Monday, August 8, 2011

Rock Rose

Cistus
A genus of evergreen shrubs native to the Mediterranean region of Europe and northern Africa, that is part of the Cistaceae family.
The Rock Roses have a long succession of bloom with each individual flower lasting only 1 day.
All species prefer full sun on light, well drained soil including sand. Native to Mediterranean climates, they require moist conditions during winter ( but not cold and wet ) and dry summers. They also grow in the Pacific Northwest but thrive only where they are NOT irrigated during summer ( making them great low maintenance xeriscape plants - non irrigated landscapes also sprout less weeds ). Extremely drought tolerant, they may drop some or even most of their leaves during very dry summers then releaf during autumn. Rock Roses are even reported to be fire resistant and are clay tolerant if planted on a non-irrigated slope. Rock Roses prefer shelter from excessive cold winter winds as well as late spring frosts. Most species are great for seaside plantings.
Tip prune young plants for the first 2 years to encourage dense growth.
The Rock Roses are deer resistant.
Propagation is from cuttings taken from non-flowering shoots during fall and also softwood cuttings taken during summer. They do not enjoy transplanting so install small plants on their permanent site.
Seed can also be sown during spring but is not recommended for cultivars as the offspring will be variable both in flower and growth habit.
Most species do not like root disturbance, especially transplanting so they should be moved while small. Most species also don't like hard pruning. Plants that are not watered and fertilized during summer generally remain more compact.

* photos of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos


Cistus x aguilarii 'Maculatus'
A vigorous, erect, evergreen shrub.
Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 8 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet.
The sticky, aromatic, wavy-edged, ovate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are deep blackish-green.
The single, large, white ( blotched deep red at the petal bases ) flowers, up to 4.8 inches across, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

Cistus albidus
A dense, medium-size, evergreen shrub, that is native to southwestern Europe and northern Africa.
Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 8 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are woolly and whitish in color.
The pale pink ( centered yellow ) flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during summer.
The twigs are downy and white.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* historical archive photo


Cistus 'Ann Baker'
A small, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3.5 x 5 feet.
The handsome, stalkless foliage is deep green.
The white ( blotched deep red at the petal bases ) flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne late spring through early autumn lasting later than other Cistus's.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Cistus 'Anne Palmer'
A compact, upright evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet, that is the hybrid between Cistus crispus & C. ladanifer. Some records include: 10 years - 3.3 x 3.3 feet.
The purple stems bear long tapered leaves that are deep gray-green.
The huge. light pink flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne late spring through early autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Cistus x corbariensis
A fast growing, dense, mounding, spreading, evergreen shrub, that is a hybrid between Cistus populifolius & C. salviifolius.
Some records include: 10 years - 3.3 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 6 x 10 ( rarely over 5 ) feet.
The very finely-toothed, wavy-edged, pointed, oval leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is slightly downy and deep green above, pale beneath. The leaves turn grayish during winter.
The flowers, up to 4 inches across, are white and blotched yellow at the petal bases.
The flowers, borne late spring into early summer are red in bud.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

Cistus creticus ( Hairy Rock Rose )
A fast growing, rounded, bushy evergreen shrub, rarely over 3.3 feet in height, that is a widespread native of the Mediterranean.
Some records include: 10 years - 5 x 6 feet; largest on record - 5 x 8 feet.
The aromatic, velvety, fuzzy, wavy-edged, oval leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length. The foliage is slightly glossy mid-green above, whitish-green below.
The deep red to purple ( centered yellow ) flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during summer.
The young stems are downy.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( 7 on very protected site ) on light, well drained soil on a hot sunny site. Protect from late spring frosts and excessive winter wind.
Among the most hardy Rock Roses; it is often found in the wild at high elevations where snow covered the ground for most of the winter.

* video found on internet


subsp. 'incanus'
Similar except with leaf margins not wavy and the flowers do not have yellow centers.

'Lasca Select'
Form great for use as groundcover, reaching up to 3 x 8 feet.

'Lasithi'
A dwarf form, reaching up to 10 x 20 inches, with small crinkly leaves and deep purplish-pink flowers borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9

Cistus crispus ( Curly-Leafed Rock Rose )
A dense, low, spreading, evergreen shrub, that is native to the western Mediterranean region.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 2 x 5 feet.
The wrinkled leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are gray-green.
The crinkled, purplish-pink flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during summer.
The young stems are hairy and white.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

Cistus x cyprius
A graceful, vigorous, spreading evergreen shrub that is native to southern Europe and northern Africa.
Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 8 feet; largest on record - 8 x 12 ( averaging 5 ) feet.
The aromatic, wavy-edged, oblanceolate leaves, up to 4.8 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, gray downy beneath.
The foliage turns grayish during winter.
The single, large, white ( with deep red blotches ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* historic archive photo


Cistus 'Doris Hibberson'
A compact shrub, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet.
The very aromatic leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are gray-green.
The huge, lavender ( fading to white ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 ( tolerating as low as 5 F ). Deer resistant.
Tip prune after blooming is finished.

Cistus x dubius 'Costei'
The hybrid between Cistus laurifolius & C. salviifolius. A rounded, small, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3.3 x 5 feet.
The foliage is bright green.
The profuse, pure white ( with a golden-yellow center ) flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 7b to 10. Drought tolerant. Tip prune after blooming is finished to encourage compact habit.

Cistus 'Elma' ( Elma Rock Rose )
The hybrid between Cistus ladanifer & C. laurifolius. A sturdy, bushy evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 6 ) feet. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 8 feet.
It is long lived compared to most Rock Roses.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, blue-green beneath.
The huge pure white ( with bright yellow center ) flowers are up to 4 inches across.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. Tolerates shearing wall.

Cistus 'Grayswood Pink'
Also called Cistus 'Silver Pink'. A low, spreading shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 5 feet. It looks great mixed in plantings with purple-leafed Barberries.
The foliage is silvery-gray to gray-green.
The very showy flowers are silvery-pink ( paler at the petal bases ) with a yellow center. They are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 6a to 9

Cistus 'Jenkyn Place'
Also called Cistus x dansereaui 'Jenkyn Place'.
Reaches up to 5 x 5 feet, with profuse, fragrant, huge white flowers that are centered bright yellow. The flowers are borne late spring until autumn frosts.
The handsome foliage is very glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 7a to 9

Cistus ladanifer ( Gum Cistus )
A fast growing, erect, mid-sized, evergreen shrub, that is native to southwestern Europe and northern Africa. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 feet.
The sticky, aromatic, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, are glossy deep green above, furry and white beneath. An oily layer coats the leaves reducing moisture loss during summer and making it fire retardant.
The white ( with brownish-red basal blotch ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.
Shear back by 1/3 after blooming to maintain density but be careful not to cut past green wood and into old wood.

'Bennett's White'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, bearing white flowers mid spring to early summer, repeating in fall.
Hardy zones 8a+

'Blanche'
An attractive mid-sized shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 8 feet, with foliage that is glossy deep green above, gray beneath. The flowers are white.

'Paladin'
An attractive mid-sized shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 8 feet, with foliage that is glossy deep green above, pale beneath. The large, white ( with deep red basal blotch ) flowers are up to 5 inches across.

'Pat'
An attractive mid-sized shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 8 feet, with foliage that is glossy deep green above, pale beneath. The large, white ( with deep red basal blotch ) flowers are up to 5 inches across.

Cistus laurifolius ( Laurel-Leafed Rock Rose )
An open, erect, rounded, large, evergreen shrub, that is native to southwestern Europe, east to Italy. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 13 x 13 ( rarely over 9 ) feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 4.7 inches in length, are very deep green above, furry and gray to brown beneath. The foliage is aromatic.
The flowers, up to 3 inches across, are white ( yellowish towards the petal bases ).
The stamens are golden-yellow.
The attractive, orangish-red bark is peeling.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( possibly 5 & 6 on very protected sites ) on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* historic archive photo


'Bennett's White'
Similar with larger flowers, up to 4 inches across.

Cistus libanotis 'Major'
A vigorous, small, evergreen shrub, that is native to Portugal and southwest Spain.
Some records include: 10 years - 3 x 3 ( average ) feet; largest on record - 5 x 5 feet.
The narrow leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are downy and gray to deep green.
The leaves are rolled at the edge.
The profuse, pure white ( with red sepals ) flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne at the stem tips during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

Cistus 'Little Gem'
A small, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 feet.
The foliage is bright green.
The pure white ( blotched deep red at the petal bases ) flowers are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 7b to 9

Cistus x lusitanicus
A vigorous, small, evergreen shrub.
Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 2 feet; largest on record - 4 x 3.5 feet.
The wavy-edged, lance-shaped leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are deep green.
The foliage is aromatic.
The white ( with petals blotched deep red at the bases ) flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne on cymes
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* historical archive photo


'Decumbens'
A low spreading form, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 6.5 feet. The flowers are more conspicuously blotched.

'Jenkyn Place'
The white flowers with scarlet-red petal bases are borne over a longer season. Otherwise similar.

Cistus 'Mickie'
A fast growing, small, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 1.5 x 2.5 feet.
The mid-green foliage is boldly margined and streaked bright yellow.
The pure white flowers are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 7a to 10

Cistus monspessuliensis ( Montpelior Rock Rose )
A bushy, dense, erect, evergreen shrub, that is native to dry hills in southwestern Europe, northern Africa and the Canary Islands.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 5 x 5.5 ( rarely over 3.5 ) feet.
The sticky, very narrow, oblong leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are deep green.
The pure white flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne in small clusters during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=308

Cistus x obtusifolius
A small, evergreen shrub, that is a hybrid between Cistus hirsutus & C. salviifolius, originating in the wild in southwest Europe.
Some records include: 10 years - 2.5 x 3 feet; largest on record - 3.3 x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 x 0.7 inches, are downy and silver-gray.
The young stems are also silvery-gray and downy.
The profuse, white ( blotched yellow at the petal bases ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne late spring to mid summer.
They are followed by attractive seedheads that last into fall.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.
It can be kept smaller by shearing after flowering.

Cistus palhinhae
May be a subspecies of Cistus ladanifer which it resembles but in smaller form. A dense, compact, small evergreen shrub, that is native to southwestern Europe and northern Africa.
Some records include: 10 years - 2 feet x 32 inches; largest on record - 3.3 x 4 feet.
The sticky leaves, up to 2.3 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, furry and white beneath.
The white ( with brownish-red basal blotch ) flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during summer.
The is a form of this species with flowers that are pure white with no basal blotch.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

Cistus 'Paper Moon'
Also called Cistus argenteus 'Paper Moon'. A small, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet in 3 years, eventually up to 5 x 5 feet.
The narrow foliage is silvery.
The unblotched, pure white flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, preferring dry summers.

Cistus parviflorus
A small, evergreen shrub, that is native to Aegean Sea region.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 5 x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are gray-green.
The profuse, soft pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are
Hardy zones 8 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=1710

Cistus 'Peggy Sammons'
Also called Cistus x argentea 'Peggy Sammons'. An upright, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet.
The aromatic leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are downy, gray-green.
The huge, purplish-pink flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. Shear after flowering for promote dense habit.

Cistus populifolius
A vigorous, erect, evergreen shrub, that is native to the Mediterranean region.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 10 x 7 feet.
The net-veined, long-stalked heart-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 2.5 inches, are hairy and deep green.
The white ( with yellow basal blotches ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on cymes during summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

'Lasiocalyx'
Similar, except with larger flowers, up to 3 inches across.

Cistus x pulverulentus
A fast growing, compact, small, evergreen shrub, that is the hybrid between Cistus albidus & C. crispus.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 4 x 5 feet.
The wavy-edged leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are gray-green.
The bright pink flowers, up to 2.7 inches across, are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site. Very heat tolerant.

'Sunset'
Vigorous and wide-spreading, reaching up to 2 x 8 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 4 x 12 feet.
The foliage is silvery.
The intense magenta-pink flowers are borne profusely during late spring into early summer, then sporadically until fall.
Hardy zones 7a+

Cistus x purpureus
A fast growing, bushy, rounded, medium-sized evergreen shrub, that is the hybrid between Cistus creticus & C. ladanifer
Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 5 feet; largest on record - 10 x 8 feet.
The leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are deep gray-green above, hairy & gray beneath. The foliage is aromatic.
The pink to purplish-pink ( blotched deep red at the petal bases ) flowers, up to 3.5 inches across, are
The young stems are sticky.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( 6 on protected sites ) on well drained soil on a hot sunny site. Preferring Mediterranean climates, it has been recorded as thriving in the hot humid east in North Carolina. Tolerates salt breezes.

* photos of unknown internet source



'Alan Fradd'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet, with attractive, aromatic, deep green foliage.
The profuse, large, pure white flowers are blotched red at the petal bases.
Hardy zones 7a+

'Betty Taudevin'
Flowers are deep pinkish-red with deep red basal spots.

'Brilliancy'
Flowers are deep pink and spotted reddish-brown at the petal bases.

'Doris Hibberson'
Very profuse light pink flowers.

Cistus salviifolius ( Sage-Leaf Rock Rose )
A bushy, dense, compact, spreading, medium-size, evergreen shrub that is native to hills of the Mediterrranean region, incl southern Europe.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 3.5 x 8 feet.
The wrinkled, woolly, wavy-edged, oval leaves are up to 1.7 x 1 inches in size.
The downy, rough foliage is deep gray-green above, whitish-gray beneath.
The white to pure pale pink ( yellowish towards the petal bases ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne singly or in small clusters during early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.
Can be cut back hard to renovate.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=1005

'Prostratus'
A low, spreading form; reaching a maximum size of 2 x 7 feet, with smaller leaves, up to 0.7 inches in length.

Cistus 'Silver Pink'
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet, that is the hybrid between Cistus creticus & C. laurifolius. Some records include: 10 years - 32 x 32 inches.
The wavy-edged, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are mid to deep green above, gray beneath.
The very profuse, silvery-pink ( with no blotches ) flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne late spring through mid summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Cistus x skanbergii
A fast growing, wide-spreading, evergreen shrub, that is a hybrid between Cistus monspeliensis & C. parviflorus originating in Greece.
Some records include: 10 years - feet; largest on record - 5 x 8 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are
The bright pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne in large sprays.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 on well drained soil on a hot sunny site.

* photo of unknown internet source


Cistus 'Snow Fire'
A vigorous, wide-spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6 feet, that is the hybrid between Cistus inflatus & Cistus populifolius subsp. major.
The wavy-edged leaves are luxuriant glossy bright green.
The profuse, , large, pure white ( blotched deep red on the petal bases and centered yellow )flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne mid spring through late summer.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. Responds well to hard pruning to renovate.
Prefers no summer water.

Cistus 'Victor Reiter'
A very upright, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 5 x 3 feet in 3 years.
The foliage is silvery to gray-green.
The deep pink ( with paler center ) flowers are borne mid spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 ( tolerating 5 F ).
Cut back to 2 feet in height every few years to encourage a dense habit.

Related Plants

Halimium lasianthum
A low, spreading shrub, reaching up to 16 inches x 7 feet.
The flowers, up to 1.5 inches in length, are yellow.

Halimium x pauanum
The hybrid between Halimium halimifolium & H. lasianthum.
A shrub, reaching up to 6.5 x 5 feet.
The profuse, yellow flowers are up to 1.5 inches across.

Halimium x santae
The hybrid between Halimium halimifolium x H ocymoides.
A shrub, reaching up to 3.5 x 3.5 feet.
The yellow flowers are up to 1.5 inches across.

Halimium 'Sarah'
The hybrid between H. lasianthum 'Formosum' & H. ocymoides.
A shrub, reaching up to 1 x 1.5 feet.
The yellow ( dark centered ) flowers are up to 1.5 inches across.

Halimium 'Susan'
The hybrid between H. lasianthum 'Formosum' & H. ocymoides.
A mounding shrub, reaching up to 1.5 x 2 feet.
The yellow ( brown centered ) flowers are up to 1 inch across.

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