Saturday, October 8, 2011

Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum

A genus of perennials that are related to Mints and especially Monarda. The flowers are very attractive to butterflies.
They are generally deer resistant.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on July 11 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC


Pycnanthemum albescens ( Whiteleaf Mountain Mint )
A very fast growing, rhizomatous perennial, native to the midwestern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to southeast Kansas to southern Illinois; south to eastern Texas to far northwest Florida...also known from metro Atlanta, Georgia ). It is endangered in Kansas, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Alabama and Georgia. It is extinct in Kansas, Tennessee, became extinct in Illinois in 1979 and is now surviving in the wild in just one county in Kentucky.
The oppositely-arranged leaves are ovate.
The dense, small, white flowerheads are surrounded by leafy silvery-white bracts.
The stems are hairy.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It moderately drought tolerant and thrives in dry shade.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Pycnanthemum californicum ( Sierra Mint )
A fast growing, bushy, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 4 feet in size, that is native to brushland and forest in the hills and mountains from far northern to far southwest California.
The lance-shaped to oval leaves are slightly over an inch in length and are oppositely arranged. The aromatic, foliage is glossy gray.
The white ( dotted lavender ) flowers are borne on dense clusters over a long season during summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is tolerant of clay and floodplain conditions.

* photo of unknown internet source


Pycnanthemum flexuosum ( Savanna Mountain Mint )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 feet, that is native to open woods and prairies in eastern North America ( from northern Mississippi to northern Virginia; south to northern Florida ). It is highly localized and endangered in Mississippi and Alabama.
The aromatic, slender leaves, up to 2 x 0.2 inches in size, are luxuriant, mid-green. The foliage often develops reddish tones during autumn.
The abundant, white ( with purple speckles ) flowers are borne all summer long, sometimes even into early autumn. The flowers are highly attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 6 ( 5b if protected ) to 9 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil. It is easy to grow and drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Pycnanthemum incanum ( Hoary Mountain Mint )
A vigorous, rhizomatous spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from southern Illinois to southeast Michigan to western New York State to New Hampshire; south to Mississippi to northern Florida ) where it is usually found in sandy or rocky upland woods. It is critically endangered in Ontario ( known only from an Oak savannah near Burlington ), Indiana, Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshire and Delaware.
The oppositely-arranged, toothed, ovate or oblong leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, are dense hairy beneath.
The white ( rarely lavender ) flowers are borne on dense heads, up to 1.4 inches wide, from mid summer to early autumn.
The stems are covered in white down.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial shade.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on July 24 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Pycnanthemum muticum ( Short-toothed Mountain Mint )
A fast growing perennial, reaching up to 3.3 ( reports of 5 ) x 3 feet, that is native to meadows and moist woodlands in eastern North America ( from northern Illinois to southern Michigan to Vermont to southern Maine; south to Louisiana to Georgia. It is endangered in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, New York, Vermont, West Virginia, Delaware and Maine. It is NOT invasive unlike its true Mint ( Mentha ) relatives.
The pointed, oval leaves, up to 2.8 x 1.6 inches in size, are mid-green. The foliage is aromatic and can be used for making tea either iced or hot. Rubbing the leaves on the skin also repels mosquitos.
The fragrant, light pink flowers are borne in dense clusters up to 0.6 inches wide. The bracts persist all summer long into early autumn. The flowers are very attractive to butterflies and honey bees.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on consistent moist, well drained soil. Cut back during early summer to encourage dense habit.

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photos taken on Sep 20 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



Pycnanthemum pilosum ( Hairy Mountain Mint )
A vigorous, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to sandy prairies and open woodlands the central & eastern U.S. ( from eastern Nebraska, northern Iowa to Saginaw, Michigan & southern Ontario to northern New York State to Massachussetts; south to northern Georgia..excluding Virginia and the Carolinas ). It has become extinct in West Virginia and New York State and can be considered highly localized or endangered anywhere north and east of Illinois. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was uncommon at the Ojibway Prairie in Windsor, around Point Pelee as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The minty aromatic, soft, woolly, small leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches, are deep green.
The showy, white to pink ( spotted purple ) flowers are borne on dense terminal clusters over a very long season from early summer until autumn frost.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Pycnanthemum setosum ( Awned Mountain Mint )
A perennial, reaching up to 2.6 feet in height, that is native to marshes and moist pine woods within the coastal plain from southern Mississippi to New Jersey; south to far northern Florida. In Maryland, it is found only on the eastern shore.
The ovate leaves are up to 2.3 x 1.2 inches in size.
The flowers are borne on clusters up to 1 inch across, during mid-summer to early autumn. The bracts are silvery-white.
Hardy zones 6 to 9a.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Pycnanthemum tenuifolium ( Slender-Leaf Mountain Mint )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to bottomlands, open woods and prairies in eastern North America ( from southeast Nebraska to southern Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to southern Ontario to southern Quebec and northern Maine; south to Kansas to eastern Texas to central Georgia ). It is endangered in Nebraska and Ontario. It occurred only sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s through large populations did occur at Oxford Prairie and the Vermillion river flats.
The aromatic, linear leaves are up to 3 x 0.2 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant, mid-green.
The white ( with purple speckles ) flowers are borne mid-summer to early autumn, typically lasting around 6 weeks. The flowers are highly attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, sandy or humus-rich, well drained soil. It is easy to grow and drought tolerant; rarely bothered by powdery mildew.

* photo taken on July 10 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Sep 23 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD


Pycnanthemum torrei ( Torrey's Mountain Mint )
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to dry woodlands in the eastern U.S. ( from Kansas to New Hampshire; south to Arkansas to South Carolina ). It is extremely rare and local in much of its natural range and absent from Ohio & Massachusetts. It is highly endangered in New York State where most historical populations were around New York City and have been destroyed by urbanization.
The leaves, up to 2.3 x 0.6 inches in size, are lightly toothed but otherwise similar to that of P. virginianum.
The flowerheads are up to 0.6 inches wide. They appear early summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained, sandy soil.

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Pycnanthemum verticillatum ( Whorled Mountain Mint )
A bushy, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 4 feet in height, that is native to wet meadows and open woodlands in the eastern U.S. ( from southeast Nebraska to central Iowa to Muskegon, Michigan to Saginaw, Michigan to southeast Quebec and Maine; south to central Oklahoma to northern Alabama to central North Carolina ). It is extremely rare and local in much of its natural range and absent from Illinois, Indiana and New Hampshire. Whorled Mountain Mint is endangered in Nebraska, Michigan, Ontario, New York State, Vermont, Maryland, Delaware, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina.
The leaves, up to 2 x 0.5 inches in size, are lightly toothed but otherwise similar to that of P. virginianum.
The white flowerheads are up to 0.6 inches wide. They appear mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained, sandy soil.

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Pycnanthemum virginianum ( Virginia Mountain Mint )
A fast spreading, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 + feet, that is native to prairies and open woodlands in eastern North America ( from eastern North Dakota to northern Minnesota to central Michigan to Sauble Beach, Ontario to southeast Quebec and New Brunswick; south to central Oklahoma to northern Alabama to central North Carolina. It is now extinct in Ontario, Canada where it was once found in sandy oak savanna. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: 1 st year - x 2 feet.
The linear to lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 0.3 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in size, are deep green, turning to bright yellow during autumn.
The showy bracts and fragrant, lavender ( spotted lilac ) flowers are borne mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade on moist, light or humus-rich soil. Divide clumps during mid-autumn every 2 or 3 years.

* photo of unknown internet source

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