Thursday, January 20, 2011

Flowering Ferns

Osmunda

A small genus of large Ferns that are native to North America. They prefer partial to full shade however may grow in sun if on very moist sites. They require moist to wet, neutral to acidic, humus-rich soil. Deer resistant. Insect pests and disease are rare, rust may occur on the foliage but not very often. Propagation is from seed or division done during fall.

Osmunda cinnamomea ( Cinnamon Fern )
A fast growing, very large, deciduous Fern, with clumps reaching a maximum size of 6 x 13 feet. It is native to swamps in North America, from Minnesota to Lake Nipigon to Haileybury, Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to New Mexico to southern Florida. It is also native to northeastern Asia. It was common in the area around Windsor, Ontario before 1900 but has declined sharply in that region. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore and at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s.
The upright fronds, up to 6 x 1 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, are white woolly at first, turning to deep green. In autumn the fronds become cinnamon-brown in color. This Fern is one of the first to emerge new fronds in spring. In southern Florida it is usually evergreen.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet, fertile, acidic soil. It is soil tolerant but grows most vigorously on wet soil. It can tolerate some lime and some sun, it is not salt tolerant.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


Osmunda claytonii ( Interrupted Fern )
A stately, deciduous Fern, very similar to the Cinnamon Fern, that reaches a maximum size of 6 x 13 feet. It is native to moist woods and swamps of northern Asia and also North America from Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Arkansas to northern Georgia. It was common in the area around Windsor, Ontario as well as on the Ohio shore before 1900 but has declined considerably in that region. It pccurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time.
The fronds, up to 36 x 18 inches, are woolly white at first, turning deep green and leathery.
It is one of the first Ferns to emerge during spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum




* historic archive photo


Osmunda japonica
A deciduous fern that is native to moist woods of the Himalayas, Sakhalin, China, Korea and Japan, south into southeast Asia.
The fronds, up to 40 x 20 ( rarely over 20 x 16 ) inches, are bright green, turning to bright golden-yellow in fall.
Hardy zones 5 to 10

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on May 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


Osmunda regalis ( Royal Fern )
A fast growing, +huge, prehistoric-looking, deciduous Fern that can form a massive clump up to 6 x 13 feet, sometimes as much as 13 feet in height on ideal sites.
It is among the most widespread of all plants worldwide; it is native to North America ( from Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ), as well as in northern Eurasia.
It looks great planted next to water or massed in a woodland understory. It was common in the area around Windsor, Ontario before 1900 but has declined sharply in that region. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore and at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s. It is usually found on lake shores and riverbanks in the wild.
The huge graceful fronds, up to 20 inches wide, are coppery at first, turning to luxuriant deep green, turning intense butter-yellow in autumn. Royal Ferns of Eurasian origin remain green very late in autumn, often until hard freezing weather though often lacking in autumn color. In southern Florida, it is often evergreen. The tall fronds are divided into narrow oblong leaflets, resembling Robinia- Black Locust in appearance.
Many botanists divide the Royal Fern into Osmunda regalis var 'spectabilis' ( North American Royal Fern ) and Osmunda regalis var 'regalis' ( European Royal Fern ).
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet, fertile, acidic soil. It is tolerant of alkaline soil and also full sun if planted on a wet site.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken on Sep 14 2012 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on May 19 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photos


'Cristata'
Similar except lower growing, only reaching up to 4 feet in height, with fronds that have crested segment tips.

'Purpurascens' ( Purple-Stemmed Royal Fern )
A vigorous, tall growing form, reaching up to 10 feet in height with foliage that is purplish-red at first, turning to blue-green. The stems that remain purple all season.

* photos taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD

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