Friday, April 1, 2011

Passion Fruit

Passiflora

A genus of very attractive, edible, fruit bearing vines that are part of the larger Passifloraceae family. They grow best when planted in deep, fertile, sandy, well drained soil around PH 7 and watered regularly. After 2 years of age, they should occasionally be cut back hard to maintain vigor. Full production begins around the 4th year and a vine can produce up to 40 pounds of fruit in a year.
Vines often only live around 8 years unless renovated. These vines can be used as a screen if trained along wires.
The very attractive flowers are also useful for attracting hummingbirds and butterflies. The plants are not eaten by deer.
The fruits usually fall off the vines once ripe and are harvested from the ground.
Passion Fruit is grown commercially in Hawaii, New Zealand and Australia. The fruits are most often used in fruit drinks but also for pies and preserves.
The leaves of Passion Flower are known to be smoked in the same way as Marijuana as a high. Unlike Marijuana, the leaves of this plant contain alkaloids that become poisonous in large ammounts. Smoking Passion Flower is not a good idea. Just because it is natural doesn't mean its safe.

Passiflora x alatocaerulea ( Passion Flower )
A rapid growing perennial, reaching up to 30 feet and self clinging by suction cup rootlets. This vine is an excellent choice for covering trellises and fences.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are luxuriant green.
The fragrant flowers, up to 4 inches across, are white with deep purple anthers.
The flowers are used to manufacture perfume.
This Passion Vine does not produce fruit.
Hardy zones 9 to 10, however can be grown in zone 7 & 8 as a perennial.
Prone to iron chlorosis on alkaline soil.

Passiflora caerulea ( Blue Passion Flower )
A very fast growing to rampant, woody-stemmed, tendril climbing vine reaching a maximum size of 51 x 30 feet, that is native to southern Brazil. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 30 feet. The Blue Passion Flower requires support such as a fence or trellis to climb on.
The 5 to 7 lobed leaves are semi-evergreen to evergreen depending on climate.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The large, fragrant, white ( with purple or blue banded filaments ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during summer and autumn.
A tea made from the flower is said to relax stress and anxiety.
They are followed by large, orange, oval fruits. The fruits are borne only during hot summers and massive quantities are sometimes produced. The fruits are great eaten fresh or made into juice.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 as a woody vine. It can also be grown in zone 6 and even 5 as a perennial if mulched heavily with the base protected with burlap during winter. On protected sites, especially in urban areas, it thrives as far north as Detroit, Michigan. It prefers hot summers and plants growing in England do not harden off as well and may only be hardy zones 8b+.
In cool climates it is best grown against a warm south or west facing wall.
The Blue Passion Flower prefers full sun on fertile, well drained soil. Do not fertilize plants too heavily with nitrogen since it encourages excessive growth and less flowering.
Propagation is from seed sown during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. Cuttings root easily - all you need to do is take a 8 inch cutting during mid season and stick it in a glass of fresh water and it will root in around 4 weeks.
Cuttings taken short with a single leaf and stuck in wet sand also root easily.

* photos of unknown internet source



'Clear Sky'
Large heavy flowers are white and strikingly deep blue around the carolla.

'Constance Elliott'
White flowers.

'Grandiflora'
Larger flowers, up to 8 inches across.

'Waterloo Blue'

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 3 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Sep 15 2011 in Columbia, MD




Passiflora x caponii 'John Innes'
A fast growing, woody-stemmed, tendril climbing, evergreen vine, reaching a maximum height of 40 feet.
The 3 lobed leaves are bright green.
The nodding, bowl-shaped, large flowers, are white ( flushed with light purple ) with filaments that are white and banded with purple.
They are followed by fruits, up to 12 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 in full sun on moist, humus-rich, sandy, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed sown during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

Passiflora coccinea ( Red Passion Flower )
A rapid growing, woody-stemmed, tendril-climbing, evergreen vine that is native to South America from Venezuela, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 30 feet.
The oblong to rounded leaves are up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size.
The foliage is mid-green above, downy beneath.
The very showy, intense scarlet-red flowers, up to 5 inches across, appear during the winter.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun on moist, acidic to neutral soil. Flood tolerant, moderately drought tolerant but not tolerant of salt. Propagation is from seed sown during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


Passiflora edulis ( Purple Granadilla )
A vigorous, semi-evergreen to evergreen vine, reaching a maximum height of 30 feet, that is native to Brazil. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 20+ feet.
The deeply 3 lobed leaves are up to 8 x 6 inches. The foliage is deep green.
The showy flowers are white with a deep purple center.
They are followed by edible, deep purple fruit, up to 3 inches in length.
The fruits are great for use in making drinks and sherbet.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, evergreen to 25 F, a perennial at lower temps down to 20 F where it recovers quickly. It prefers full sun. The seed can be sown anytime but is slow to germinate.
* photo of unknown internet source



'Crackerjack'
An excellent fruiting variety.

Passiflora incarnata ( Purple Passion Vine )
Also called Maypop. It is a fast growing, tendril-climbing perennial vine, reaching up to 20 ( 12 as perennial ) feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Kansas to central Indiana to southeast Pennsylvania; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is the official state flower of Tennessee.
The 3-lobed leaves are up to 8 x 6 inches, and are deep green.
The leaves are good eaten in salad as well as cooked as a vegetable.
The flowers, up to 3 inches across, are bluish-white with purple and white carola.
The flowers are borne during mid summer.
They are followed by fruits up to 2.3 x 2 inches in size.
The fruits are used for herbal medecine for insomnia and nervous anxiety.
Eaten fresh, the fruits are very tasty but also seedy. They can be used for jams and jellies as well as in beverages. A plant may bear 5 to 20 fruits in a season.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( perennial in zones 6 and 7 and must be mulched during late autumn ) in full sun on moist, sandy, slightly acidic, very well drained soil.
It is even fully hardy in central Europe if heavily mulched during winter.
Propagation is from seed presoaked for 12 hours in warm water, then sown during early spring in a warm greenhouse, then grown until planting out after the last spring frost the following year. They can also be propagated from 6 inch cuttings taken during spring and summer.
* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Aug 25 2012 in Baltimore Co., MD


Passiflora 'Incense'
The hybrid between Passiflora cinnicata & P. incarnata; with bright purple flowers borne all summer long. The flowers are followed by yellow fruit up to 3 inches in length.
The vines die back at 32 F but the roots are hardy to 0 F with the plant resprouting vigorously in spring.

Passiflora jamesonii ( Pink Passion Flower )
A rampant growing, evergreen vine, reaching a maximum height of 70 feet, that is native to Ecuador. This is an excellent vine for covering fences.
The rose-pink to coral-red flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne all summer long.
The flowers are loved by hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 tolerating as low as 27 F. It can also be grown in zone 9 where it survives as a perennial to as low as 20 F.

Passiflora lutea ( Yellow Passionflower )
A nonaggressive but still suckering, twining vine, reaching up to 15 feet in height, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( southeast Kansas to central Illinois to southwest Pennsylvania; south to central & eastern Texas to northern Florida ). It is endangered in Pennsylvania.
The leaves, up to 3 x 6 inches in size, are deeply 3-lobed. The mid-green foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn.
The bright yellowish-green flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne late spring into early autumn.
They are followed by deep purple berries, up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun or partial shade on moist, sandy, fertile, well drained soil. It is both heat and drought tolerant but is usually found in floodplain forests in the wild.

* photos taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Passiflora macrophylla ( Tree Passion Flower )
An extremely beautiful, exotic looking, small tree, reaching up to 20 feet, that is native to Ecuador.
The huge, unlobed leaves are up to 3 x 1 foot in size.
The yellow and white flowers are typically Passionflower in shape.
The flowers are unusual in that they are borne from inflorescences originating from the trunk.
They are followed by rounded fruits up to 2 inches across.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.
It prefers hot humid climates.
Propagation is from seed, cuttings are difficult.

Passiflora manicata ( Red Passion Flower )
A rapid growing, woody-stemmed, tendril-climbing, evergreen vine, reaching up to 40 feet, that is native to South America from Venezuela, Peru, Brazil and Bolivia.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 30 feet.
The 3 lobed leaves are bright green.
The very showy, narrow-petalled, intense scarlet-red ( with filaments that are white and banded with purple ) flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne during summer and autumn.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun on moist, acidic to neutral soil. Flood tolerant, moderately drought tolerant but not tolerant of salt. Propagation is from seed sown during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* historic archive photos


Passiflora mollissima ( Banana Passion Fruit )
Also called Curuba. An extremely fast growing vine that is native to elevations of 6000-7000ft in the Andes Mountains of South America. It thrives in subtropical and alpine regions of the tropics. It is invasive in Hawaii and should not be used there.
The deeply 3-lobed leaves are bright green. The flowers are white and pink with a small carola.
They are followed by long, narrow, yellowish fruits ( with orange pulp ), up to 6 inches in length.
They are heavy bearing and up to 300 fruits may be borne in a season. The Banana Passion Fruit begins to produce in the second year.
In mild climates, the fruits ripen year round, and are great in ice cream and drinks.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 tolerating as low as 28 F but will resprout from the ground at lower temperatures down to 25 F.

Passiflora quadrangularis ( Giant Granadilla )
A fast growing, woody-stemmed, tendril climbing, evergreen vine, reaching a maximum height of 150 feet, that is native to Tropical America. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 50+ feet.
The non-lobed, oval leaves, up to 10 x 6 inches, are bright green.
The large, fragrant flowers, up to 4.5 inches across, are red with wavy filaments that are deep purple and white banded.
They are followed by yellow fruits, up to 12 inches in length.
The fruits are great for use in making drinks and ice cream.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 ( reports of 9 ) in full sun on moist, humus-rich, sandy, well drained soil. It loves moist tropical climates but does not tolerate flooding.
Propagation is from seed sown during spring or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

2 comments:

  1. Wow fantastic information. Love the passionflower flower.When ever i see one I am reminded of a beautiful sculpture artist Ruth Moilliet did of one a while back. Did a blog post on her last year if your interested in seeing a picture of it http://stoneartblog.blogspot.com/2010/07/plant-kingdom-source-for-inspiration.html

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  2. Thanks for the link. I liked the entire entry, esp. the Eryngium. I just came online briefly but will definately have to come back to your blogger tomorrow.
    Have an excellent week!

    Randy

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