Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Gaultheria

Gaultheria
A genus of close to 170 species of evergreen shrubs that are part of the Ericaceae family and are closely related to Blueberries.
Most species thrive in sun or partial shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, slightly-acidic, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed, layering as well as half hardened cuttings.

Gaultheria antipoda
A low spreading to bushy, upright, small, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 feet, is native to high mountains of New Zealand. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3.3 feet.
The leathery, sharply-toothed, rounded leaves, up to 1.5 x 1.5 ( typically half that ) inches, are deep green turning to reddish during winter.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes during late spring.
They are followed by edible, white ( rarely red ) fruits, up to 0.5 inches across.
The young shoots are downy to bristly.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Gaultheria cuneata
A stiff, dense, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 3.5 feet, that is native to western China.
The toothed, oblong leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are green.
The white, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes, up to 1.5 inches in length.
They are followed by white berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

Gaultheria forrestii
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.5 inches, are green.
The berries are blue.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Gaultheria fragrantissima
An evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 8 ( rarely over 12 ) feet, that is native to India.
The finely-toothed, pointed, elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, are green above, brownish beneath.
The very fragrant, white to pale pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne on racemes from the leaf axils during spring.
They are followed by blue fruits.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Gaultheria hispida ( Snowberry )
A prostrate to low mounding, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 4 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native to wet forests and subalpine scrub in southeastern Australia and Tasmania.
The bristly, toothed, slender leaves, up to 2.3 x 0.7 inches, are glossy deep green.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne on racemes up to 3 inches in length.
They are followed by pure white fruit, up to 0.3 inches across.
The sour fruits can be cooked in tarts.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Gaultheria hispidula ( Creeping Snowberry )
A dense, creeping, mat-forming, evergreen, groundcover shrub, reaching a maximum size of 16 ( rarely over 4 ) inches x 3 feet, that is native to mossy or wet coniferous woods and acidic swamps in northern North America ( from Kitsault, British Columbia to far northeast British Columbia to Grande Prairie, Alberta to Fort McMurray, Alberta to Winisk, Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to Idaho to Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern Michigan to Goderich, Ontario to London, Ontario to Niagara Falls to North Carolina in the high reaches of the Smoky Mountains ). It is either rare or extinct in southerly portions of its range due to destruction of old growth forests and introduction of invasive plants such as English Ivy. It is extinct in Ohio; endangered in Washington State, Idaho, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Massachusetts and New Jersey.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves, up to 1 ( rarely over 0.3 ) inch in length, are glossy bright green above, bristly beneath. The foliage is wintergreen aromatic. The leaves can be cooked as a green vegetable in the same way as spinach.
The white, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.1 inch long, are borne during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by white berries, up to 0.4 x 0.3 inches in size, that ripen during late summer, persisting into early autumn. The fruit are great eaten fresh, used in jellies or also in baked goods.
Hardy zones 2 to 6

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Gaultheria hookeri ( Hookers Gaultheria )
A dense, mounding to erect shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6.5 ( usually much lower in habit ) feet, that is native to the Himalayas. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 ( rarely over 3 x 4 ) feet.
The wrinkled, hard, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 inches, are glossy deep green.
The pink flowers are borne on dense racemes up to 2 inches in length.
They are followed by mid blue to violet-purple fruits.
The stems are downy to bristly.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Gaultheria humifusa ( Alpine Spicy Wintergreen )
A low, spreading, evergreen shrub, native to mountains in western North America ( from the Nass River in north-central southwest British Columbia to Grande Cache, Alberta to southwest Montana; south to central California ).
The alternately-arranged, ovate or elliptical leaves, up to 0.8 inches long, are glossy bright green.
The solitary, white flowers, up to 0.2 inches in length, are borne from the leaf axils.
They are followed by dry but edible, round, red berries up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( est. )

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Gaultheria miqueliana ( Miquel's Wintergreen )
A very rare, low, evergreen, groundcover shrub, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 4 feet, that is native to Japan.
The pointed-tip, rounded leaves, up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size, are bright green.
The urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches long, are borne on drooping racemes, up to 2.3 inches in length, during late spring.
The fruits, up to 0.25 inches wide, are white to pale pink.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Gaultheria mucronata ( Pernettya )
Also called pernettya mucronata. A dense, suckering, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 5 ( though there are reports of small trees in Chile ) feet.
It is native to Chile and Argentina where it is often a dominant plant in high mountains above treeline. A very beautiful plant, it is often used in landscaping, especially in the British Isles.
The crowded, sharp-point tipped, oblong leaves, up to 0.7 inches in length, are glossy deep green. The foliage turns to bronze during winter.
The stems are bright pinkish-red at first.
The small, white, urn-shaped flowers are borne singly during late spring.
The persistent, showy fruit, up to 0.5 inches across, range from white to pink and red. Both male and female plants should be grown together to guarantee good fruiting.
A plant may yield up to 2+ pounds of fruit per year.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun or partial shade on moist acidic soil. Thrives well on the west coast but has been reported to grow in the east including in Michigan. Pest free.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. Propagation may also be accomplished by means of division during spring or fall.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Alba'
White fruit.

'Bell's Seedling'
Deep red fruit.

'Coccinea'
Intense scarlet-red fruit.

'Mulberry Wine'
Deep red to purple fruit.

'Wintertime'
White fruit that are very persistent.

Gaultheria myrsinites ( Western Wintergreen )
A low evergreen shrub that is very similar to Gaultheria procumbens and can be used in much the same way.

Gaultheria nummularioides
A low, dense, tufted, hammock-forming, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to the Himalayas.
The tiny, rounded leaves, up to 0.6 ( rarely over 0.3 ) inches in length, are glossy green above, finely hairy beneath.
The white, urn-shaped flowers are borne solitarily during early summer.
They are followed by blue-black fruits, up to 0.4 inches in length,.
Hardy zones 7 to 8, thrives in the Pacific Northwest of North America but not in the east - it does not enjoy hot summers!

Gaultheria ovatifolia ( Oregon Wintergreen )
An evergreen, groundcover shrub that is native to western North America ( from Vancouver Island to Revelstoke, British Columbia to Banff National Park, Alberta to northwest Montana; south to northern California to southeast Idaho ).
The ovate leaves are glossy bright green, later turning to deep green.
The white flowers are borne during spring.
The berries are glossy bright red.

Gaultheria phillyreifolia
An evergreen shrub, native to Argentina.
The leaves are up to 1.3 inches in length.
The fruits are red-brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in maritime climates.

Gaultheria procumbens ( Wintergreen )
Also called Teaberry. A vigorous, rhizomatous, dense, creeping, mat-forming, low, groundcover shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 4 feet, that is native to sandy, acidic, moist mixed or coniferous woodlands in northeastern North America ( from southern Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Lake Nipigon to Pagwa, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to central Tennessee to far northern Georgia to central North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. On the Ohio shore; it was very abundant along the Vermillion River during that time but rare elsewhere. It is often used for groundcover in the Pacific Northwest.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green, turning red during the winter. The leaves are generally clustered at the stem tips.
The leaves can be chopped and added to salads. A really good tea can be made from soaking the leaves for 2 days which allows the enzymes to produce more Wintergreen Oil. At that point you can heat it up and drink it. Wintergreen is chemically related to Aspirin so people that are sensitive to Aspirin should probably not drink the tea.
The leaves were also smoked by the natives.
The white to pale pink, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne on racemes, up to 1 inch in length, during early summer.
The showy, scarlet-red berries, up to 0.5 inches across, are very persistent, often lasting through the winter.
The berries are very sweet and tasty once ripened and especially after a freeze. The are excellent for use in salads, muffins, breads, preserves and pancakes.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in partial shade on dry, sandy, very well drained soil with a PH from 3.5 to 7. Wintergreen absolutely does not like heavy wet clay. Huckleberry is unfortunately prone to grazing from deer. They thrive and grow wild in Pine/Oak forests and love a thick mulch of Pine needles. If you have large Pines growing at your home, forget trying to grow a lawn beneath, grow Wintergreen as groundcover instead.
Propagation is from seed sown immediately upon ripening or stratified at 40 F for 2 months. Propagating can also be done via cuttings, division, root offsets and layering.

* photos of unknown internet source



* photo taken on Aug 12 2011 in Howard Co, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Nov 27 2015 @ Hickory Run State Park, PA

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Gaultheria pumila
Reaches a maximum height of 3.3 feet.

Gaultheria pyroloides
A dense, compact, mat-forming, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 feet.
The bright green leaves, up to 1.6 inches in length, are clustered at the stem tips.
The flowers are borne on short racemes during early summer.
They are followed by bluish-black berries.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Gaultheria shallon ( Salal )
A moderate to vigorous growing, suckering, spreading, medium-sized, evergreen shrub native to western North America ( from Juneau, Alaska to Kitsault, British Columbia to Prince George, B.C. to Cranbrook, B.C.; south to southern California ). Some records include: largest on record - 16 x 10 ( rarely over 9 ) feet. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet. The roots often naturally layer, rooting as they go. Can be used as a tall groundcover on shaded landscapes. It is also great for erosion control on slopes. It may become invasive, forming dense inpenetrable stands on heathlands and acidic forests in parts of Europe as well as burntover forests in western North America however is easily controlled by livestock grazing.
It is a very attractive shrub with excellent potential as a commercial fruit crop.
The coarsely-textured, leathery, broadly-oval, leaves, up to 8 x 3 ( rarely over 4 x 2 ) inches, are glossy deep green.
The tiny, bright pink ( rarely white or deep pink ), bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne on red-stemmed, pendulous racemes, up to 6 inches in length, during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by abundant, very tasty, blue-black or deep purple berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, borne on dense clusters during late summer.
The fruits are great eaten raw, as well as made into pies, cakes, jams, preserves, syrup and cider or also used in baked goods.
The young stems are reddish and bristly.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich or sandy, acidic soil. Established plants are drought tolerant. Older overgrown plants can be cut to ground during late winter. Lightly prune the branch tips during the first 3 years to encourage an attractive dense habit. Propagation is from seed sown during autumn, semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer or layering. Propagation can also be achieved by means of division during spring or fall.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* photo taken by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Gaultheria tasmanica
A carpet-forming, evergreen shrub, that is native to high mountains of Tasmania.
The toothed leaves, up to 0.4 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The white flowers are borne singly during spring.
They are followed by red fruits, up to 0.5 inches across.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

Gaultheria trichophylla ( Himalayan Snowberry )
A dense, prostate, mat-forming shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 20 inches, that is native to China.
The stalk-less leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The solitary, pink flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by bright blue berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

Gaultheria wardii
A spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 feet, that is native to southeast Tibet. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet.
The very leathery, deeply-veined, hairy, oblong leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne on dense racemes during early summer.
They are followed by blue or purplish fruit.
The young stems are hairy.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

Gaultheria x wisleyensis
A vigorous, suckering, dense, mounding, small evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 13 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet, that is the hybrid between Gaultheria mucronata & G. shallon.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy mid-green.
The white, pink or light purple, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes during late spring.
They are followed by large, fleshy, red-purple fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist, light, acidic, well drained soil, making it a great plant for the woodland garden. Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer or removing and replanting rooted suckers.

Gaultheria yunnanensis
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum height of 6 feet, that is native to southwest China. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet.
The leaves, up to 4.5 x 1.7 inches, are glossy deep green.
The flowers are borne on racemes up to 3 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

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