Thursday, June 3, 2010

Hickories & Pecans

Carya

A family of 25 very majestic, deciduous, ornamental timber and shade trees.
Mostly native to central and eastern North America and China; fossil records show Hickories grew in Greenland, Iceland, Europe, Russia, Alaska and the western U.S. before the last ice age wiped them out.
Most of the Hickories have luxuriant bright green spring foliage turning to deep green in summer then to golden yellow in the fall.
Hickory wood is very valuable, it is very hard and used for sports equipment as well as tool handles. Green wood is used to flavor meat in barbecuing and smoking.
Very strong wooded; Hickories are seldom damaged by storms! Harvesting for timber should be done late autumn through late winter as the stumps will often sprout shoots which rapidly form new trees. Hickory can be coppiced.
Hickories hate root disturbance and are best planted on their permanent sites while very small. Plant multiple seeds and select the most vigorous. Once established, Hickories are very easy to grow and are rarely bothered by insect pests or disease. They do not enjoy container culture as their roots prefer to roam deep. Hickories need a deep soil to accomodate the deep taproot which is also the key to the Hickories often extreme drought resistance. Hickories are rarely bothered by drought except the once in a century types which reach deep into the earth and deprive trees of their last drops of groundwater ( 1930s in Midwest, 1820s, 1929-31 & 2007 in Mid Atlantic ). Unfortunately Hickories do not wilt to show they are deprived of water. Mature Hickories can be given a deep watering once a month if such a drought occurs. Overwatering and frequent lawn irrigation can actually harm a mature Hickory.
All Hickories prefer hot summers and grow faster in the eastern U.S. than in the Pacific Northwest or western Europe.
For rapid growth; keep turf away from young Hickories. They also need some supplemental zinc to speed up growth. Other than the few Hickories noted below that grow naturally on riverplains; most Hickories prefer well drained, upland sites.
Hickories are usually grown from seed planted in the fall on their permanent site and protected from animals by mesh over the winter. Cultivars grown for their nuts are grafted in the winter. Average growth for Hickories seed grown on permanent sites is 2 feet per year; though sometimes much faster on ideal sites with some extra loving care. Most Hickories begin to bear nuts at 10 years of age.
Extremely valuable as food for wildlife, a mature Hickory can yield up to 500 pounds of nuts per year, though 100 pounds is closer to average.
Hickory nuts were very important to the diets of some native Indian tribes. The very nutritious Hickory nuts contain 70% fat, 15% protein and carbs.
External Website on Hickory Recipes: http://www.grandpappy.info/rhickory.htm
Hickory milk can be made from crushing and boiling the nuts in water. The nutmeats and oil rise to the surface and are skimmed off.
Hickory wood is among the strongest and most resilient of all wood. It is highly valued for use in making tool handles, ladders and wagon wheels.
It also makes great firewood, giving off between 23 & 28 million btu per cord.
Hickory wood is also very popular for smoking food.

* photos of unknown internet source


* historical archive photos

* historic archive photo...pignut center, shagbark right

* photo taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Carya aquatica ( Water Hickory )
A beautiful, fast growing, vase-shaped, large deciduous tree reaching up to 80 feet or more. It is native to moist forests and swamps in the southeast U.S. from eastern Oklahoma to southern Illinois to far southern Indiana to Virginia ( excl. entire Appalation Region ) south to eastern Texas to Florida. It is endangered in Oklahoma, Indiana and Kentucky. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet ( 30 feet is average ); largest on record - 170 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. Very large trees grow in Barrs Landing in Lake George, FL & Congaree Swamp National Monument, S.C.
The pinnate leaves up to 18 inches in length are composed of up to 13 lance-shape leaflets reaching up to 10 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is often reddish at first before turning to deep green above and light green beneath.
The foliage turns intensely golden-yellow during autumn with the color persisting for weeks.
The fruit are oval and up to 1.5 inches in length. The nuts are bitter.
The twigs are reddish and hairy with fuzzy red-brown to orangish pointed buds.
The bark is light brown and peeling on mature trees. The bark on Water Hickory is never ridged.
The Water Hickory is considered an excellent shade and reforestation tree for use on floodplains, even far north of its native range on the Mississippi and Ohio River basins. Hardy zones 4 to 9 and is very heat, clay and flood tolerant. Prefers acidic soils. The Water Hickory is easy to transplant unlike most other Hickories.

* photo taken on Sep 28 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* historical archive photo


Carya cathayensis ( Chinese Hickory )
A medium-size tree reaching up to 82 x 70 ( rarely 97 ) feet, native to central and southern China. It is fast growing and can reach a trunk diameter of a foot in only 14 years.
Its leaves, up to 16 inches long, are composed of 5 or 7 oval leaflets up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is lush mid green above and paler below.
The younger branches have yellow to orange scales.
The oval fruits are up to an inch in length.
The smooth, tight bark is variable, often beige in color but also reported as whitish or more likely very pale gray.
The Chinese Hickory begins to bear fruit at the age of 10 and continues to over 200 years of age. 16000 hectares of trees can produce up to 5000 tons of commercial nuts in a year. Typically around 750 kg. per hectare, test plots have produced as much as 3360 kilograms per hectare. The maximum yield of nuts in a year for a Chinese Hickory is 300 kg.
Rare in North America though very easy to grow. Hardy zones 4 to 9

Carya cordiformis ( Bitternut Hickory )
A rapid growing, large tree reaching 80 feet or more that is native to moist forests and bottomlands of eastern North America ( from central Kansas to eastern Nebraska to central Minnesota to central Michigan to Walkerton, Ontario to Barrie, Ontario to Petawawa, Ontario to southern Quebec and far southern Maine; south to eastern Texas to southern Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common in the Canard River Valley, the Point Pelee area, Pelee Island as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is endangered in Maine. Some records include: first year - 11 inches; fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 x 30 feet ( 25 feet is average ); largest on record - 182 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.1 feet; Canadian record - 97 feet with 4 foot diameter trunk in Burlington, ON; tallest in England - 110 feet. Some other notable trees include: Fairfax, VA - 140 x 90 x 5 feet; Kalamazoo, MI - 140 x 120 x 4.5 feet. This Hickory is very vigorous in England and can exceed 100 feet there.
The Bitternut generally grows broadly columnar in habit.
The Bitternut Hickory can live up to 25o years ( short for Hickories )
The pinnate leaves are up to 12 or rarely 16 inches in length and are composed of 7 to 9 ( rarely to 13 ) leaflets up to 6 x 2 or rarely 5 x 3 inches. The 5 terminal leaflets are larger than the remainders and the Bitternut foliage is bright green in spring turning deep green above and lighter below during the summe. The foliage turns to glowing golden-yellow during the fall.
Easy to recognize in winter; the Bitternut Hickory is the only Hickory with flattened, yellow winter buds. These buds are up to 0.5 inches long.
The flowers are borne with the emerging leaves in mid spring in yellow-green catkins up to 4 inches in length.
The fruit rarely up to 2 inches in length includes a green 4 ridged husk that enclosed an inedible, bitter, thin shelled, gray nut.
The twigs are light brown with long narrow yellow buds.
The light gray bark is smooth when young, and later becomes light brown with deep, narrow, scaly, interlacing ridges.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and flood tolerant.
The Bitternut Hickory is commonly planted for lumber in Germany. This is the best Hickory for cooler maritime climates such as western Europe.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario



* photos taken on May 18 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken by O.W. Price @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* historical archive photos


Carya florida ( Scrub Hickory )
A medium-size tree reaching around 50 feet, native to dry sandy forests in central Florida. The largest on record is 82 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet though it is often found as a large shrub with many trunks on poor sites.
It is closely related to the Pignut Hickory but occurs further south.
The pinnate leaves reach up to 9 or rarely 12 inches in length. They are composed of 5 ( rarely 7 ) leaflets up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The sessile leaflets are mid-green above and brownish, hairy beneath.
The fruits are up to 1.5 inches in length.
The gray bark is smooth when young, becoming fissured with age.
Closely related to Carya texana.
Very heat and drought tolerant. Hardy zones 8 to 9

* historic archive photo


Carya glabra ( Pignut Hickory )
A large, rapid growing tree reaching 80 feet or more, native to the eastern North America ( from eastern Nebraska to Iowa to southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to southern Ontario to central Vermont to southern Maine; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Ontario due to forest destruction but can be found as far north as Grand Bend, Kitchener and St Catherines in the wild. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally abundant in Lasalle, near Amherstburg, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is also endangered in Nebraska. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 66 feet; largest on record - 195 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; longest lived - 400 years; Canadian record - 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 40 inches east of Simcoe, Ontario; tallest in England - 90 feet.
A tree with a height of 195 feet in Robbinsville, South Carolina is one of the tallest hardwood trees in the U.S.
The pinnate leaves up to 14 or rarely 24 inches on vigorous shoots are composed of lance shaped leaflets up to 12 x 4 inches in size though usually half that. The smooth foliage is usually medium green above and lighter below, turning very intense golden-orange during autumn.
The flowers are borne with the emerging leaves in mid spring in yellow-green catkins up to 7 inches in length.
The oval to pear shaped fruits are up to 2 inches in length.
The nuts are thin to thick shelled but usually bitter.
The twigs are red-brown and the winter buds are small, oval and light brown.
The gray bark is narrowly ridged and interlacing. The very heavy wood weighs up to 55 pounds per square foot.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and extremely drought tolerant as well as moderately salt tolerant. Also tolerant of ice and wind and is rarely bothered by pests. The Pignut grows anywhere with a yearly average temperature over 45 F and average rainfall between 30 and 80 inches. It grows well on both sandy soils and upland clays. Considered rare in Canada; is is rare from Harrow to Leamington and Pelee Island; but is locally common in a section of west Windsor.

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD

* photo from unknown internet source


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum




* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD















* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on Oct 23 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 10 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Nov 13 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* historical archive photos


Carya illinoensis ( Pecan )
A large tree, reaching up to 150 feet or more, that is native to the central U.S. ( from most of Oklahoma to eastern Kansas to eastern Iowa to northern Illinois to southwest Ohio; south to northeast Mexico to central Texas to southern Alabama ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 3 years - 12 feet; 10 years - 30 feet; 20 years - 60 feet ( 40 feet is average ); 63 years - 101 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet; 150 years - 143 x 101 x 4.7 feet; 274 years - 145 x 120 x 7.3 feet; largest on record - 240 x 145 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet. The record tree could shade 6 tennis courts. In 1875 - a 175 foot tall Pecan with a trunk 5 feet wide was cut in Wabash County, Illinois; there is now very few old growth stands left in the midwest. Many trees have already grown very large in cultivation however and include: Baltimore, MD - 100 x 104 x 5 feet; Colorado - 100 feet. In Washington, D.C. area it is known to grow at Mount Vernon, the U.S. Capital and the National Zoo. Deep rooted, a 6 foot seedling may already have a taproot of 4 feet deep. The Pecan is very long-lived, persisting up to 500 years.
The pinnate leaves are up to 20 or rarely 28 inches in length. They are composed of 9 to 17 lance-shaped, taper pointed, toothed leaflets up to 8 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is medium green in spring turning to deep green above, light green beneath during summer. The foliage stats green very late into fall.
The light brown slender hairy twigs have yellow to tan color narrow buds.
The bark can be either gray or light brown and is scaly, furrowed and ridged.
The tiny greenish-yellow flowers are borne with the foliage in mid spring in long narrow catkins up to 6 inches in length.
The green husked fruits are oblong and up to 3 inches in length. The thin shelled, red-brown nuts inside are sweet and edible. The nuts are rich in unsaturated fats, proteins and anti-oxidants. The Pecan is an important food crop in North America and is exported around the world
A 8 year old tree can produce up to 20 pounds of nuts, a 15 year old tree - 100 pounds and a a mature tree up to 500 pounds. Up to 800 pounds or more of Pecans can be produced per acre with a record of 1400 pounds. Some Pecan clones are self fertile but most produce better if cross pollinated. Selection of right seed source or cultivar is important for nut production. Carefully selected; they produce well beyond their native range in places as far as Toronto and British Columbia, Canada.
The wood is also of high quality and can be used for flooring and cabinetry, however large trees are usually preserved due to their food producing qualities.
While tolerant of most soils and very drought tolerant, the Pecan does grow best in fertile, river valley soils. It is tolerant of flooding though not continuous waterlogging. With a taproot that can reach a depth of 5 feet in only 2 years; the Pecan is best either directly seeded or planted on its permanent site while very small.
Commercial Pecans need 50 pounds per year of 8-8-8 fertilizer applied yearly for mature trees.
Tree wrap is good on young trees; unprotected young Pecans are very prone to sunscald.
Typically hardy from zone 5 to 9 and not producing north of zone 6:
a clone from Missouri can grow as far north as zone 4a, tolerate -35 F and produce nuts in a growing season as short as 120 days. Requiring hot summers; the Pecan does not grow well in western Europe.




USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database<br />

* photo taken by W.G. Baxter @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.









* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario


* photo taken on Nov 17 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 14 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 in Edgewater, MD

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Oct 13 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source


Carya laciniosa ( Big Shellbark Hickory )
A large, moderate growing tree reaching over 100 feet native to floodplain forests in the midwest ( from central Kansas to south-central Iowa to southern Michigan to central New York State; south to southeast Oklahoma to central Alabama to southeast Pennsylvania ). It is endangered in the wild in Maryland as well as New York State, North Carolina and Mississippi. It is also endangered in Ontario where it was once more widespread along the north shore of Lake Erie but is now limited to Essex County, the Wallaceburg area, near Tillsonburg and the Niagara region. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County, the Canard River Valley, near Colchester as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically throughout the remainder of Essex County. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan and the Ohio shore during the presettlement era. Some records include: 10 years - 40 feet; 20 years - 60 feet ( average 35 feet ); largest on record - 182 x 125 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. A notable tree of 140 x 80 x 4.5 feet is known to grow in Greenup, KY. The Shellbark can live up to 340 years. Excellent timber is produced from this tree. The wood weighs up to 50 pounds per square foot ( approximately twice that of the Silver Maple )
The leaves resemble its upland cousin; the Shagbark Hickory but are larger and have 7 leaflets instead of 5. The leaves can reach as much as 40 inches in length on vigorous shoots, and the leaflets as much as 13 x 7 inches. The foliage is deep green above, paler hairy beneath and turns to golden-yellow in autumn.
The flower catkins reach up to 8 inches long.
The round fruits are up to 3 inches in width. The nuts inside are thick shelled, sweet tasting and are whitish in color.
Unlike the Shagbark Hickory; the twigs are bright orange. The winter buds are large.
The bark peels in long curving plates up to 4 feet in length.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. Tolerant of bottomland and clay swamp conditions and prefers soil PH from 6.5 to 7.5. It is considered rare in Ontario though is common in the Canard River Valley south of Windsor.
Drought tolerant and deeply rooted as usually, though not as much so as the Shagbark. Despite above average drought tolerance, Hickories in the midwest died in large numbers during the extreme drought of the mid 1930s.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario




* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Washington, DC

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken by A.T. Boisen @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS

* photo taken by W.J. Beal @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Kingnut'
huge nuts that are equal to the Black Walnut in size

Carya leiodermis ( Swamp Hickory )
Also called Carya glabra var. megacarpa. A large tree reaching up to 100 feet native to swamps near the Gulf Coast in the southern U.S. It grows with a rounded canopy and outer branches that are somewhat pendulous. The largest on record is 137 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The pinnate leaves are up to 14 or rarely 20 inches in length and are composed of leaflets up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The elliptic leaflets are smooth and deep green above, and hairy below.
The large, thick-husked, pear-shaped fruits are up to 1.8 x 1.3 inches in size. The enclosed nut is red-brown.
The pale gray-brown bark is slightly ridged. The tight bark is one of the identical features that distinguish it from Carya glabra.
Prefers moist to wet sites.

Carya myristicaeformis ( Nutmeg Hickory )
One of the most beautiful of all Hickories; it is native to eastern Oklahoma to North Carolina, south to central Texas to South Carolina though can be grown over a much wider range in North America. It is endangered in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia and the Carolinas. The Nutmeg Hickory is native to rich woods and swamps and grows very large to 100 feet or more. Fast growing, it averages 30 feet or more in 20 years and the largest ever recorded is 150 x 80 feet with a trunk of 4 feet in diameter. Though rare; the Nutmeg Hickory makes an excellent shade tree.
The pinnate leaves reach up to 15 or rarely 24 inches in length and are composed of 7 to 9 leaflets up to 5 x 1.5 or rarely 7 x 3 inches on vigorous shoots. The foliage is deep green above and silver-white hairy below; turning to golden yellow in autumn.
The fruits, up to 1.5 inches long have a very thin 4 winged husk that splits almost to the base when ripened.
The fairly slender brownish twigs have light yellow to bronzed narrow buds.
The bark is scaly to slightly shaggy and very light gray to reddish-brown.
Extremely adaptable; the Nutmeg Hickory is hardy north to zone 4, is not injured by late frost, is very lime tolerant and also tolerant of heavy clay and swampy sites.
THIS TREE SHOULD BE PLANTED MUCH MORE! Landscape rating 10 / 10

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Carya ovalis ( Red Hickory )
Also called Carya glabra var ovalis or Carya glabra var. odorata or Sweet Pignut Hickory. A complicated species or subspecies which mostly overlaps Carya glabra's natural range however with genetic differences just barely enough to give it it's own species status. It is much rarer than Carya glabra over much of its native range, especially in the southern Appalachians and Piedmont. It is often found on dry limestone ridges where Carya glabra is absent.
The somewhat more peeling, light gray bark and the red to purplish rachis on the leaves are among the few obvious features that distinguish it from Carya glabra. It usually has 7 ( through sometimes 5 or 9 ) elliptical leaflets where Carya glabra has 5 usually more narrow leaflets.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. This excellent, very drought tolerant shade tree is extremely rare in the landscape industry. It is sold by Nearly Natives Nursery in Georgia; with care to accomodate it's deep taproot, it deserves widespread usage as an urban shade tree throughout its native range.

* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken on Aug 3 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD


Carya ovata ( Shagbark Hickory )
A moderate growing, large tree up to 100 feet, native to eastern North America ( from eastern Nebraska to southeast Minnesota to central Michigan to Bayfield to metro Toronto, Ontario to southern Quebec & Maine; south to eastern Texas and central Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant from Amherstburg to Essex, sporadic in northern Essex County and the Point Pelee area and abundant on the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan and the Ohio shore during the presettlement era. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 40 x 30 feet; 20 years - 47 feet; 25 years - 45 x 32 feet ( in Ottawa, ON ) with a trunk diameter of 9.5 inches; largest on record - 233 x 80 feet with trunk up to 5 feet ( One cut in 1906 was 233 feet tall and 80 feet to the first branch - due to destruction of nearly all old growth forests in the Midwest; it is unlikely any trees over 150 feet still remain ). Known Canadian record is in Backus Woods in Norfolk County, Ontario ( 127 feet with diameter of 40 inches ). The Shagbark can live up to 300 years.
It is unlikely that any trees above 165 feet remain in the U.S. since very little original old growth forest remains. Some notable trees include: Sumter National Forest, S.C. - 162 x 80 x 4 feet; Annapolis, MD - 130 x 80 x 5 feet. A mature Shagbark is among the most beautiful of all shade trees. It is sometimes used for timber plantations in central Europe.
The foliage is up to 20 inches in length or very rarely 30 inches on very vigorous shoots. The pinnate leaves are typically divided into 5 leaflets with the oval center on up to 11 x 5 or rarely 14 x 8 inches, and the side leaflets narrower and shorter. The leaf margins are finely toothed.
The foliage is medium green to deep yellow-green in summer turning to glowing golden-yellow to orange in autumn.
The flowers are borne with the emerging leaves in mid spring in yellow-green catkins up to 6 inches in length.
The green fruits are up to 2.5 inches in length and have 4 grooves that split at the base when ripe. They are usually produced in 25 years.
The nuts are edible, sweet, whitish and thick shelled.
The aromatic winter buds are large up to 0.7 inches and dark with scales that spread near the tip.
The light gray bark peels into long vertical plates up to 3 feet in length.
The Shagbark Hickory is exceptionally drought tolerant due to its deep root system. The taproot on a year old plant can reach up to 3 feet in depth. Moving such as tree will either kill it or stunt its growth. Luckily it is easy to seed a Hickory onto its permanent site ( protect it with screening from animals for the first few years ).
Hardy from zones 3 to 9 ( tolerates -43 F ) in sun or partial shade; the Shagbark is one of the very few desirable shade trees that will thrive in the harsh climate of Winnipeg, Manitoba. This Hickory drops its foliage early during droughts which make it even more drought tolerant than most of the rest. Prefering deep, fertile, well drained soil; the Shagbark is slow growing at first becoming moderate growing; though on excellent sites it can become very fast growing. It does not enjoy road salt.

* Shagbark Hickories on family farm in Amherstburg, ON

* photo taken in Amherstburg, Ontario on March 1973

* photos taken in Amherstburg, Ontario on May 1992


* photo taken in Amherstburg, Ontario on May 1966

* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Wilkes-Barre, PA

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC





* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA





* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 1 in Lambton Co., Ontario

* photo taken on Oct 17 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Dec 23 2016 in Parkton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken by W.J. Beal @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


var 'Mexicana'
A subspecies with a disjunct distribution in the mountains of Mexico as far south as Puebla.

Carya pallida ( Sand Hickory )
A large tree native to dry sandy forests of the eastern U.S. ( from southeast Missouri to southern Illinois. to southern Indiana to northern Kentucky to New Jersey; south to southern Mississippi to far northern Florida ), reaching up to 80 feet or more. It is absent from West Virginia and is native in Maryland only on the coastal plain. It is endangered in Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana. Some records include: largest on record - 161 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Though rarely seen; it makes an excellent shade tree.
The leaves up to 15 inches in length consist of 7 or rarely 9 pointed leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The fragrant foliage is light green above and silvery gray below. The leaves turn to golden-yellow during autumn.
The tiny greenish-yellow flowers are borne with the foliage in mid spring in long narrow catkins up to 5 inches in length
The fruit is oval to round and up to 1.5 inches in width.
The bark is smooth when young, eventually becoming deeply grooved with interlacing ridges with age.
Drought tolerant and hardy zones 4 to 9.

* historic archive photo

* photos taken on Mar 31 2016 in Catonsville, MD

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* damn beavers


C. septentrionalis ( Southern Shagbark Hickory )
Also called Carya carolinae-septentrionalis and Carolina Shagbark Hickory. It was also formerly known as Carya ovata var. carolinae-septentrionalis. It is a slow to medium-growing, large tree, native to the southeastern U.S. ( from far western Tennessee to central Kentucky to south-central Virginia; south to central Mississippi to central Georgia ). It is critically endangered in Virginia however it may possibly occur in areas other than the only county ( Halifax County ) where it's presence is confirmed. It may also be endangered in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi and Georgia where it is highly scattered in distribution. It is found on drier and often more alkaline sites than Carya ovata. It reaches a maximum size of 136 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is typically found much smaller due to lack of remaining old growth forests and the infertile sites it often grows on.
The leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of 5 to 7 leaflets ( Carya ovata is almost always 5 and Laciniosa not less than 7 ) that are up to 7.5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green below. The leaflets vary in width but are often narrower than Carya ovata.
The shaggy bark is gray. The black twigs and small buds distinguish this from similar Carya ovata.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on a deep well drained soil. It is highly heat and drought tolerant. Due to its deep taproot, it should be planted by seed or when very little onto its permanent site.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Carya texana ( Black Hickory )
A large tree to 80 feet or more, native to sandy forests and dry slopes in the midwestern U.S. ( from eastern Kansas to northern Missouri to central Illinois to southwest Indiana to central Kentucky; south to central Texas to Mississippi ). It is endangered in Kansas, Indiana, Kentucky and Mississippi. The Black Hickory is fast growing and some records include: largest on record - 150 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.6 feet ( Orange County, Texas ); largest in New York State ( far outside native range ) - 84 x 45 feet ( Monroe Co. ).
The pinnate leaves reach up to 16 ( rarely over 12 ) inches in length. They are composed of usually 7 ( rarely 5 or 9 ) leaflets up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and hairy along the veins beneath.
The husk encloses a 4 ribbed, thin shelled, reddish brown nut that can be either oblong or round.
The stems are slender and the dark gray bark is deeply furrowed into blocky ridges.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and is extremely heat and drought tolerant. The Black Hickory requires deep well drained soil that is preferably sandy.

Carya tomentosa ( Mockernut Hickory )
Native to dry upland woods in eastern North America ( from central Kansas to southwest Iowa to northern Illinois to southern Michigan to southern Ontario to northern New York State to New Hampshire, south to central Oklahoma to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very common in Lasalle, the Point Pelee area as well as the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan as well as the Ohio shore during the presettlement era. It is a moderate to rapid growing tree depending on site and can reach 80 feet or more. Some records include: 10 years - 30 x 20 feet; 20 years - 60 feet ( average 20 feet ); largest on record - 160 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.1 feet; largest in England - 70 feet. A notable tree of 160 x 70 x 4 feet grows in Humphreys County, MS.
Fast growing in their youth; older Hickories become slow growing however lasting for centuries. The Mockernut is very long lived and can live up to 500 years.
In Washington, D.C. it is known to grow in Rock Creek Park and at the U.S. Capital.
The leaves reach up to 20 inches in length with up to 9 oblong leaflets up to 7.5 x 3 or rarely 9 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and downy below. The ornamental foliage tends to turn golden-yellow before dropping late in the fall.
The fragrant, tiny flowers are borne in catkins up to 6 inches in length in mid spring.
The oval to round fruits are thick shelled and up to 2 inches or very rarely 4 inches in width. They contain a sweet tasting edible nut inside.
The stout orange-brown twigs have large, whitish buds.
The bark is light gray and shallowly furrowed. The bark is never shaggy.
Hardy zones 4 to 9; easily hardy to -30 F with some clones even tolerating -40 F.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum






* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
photos taken on June 14 2012 in Ellicott City, MD
* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 3 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

3 comments:

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  2. Anybody who has the space for 2 beautiful Pecan trees should definitely plant at least 3! Nutritious nuts and so delicious… even my cat adores them.

    Are there any edible nut trees that are evergreen? My guess is no, but if you know of any other fruit/nut trees [besides the olive/citrus/Mango/ Avo trees] that would be evergreen in a Mediterranean climate pls let me know!

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  3. I agree 100% and wish I was lucky enough to have some large mature Pecans growing at home.
    As for evergreen nut trees...Macadamia's come to mind, however would need regular deep watering during the summer to get any significant harvest. If you are in California...this article is very thorough on Macadamia cultivation http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/macadamia.html130

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