ( rarely over 7 ) feet, that is native to scrubland in Santa Cruz and far west San Benito Counties where it is has become extinct in the wild.
The smooth to toothed, triangular leaves, up to 1.6 x 1 inches, are bright red at first, turning red tinted gray-green to mid-green.
The pinkish-white to pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on loose panicles, during late winter.
They are followed by hairy, deep red berries, up to 0.3 inches across.
The attractive, shredded bark is gray to red.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on sandy well drained soil, even on pure sand. Thrives where annual average rainfall exceeds 20 inches. Do NOT plant on heavy wet clay.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ Cal Photos


'Bretts Beauty'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet, with foliage that is intense deep red at first, turning to blue-green.
Hardy zones 8a to 10

'Lester Rowntree'
Reaches up to 15 x 15 feet, with foliage that is coppery-red at first, turning to silvery-blue.
The flowers are pink.
Hardy zones 8a to 10

'Warren Roberts'
A very attractive, fast growing, large, spreading shrub, reaching up to 8 x 10 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 6 x 7 feet.
The triangular leaves are bright orange-red at first, turning to blue-green.
The bright pink flowers are borne on large clusters.
Hardy zones 7a to 10

Arctostaphylos pallida ( Alameda Manzanita )
A slow growing, large, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 13 x 12 feet, that is native to eastern San Francisco Bay where it is endangered with extinction.
The stem-clasping, ovate leaves, up to 1.8 x 1.2 inches in size, are luxuriant mid-green.
The white flowers are borne on dense clusters during mid-winter to early spring.
The very attractive bark is intensely-red.
Full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Arctostaphylos parryi ( Parry Manzanita )
A moderate growing, dense, spreading, medium-sized, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 ( rarely over 6.5 ) feet, that is native to coastline areas from Santa Barbara Co. to the San Gabriel Mountains in California.
The pointed, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are bright green.
The small, pinkish-white flowers are borne on racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by dark brown fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( tolerating -30 F ) in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil. It is especially happy under tall Oak and Pine. Drought tolerant but requires annual average rainfall exceeding 16 inches.

Arctostaphylos patula ( Greenleaf Manzanita )
A slow growing, multistemmed, dense, rounded, spreading shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 13 ( rarely over 7 x 7 ) feet, that is native to high mountain coniferous forests in the western U.S. ( from British Columbia to Alberta to northwest Colorado; south to Nevada to Utah ).
The broadly-oval to oblong or rounded leaves are up to 2.3 x 1.6 inches in size. The thick, leathery foliage is glossy bright gray-green to luxuriant mid-green.
The small, white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in loose panicles, up to 3 inches in length, during mid to late spring.
They are followed by small, dark brown to black berries, up to 0.3 inches across.
The attractive smooth bark is glossy reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 ( tolerating -30 F ) in full sun on humus-rich, fertile, acidic, well drained soil. Likes climates with cool winters and heavy snowfall but is very tolerant of summer drought. It likes cool summers and grows well in mountain areas of in the Northeast esp. Massachussetts. The seed can remain dormant for hundreds of years then germinate after a forest fire followed by a cold winter.

* photo taken by VTM Project and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos pechoensis ( Pecho Manzanita )
A dense, large, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 17+ x 17 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to coastal scrubland and coniferous forests in the Pecho Hills southwest of San Luis Opispo Co., California.
The smooth-edged to toothed, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are bright blue-green.
The overlapping leaves clasp the stems.
The very pale pink flowers are borne on clusters during mid to late winter.
The fruit are up to 0.5 inches across.
The attractive bark is smooth deep purplish-red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil. Drought tolerant but requires 16 + inches of yearly rainfall. It is best near the coast as it does not really enjoy extreme heat.

Arctostaphylos peninsularis ( Peninsula Manzanita )
A rounded to spreading, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 8 feet, that is native to far southern California.
The elliptical to oval leaves are silvery-blue.
The white to pinkish-white flowers are followed by large berries.
Hardy zones 8a to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. Do not water during the summer.

Arctostaphylos pilosula ( Santa Margarita Manzanita )
An evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 17 x 17 ( rarely over 6.5 ) feet, that is native to mountainous habitat in San Luis Opispo and Monterey Counties in California.
The oval to rounded leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.8 inches, are smooth and dull green to very fuzzy gray.
The showy flowers are pure white.
They are followed by red-brown fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The stems are red.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos polifolia ( Black Madrone )
Also called Comarostaphylis polifolia. A shrub reaching a maximum size of 20 feet, that is native to Mexico ( from Sonora Province to Nuevo Leon Province; south to Oaxaca )
The lance-shaped to elliptical leaves are glossy mid-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The flowers are mid to deep pink.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is tolerant of summer moisture.

Arctostaphylos pringlei ( Pringle Manzanita )
A shrub reaching a maximum size of 19 x 23 ( typically less than half that ) feet, that is native from Arizona south into the Baja Peninsula. Some records include: largest recorded trunk - 2.3 foot diameter.
The rounded leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are gray-green.
The pinkish-white flowers are borne during late winter.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant but requires 16 + inches of yearly rainfall

* photos taken by F. Lee Kirby @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Anthony Baniaga @ CalPhotos


Arctostaphylos pumila ( Sandmat Manzanita )
A moderate growing, mat-forming, wide creeping evergreen shrub, rarely exceeding 1 foot in height, that is native to sand dune to wooded coastline in the Monterey Bay area of California. Some records include: largest on record - 8 x 12 feet. The stems often root as they touch the ground. It is an ideal plant for binding sand dunes. It is endangered in the wild.
The small, oval to spatulate leaves are up to 1 x 0.6 inch in size. The foliage is pinkish at first, turning to bright green then finally deep green above, fuzzy beneath.
The white to very light pink are borne on small dense clusters.
They are followed by rounded brown fruit, up to 0.2 inches across.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil. It is clay tolerant and even tolerant of occasional deep watering during summer. Requires 16 + inches of yearly rainfall.

Arctostaphylos pungens ( Pointleaf Manzanita )
A moderate growing, upright to spreading, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 27 x 20 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to scrublands and woodlands from California & Nevada to southern Utah to central New Mexico to southwestern Texas; south into central Mexico.
The oval leaves are up to 2 x 0.6 inches in size. The bright green foliage is slightly woolly at first, later turning leathery.
The pinkish-white, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense, rounded inflorescences during early spring.
They are followed by reddish-brown fruits up to 0.25 inches wide.
The attractive bark is smooth and red.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun on dry sandy to gravelly, well drained soil. Heat, clay and alkaline soil tolerant. It requires 14 + inches of yearly rainfall to survive. The seed requires scarification by wildfire to germinate.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Arctostaphylos purissima ( Lompoc Manzanita )
A slow growing, dense low spreading to mounded evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 5 x 15 feet, that is native to coastal scrub in western Santa Barbara Co. in California. During severe extended drought, it may become deciduous. Some records include: largest on record - 13+ feet. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The small, smooth-edged, pointed oval leaves, up to 1 x 0.8 inches, are deep green.
The abundant, white, bell-shaped flowers are borne in clusters at the branch tips during mid-winter to early spring.
The stems are red.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Drought tolerant but only thrives where annual average rainfall exceeds 15 inches.

Arctostaphylos rainbowensis ( Rainbow Manzanita )
A slow growing, mounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet, that is native to Riverside in San Diego county, California. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The oval to elliptical leaves, up to 2 x 1.6 inches in size, are reddish at first, turning to bright green.
The white flowers are borne late winter into early spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. It is drought tolerant but requires 16 + inches of yearly rainfall.

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos refugioensis ( Refugio Manzanita )
A moderate growing, dense, upright, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 15 x 15 feet, that is native to coastal scrubland in Santa Barbara Co., California. It is endangered in the wild.
The oblong leaves, up to 1.8 x 1.3 inches, are reddish at first, turning to dull green with a thin red margin. The stem-clasping leaves often overlap.
The white to pale pink flowers ( up to 0.3 inches long ) are borne in racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by red fruit, up to 0.6 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is clay tolerant and also very drought tolerant though requiring at least 20 inches of yearly rainfall.

Arctostaphylos regismontana ( Kings Mountain Manzanita )
A shrub reaching a maximum size of 17 x 12 feet, that is native to the Santa Cruz Mountains in the southern San Francisco Bay area.
The stem-clasping, smooth-edged to toothed, ovate to oblong leaves, up to 2.4 x 1.3 inches, are bright green.
The flowers are borne in racemes.
They are followed by sticky fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The attractive bark is deep red.

Arctostaphylos rudis ( Sand Mesa Manzanita )
A handsome, fast growing, dense, upright, small, evergreen shrub originating from a burl, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 ( rarely over 7 ) feet, that is native to scrubland on the central California coast. Some records include: 5 years - 5 x 5 feet.
The smooth-edged, oval to round leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.8 inches, are glossy gray-green to bright green.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers are borne late autumn to winter.
They are followed by abundant, smooth red fruit, up to 0.6 inches wide.
The young branches are covered in fibers. The older stems have shredded red or gray bark.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( tolerating as low as 5 F ) in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil. It requires 18 + inches of yearly rainfall to survive and also prefers an occasional deep watering during summer. Thrives in Puget Sound as do most Manzanitas. Very resistant to black spot.

* photos taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


'Vandenburg'
More compact but eventually larger growing, reaching up to 7 x 10 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3 x 3 feet.
The foliage is reddish-bronze at first.
Hardy zones 8a to 10, tolerating 10 F.

Arctostaphylos silvicola ( Bonny Doon Manzanita )
Also called Ghost Manzanita. A moderate growing, upright, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to sandy coniferous forests on the coastal slope of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains in the southwest San Francisco Bay area. It is critically endangered in the wild.
The slightly woolly to smooth, oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 0.6 inches, are pale gray-green to silvery.
The white, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by berries, up to 0.5 inches across.
The attractive smooth bark is dark red.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil, thriving especially well under tall pines. It requires 24 + inches of yearly rainfall but watering during the summer is not recommended.

Arctostaphylos stanfordiana ( Stanford's Manzanita )
A slow growing, bushy, upright, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to coastal ranges of California north of San Francisco. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet.
The pointed, oval leaves, up to 3 x 1 ( rarely over 2 ) inches, are luxuriant mid-green to blue-green.
The pinkish-white to pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne on loose inflorescences.
They are followed by oblong, red berries, up to 0.3 inches, during autumn.
The attractive smooth bark is intense reddish-purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. It requires 20 + inches of yearly rainfall and actually thrives on a deep monthly watering during summer.

* photo taken by Jeffery Barrett @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photo

* excellent video found on youtube


Arctostaphylos 'Sunset'
An attractive, fast growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 4 x 6 feet.
The attractive foliage is reddish-orange at first, turning to olive-green and are edged in small white hairs.
The abundant, white flowers borne on clusters, up to 0.7 inches long, during late winter.
They are followed by small berries.
The attractive peeling bark is mahogany-red.
Hardy zones 7a to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is drought tolerant but requires at least 20 inches of yearly rainfall. Do not water during summer.

Arctostaphylos tomentosa ( Shagbark Manzanita )
Also called Downy Manzanita. A slow growing, upright, multi-stemmed, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 12 ( typically half ) feet, that is native to scrubland and coniferous forests of the central California coastline. Some records include: largest on record - trunk diameter of 8 inches.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 1 inches, are glossy green above and gray felted beneath.
The white to pinkish-white flowers are borne in racemes during spring.
They are followed by rust-brown berries, up to 0.4 inches across.
The attractive gray to red bark peels in long shreds. The young stems are densely hairy.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating 0 F easily ) in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil. It requires 20 + inches of yearly rainfall.

subsp. rosei
Red branches.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ( Bearberry )
A fast growing, low, mat-forming, evergreen, groundcover shrub, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 25 feet ( average is 10 inches x 4 feet ), that is native to northeastern North America and the western U.S. ( from northwest Alaska to northwestern Northwest Territories to southern Nunavut to Winisk, Ontario to Labrador, Newfoundland & Greenland; south to California to New Mexico to North Dakota to northern Illinois to southern Michigan to northeast Ohio to New Jersey ). It is also native to Eurasia from Iceland through Norway thru arctic Siberia; south to Spain, the Apennines in Italy, Turkey, the Caucasus and the Himalayas. It is endangered in Arizona, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana and Delaware; extinct in the wild in Ohio and Pennsylvania. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant as a sand binger on the west beach of Point Pelee; also somewhat common at Pelee Island during the 1800s. On the Ohio shore; it was abundant at Cedar Point during that time but uncommon elsewhere. Typically slow growing, on ideal sites, it can spread up to 2 feet per year. Once established, Bearberries form a dense, thick mat, making it an excellent plant for erosion control. The stems are self rooting as they creep along the ground. The woody dry stems are sometimes used for fuel in the Arctic where trees are rare. In the far north, it is found on tundra. Further south; it is found on sand dunes, sandy pockets in rock outcrops and sandy open mixed to coniferous woods.
The thick, leathery, oval leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.5 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, pale green beneath. The foliage often turns reddish during the winter. The leaves persist from 1 to 3 years.
The nodding, small, white to pinkish-white, urn-shaped flowers are borne in drooping clusters during mid to late spring.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
They are followed in autumn by bright red berries, up to 0.4 inches across. The berries persist well into winter. The berries are edible but not very tasty. They are however rich in Vitamin C and Carbohydrates. The fruits are sweeter when cooked and can be used in preserves and pies.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 ( tolerating as low as -50 F ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile, humus-rich, acidic, very well drained soil. Prefers a soil PH from 5 to 6 and is tolerant of drought, salt spray and wind. This is one of the very few Manzanitas that actually thrive in humid summer climates such as eastern North America. The foliage may windburn in severe climates with no snowfall during winter. Site carefully since it does not enjoy root disturbance or transplanting, they resent fertilizing.
Propagation is easy from cuttings that are rooted in moist sand over the winter. Layering is also an option as is semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. Seed can also be used but with slower results. It is not eaten by deer.

* photos taken on Sep 21 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Nov 28 2015 @ Hickory Run State Park, PA

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* excellent video found on youtube


'Big Bear'
Fast growing, with larger, glossy deep green foliage, that often turn reddish during winter.
The red berries are also larger than the species.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

'Massachussetts'
Very vigorous and dense, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 15 feet.
The thick, glossy deep green foliage is resistant to pests and diseases including leaf spot.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Pt. Reyes'
Rapid growing and dense, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 12 feet.
The foliage is deep green.
The flowers are pink.
Hardy zones 5 to 10, tolerant of heat, clay and smog. Much more drought tolerant than species, making it more suitable for mediterranean climates.

'Vancouver Jade'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 15 inches tall, with glossy foliage that turns bright red during autumn.
The flowers are pink.
Excellent disease resistance.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Woods Red'
Dwarf but still vigorous in habit, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 8 feet.
The pink flowers are followed by large, glossy red fruit.
The foliage is glossy deep green, turning reddish during winter.
The young stems are also red.

Arctostaphylos virgata ( Bolinas Manzanita )
Also called Marin Manzanita. An evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 17 + x 15 feet, that is native to scrubland and forests in Marin Co., California incl. Pointe Reyes.
The rough, sticky, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are glossy mid-green.
The pinkish-white, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense racemes.
They are followed by bristly berries, up to 0.3 inches across.
The twisted branches have deep red bark.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( tolerating 5 F ) in cool summer Mediterranean climates.

* photo of unknown internet source


Arctostaphylos viridissima ( Whitehair Manzanita )
A slow growing, upright, multi-stemmed, evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 8 feet, that is native to the Channel Islands and Santa Cruz Island in California. It is endangered in the wild.
The oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 1 inches, are fuzzy and reddish at first, turning to glossy bright green.
The urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense racemes during mid-winter to early spring.
They are followed by fruit, up to 0.6 inches across.
The peeling bark is red. Hard zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil, it thrives especially well under pines. It requires 19 + inches of yearly rainfall.

Arctostaphylos viscida ( Whiteleaf Manzanita )
A slow growing, upright, evergreen large shrub to small tree, rarely exceeding 15 feet, that is native to scrubland and coniferous forest the U.S. west coast ( from western Oregon to central California ). Some records include: largest on record - 31 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The oval to rounded leaves, up to 2 x 1.6 inches, are dull green to blue-green on both sides.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers are borne in dense inflorescences during spring.
They are followed by shiny red fruits, up to 0.3 inches across.
The mahogany stems can be either smooth or fuzzy.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil, it thrives especially well under tall pines. Drought tolerant but requires 24 + inches of yearly precipitation.
The seed requires fire for germination.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


'December Skies'
Very white foliage.
Hardier, to zone 4b ( tolerating as low as -25 F ).

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