Monday, June 21, 2010

Ligularia

A family of long lived perennials that seldom need dividing that enjoy moist, shady sites. Do not plant in dry shade under trees with competitive roots. Most Ligularias will grow on wet soil and tolerate flooding. Disease problems don't often occur, though they can be prone to slugs and snails.
The leaves will often wilt in hot sun even if the soil is moist, perking up during evening or nightfall, generally however they prefer a site without afternoon sun.
Propagation is from seed during spring. The seed can be planted into containers then later transplanted out to the garden.

Ligularia dentata ( Bigleaf Ligularia )
A perennial, forming a large clump up to 6.6 x 5 feet ( foliage clump along is 3 x 5 feet ), that is native to China and Japan.
The very attractive, toothed, heart shaped, leaves are red-purple in spring before turning deep green to grayish-green. The leathery leaves are up to 24 x 20 inches in size and are borne on either green or reddish stems. The orange-yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across are borne on clusters up to 1 foot across, on tall, sturdy stalks during late summer into early autumn.
Prefers sun to partial shade from zone 3 to 7 on moist to wet, deep, fertile soil with a deep organic mulch to keep the soil cool. Despite it's liking of moisture, water covering the crown, especially during winter, can cause crown rot. Heat tolerant but may wilt during mid afternoon only to bounce back at night. Reflected sun, especially against a south or west facing wall could cause severe scorching and stunting of growth.

* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on August 24 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 30 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Britt Marie Crawford'
Reaches a maximum size while in bloom of 6.5 x 5 feet. The foliage is large and glossy purple-black and the late summer flowers look like orange daisies. Blooms 2 weeks later than 'Desdemona'. Comes true from seed and grows with extreme vigor.
An excellent plant to create a tropical mood.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



'Dark Beauty'
Deep maroon foliage and intense bright orange flowers.

'Desdemona'
Reaches a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 feet while in bloom. The huge, round, purple-green leaves ( purple below ) are up to 24 x 20 inches in size. The daisy like flowers are large and orange, up to 5 inches across from August to September on erect stems that are sturdy and do not need staking. Prefers wet soil and coincidentally looks great next to water.

* photos taken on May 2 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Othello'
Foliage is less intense purple than 'Britt Marie Crawford' ( however still deep red beneath ) but otherwise similar.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD


'Woerlitzer Gold'
Reaches up to 4 feet, with purplish foliage and large, yellow flowers.

Ligularia fischeri
A long-lived perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 3 feet in size, that is native from the Himalayas to South Korea.
The toothed, rounded, kidney-shaped leaves, up to 13 x 16 inches in size, are gray-green.
The star-shaped, orange-yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on short wide spikes atop sturdy stems.
The flowers are borne late summer to early autumn.
Hardy north to zone 3 in partial shade.

Ligularia x hessei 'Greygnog Gold'
Forms an impressive mound, up to 4.2 feet across, of large, toothed, rounded leaves that are up to 12 inches across. The foliage is waxy mid-green. It is the hybrid between Ligularia dentata & L. veitchiana.
The golden-orange flowers, up to 4 inches wide, are borne on impressive tall, pyramidal spikes giving the plant an entire height of 6.6 feet. The flowers are borne late summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, deep, fertile soil.

Ligularia hodgsonii
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 2 feet, that is native to far eastern Russia, central and eastern China, Japan and northern Vietnam.
The toothed, kidney-shaped leaves are up to 3 x 5 inches in size. The thick foliage is mid-green.
The orangish-yellow flowers are borne late summer into early fall.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist, deep, fertile soil.

Ligularia japonica ( Japanese Ligularia )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 5 feet, that is native to india, most of southern China, Korea and Japan.
The toothed and lobed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 14 x 16 inches in size, are mid-green.
Up to 9 orangish-yellow flowers, up to 3.5 inches wide, are borne per raceme during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist, deep, fertile soil.

Ligularia 'King Kong'
A perennial, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet.
The very large, rounded, leathery leaves are up to 16 inches wide. The foliage is glossy blackish-purple at first, turning to semi-glossy reddish-purple.
The orangish-yellow flowers are borne during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in partial shade ( morning sun preferred ) on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Ligularia macrophylla
A handsome, impressive plant reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in size, that is native from Russia to Siberia; south to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan to Xinjiang Province in China.
The large, lightly-toothed, broad swordlike leaves are up to 24 inches in length. The foliage is bluish-green and veined purple.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne on densely crowded panicles, up to 1 foot across, during mid to late summer.
Hardy north to zone 3 in sun or partial shade on a fertile, well drained soil that is deep enough to accomodate its deep root system. It is more tolerant of dry conditions than most other Ligularias.

Ligularia 'Osiris Cafe Noir'
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2.5 feet, with deeply-toothed leathery foliage that is deep purplish-black at first, turning to bronze then olive-green with purple veining. The orangish-yellow flowers are borne on purple stems during late summer into early autumn. Hardy zones 4 to 7 Changing foliage color keeps the drama going all season. New growth is dark purple-black, becoming bronze then olive green highlighted with purple veins as the yellow-orange daisy-like flowers emerge on 20 inch purple stems in late summer.

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD


Ligularia przewalski ( Shavalski's Ligularia )
A spectacular, vigorous perennial for the back of a border or as a specimen plant, that is native to northwest China. It can reach up to 7 x 4 feet in size while in bloom.
The large, toothed and deeply-lobed, triangular foliage up to 12 x 12 inches, is somewhat shaped like that of a Silver Maple. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green above and purplish below.
The stems are purple-black and the golden-yellow flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne on tall spikes up to 3 feet in length from June to September.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, prefers morning sun and moist, deep, fertile soil. The foliage easily wilts in summer if soil dries out.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Ligularia sibirica
A large, clumping perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 6 feet, that is native to Eurasia ( from France to Siberia; south to the Caucasus to China to Japan ).
The cordate, rounded leaves are up to 13 x 13 inches.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy north to zone 3

Ligularia stenocephala
A spectacular perennial, reaching up to 7 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to China, Japan and Taiwan. It is similar to the closely related Ligularia przewalski.
The huge, heavily-toothed, triangular leaves, up to 14 x 12 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 2 + inches across, are borne on tall spikes from late summer into early autumn. The flowers are spectacular and the foliage is great for adding tropical effect to temperate climate landscapes and looks great next to a small pond.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( tolerates -40 F ) in partial shade to sun on always moist or wet, deep, fertile, well drained soil.

'Bottle Rocket'
Very compact and dense, reaching up to 2.8 x 2.5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, with showy, intense deep yellow flowers spikes contrasting well with the bold, serrated, heart-shaped, deep green foliage.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )


'Little Rocket'
The dwarf form of 'The Rocket' below, only reaching 3 x 2.5 or very rarely 4 x 3.3 feet in size.
The very deeply toothed, mid-green, heart-shaped leaves contrasts well with the bright golden flowers from mid to late summer. The flowers are up to 1.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial sun.

'The Rocket'
Reaches a maximum size of 7 x 5 feet with coarsely-lobed, triangular leaves up to 14 x 12 inches in size. The foliage is deep green. It is considered to be a hybrid between Ligularia przewalski & L. stenophylla.
It blooms all summer long with golden-yellow flowers borne on stiff, spikes up to 2 feet long during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( even hardy in much of Alberta ) on moist soil in sun or partial shade.
Looks great along a woodland edge or along a stream.

* photos taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Sungold'
Has a good bushy habit, reaching up to 5.5 x 5 feet.
The golden-orange daisies, up to 1.7 inches wide, are borne in branching stems during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

Ligularia tangutica ( Chinese Ragwort )
Also called Sinacalis tangutica. A vigorous, rhizomatous, perennial, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet, that is native to central China. It is ideal next to a pond.
The attractive, jagged-edged, pinnately-lobed, triangular leaves are mid-green. They are borne on blackish stems.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on loose, large heads during mid to late summer.
They are followed by feathery clusters of seeds that persist into winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun ( on very wet soil only ) to partial shade on consistently moist to wet soil. Propagation is from division.

Ligularia tussilaginea 'Gigantea'
Forms a foliage clump up to 3 x 3 feet and reaches a height up to 4 feet while in bloom. The thick, glossy, bright green leaves are up to 15 inches wide and borne on stalks up to 2 feet long. The flowers are up to 2 inches across.
The foliage is hardy to 16 F. It dies back to the roots at 0 F but regrows in the spring.

Ligularia veitchiana
A stately, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6 feet while in bloom, that is native to Hubei Province in western China.
The huge, toothed, kidney-shaped leaves are up to 14 x 24 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The orange flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne on huge spikes up to 30 inches long during mid-summer.
Prefers partial shade and moist to wet soil. Hardy zones 4 to 8

Ligularia wilsoniana
A stately perennial, reaching up to 7 x 6 feet, that is native to China. It is similar to Ligularia veitchii except slightly later blooming with smaller individual blooms.
The sharply-toothed, kidney-shaped , basal leaves up to 20 inches across, are deep green.
The yellow flowers are borne in tall spikes in mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in part shade and likes cool moist conditions.

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