Monday, June 28, 2010

Spruces

Picea for EVERYONE!!!

A genus of 45 species of trees that are related to the Firs. The main difference is that the Spruces have sharp pointed leaves and the Firs do not. The Spruces generally prefer deep, fertile, acidic, well drained soil. The Spruces respond well to nitrogen fertilizers with rapid growth.
Many are valued to their lumber with is strong yet light and soft.
Propagation is from seed which should be soaked for 24 hours before germinating.
Cuttings and grafting is also used for the cultivars.
Many plants do not grow well under Spruces as the roots release allelpathic chemicals that inhibit the growth of under plants. Strawberries are an exception and grow very well under a fine spruce needle mulch.

* photos taken on Dec 8 2011 in Ellicott City, MD


* historical archive photo

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


Picea abies ( Norway Spruce )
Native to northern Europe, this is one of the most commonly planted conifers in northeast North America. The Norway Spruce can easily exceed 100 feet in height ( 130 x 60 x 5' at Hamilton College, Clinton, NY ) and in the famous Black Forest in Germany some have lived 468 years and grown to truly massive sizes of 270 x 60 feet with trunk diameters as large as 11 feet! It is also very fast growing and in cool summer climates is capable of 4 feet in a single year. Other recorded growth rates include: 5 years - 13 x 7 feet, 20 years - 60 x 23 feet; 30 years - 70 x 27 feet; 300 years - 190 feet; largest in Bosnia - 207 feet in Perucica.
The sharp 1 inch needles are glossy deep green all year.
The long brown cones are up to 7 inches long.
The Norway Spruce only grows well in areas exceeding 30 inches of rainfall a year but is extremely cold hardy growing in areas from zone 2 to 7 and can tolerate -50 F. Tolerant of harsh climates, even thriving in Alberta. Norway Spruce planted at trials in both Indian Head, Saskatchewan and Brandon, Manitoba varied wildly in hardiness...many didn't survive the initial winters while others struggled through the first few winters before hardening up and developing into thriving stately trees. It hates pollution and competition from sod & weeds when young. It loves mulch and grows best on deep, rich, cool acid well drained soil.


* photos from family photo album taken near Frohberg, Germany


* photos taken on January 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on April 2 2010 in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on April 5 2010 in Wilkes-Barre, PA






* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour


* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario



* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario





* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY






* photo taken on Aug 4 near Blyth, Ontario


* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Mansion, Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 27 2015 @ Hickory Run State Park, PA

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos


'Aarburg'
A very fast growing, large Weeping Norway with a strong central leader and weeping side branches. It does not need to be staked to encourage height and will eventually reach 30 + feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 14 x 4 feet.

'Acrocona'
Compact form of broad-pyramidal habit and pendulous branches many ending with large red cones. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 8 feet; largest on record - 33 x 27 feet.
The foliage is gray-green.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


'Argentea'
white variegated leaves

'Argenteospicata'
Moderate growing, upright, pyramidal; reaching up to 10 x 5 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum height of 60 feet. Outer branches become pendulous with age.
The foliage is creamy-white at first, later turning to deep green.

* photo of unknown source on internet


'Cincinnati'
Same size as species but with dense branches and long bright green needles. The very pendulous lower branches create a dripping effect.

'Clanbrissillima'
Dense and rounded to flat topped; very slow growing, reaching up to 17 x 17 feet, rarely more. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 5 feet; 50 years - 16 x 24 x 1.5 feet; largest on record - 44 feet with 20 inch trunk diameter.
The foliage is deep green.
Winter buds are brown and prominent.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photo


'Cranstonii' ( Cranston Norway Spruce )
A fast growing very attractive Norway Spruce cultivar with long weeping streamer branchlets. The very pendulous lower branches create a dripping effect on this beautiful cultivar of the Norway Spruce. Reaches up to 18 x 12 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 90 x 40 feet. It is similar to 'Virgata'. The foliage is deep green.

* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on Aug 2004

* photos taken on Jan 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Cupressina'
Moderately fast growing, dense, upright and columnar; almost looks like a Sawara Cypress from a distance. Some records include: 10 years - 18 feet; 20 years - 27 x 10 feet; 44 years - 52 x 30 x 2.5 feet; tallest on record - 65 feet.
The foliage is deep green.

'Echiniformis' ( Hedgehog Spruce )
Slow growing miniature with prickly, long, rich green foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 2 feet; 44 years - 5 x 12 feet.

'Elegans' ( Knights Dwarf Spruce )
Dense and globular to 13 x 18 feet with shorter needles. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet.
The foliage is bright lime-green, later turning to deep green.

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Elegantissima'
Fast growing, upright and narrow, reaching up to 25 feet in 10 years, eventually very tall.
The foliage is bright yellow at first during spring, later turning to green.

'Frohberg'
Similar to 'Pendula' but slower growing and compact, reaching up to 8 x 5 feet in 10 years if staked; lower but spreading up to 14 feet if unstaked. This weeper with twisted stems originated as a seedling of 'Inversa'.
The foliage is bright green turning to rich deep green.

'Glauca Pendula'
Also called 'Blue Wave'. Fast growing and similar to 'Pendula' except with longer needles that are blue.

'Gregoryana'
Very dense, round and dwarf, reaching 8 x 20 inches in 10 years and a maximum eventual size of 3 x 6.6 feet. Foliage is sea green.

* historical archive photo


'Humilis'
slow growing, dense, pyramidal dwarf form to 2 x 3.5 feet in 10 years.
The foliage is short and deep green.

'Inversa'
Naturally prostrate and looking great cascading over rock but can be trained as an upright weeping bush. If the leader is staked, it may reach up to 12 x 4 feet in 10 years, only spreading with age. Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 22 feet.
The foliage is mid-green.

* historical archive photo


'Little Gem'
Dwarf, dense, flat-topped and very slow growing ( 2 inches per year ); to 2 x 3 feet in 10 years with maximum eventual size of 4 x 6 feet.
The foliage is bright yellowish-green at first, turning to deep green.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


'Maxwellii' ( Maxwell Norway Spruce )
A dwarf groundcover variety, rarely reaches 7 feet tall and 16 feet wide; even in 45 years; it only reaches 6 x 10 feet in size. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 18 feet.
The branches are thick and the foliage is green. Excellent choice for rock gardens.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photo


'Monstrosa'
Some records include: 10 years - 20 feet.

'Mucronata'
to 14 x 16 feet or rarely more. Some records include: 50 years - 22 x 19 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches.

'Nidiformis' ( Bird Nest Norway Spruce )
Moderate growing, dense, spreading and dwarf, it can reach up to 3.3 x 6 feet in 10 years, and to 17 x 17 feet with great age ( usually much less ).
The new growth during spring is bright green, the foliage later turns to deep green.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Mansion, Elkridge, MD


'Nidiformis Glauca'
Identical to 'Nidiformis' except for having bright blue-green foliage.

'Ohlendorffii'
Globular and dwarf. It can reach up to 4 x 4 feet in 10 years; 6.7 x 6.7 feet in 15 years with a maximum mature size of 25 x 25 feet.
The foliage is bright green.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Pachyphylla'
Irregularly branched and dwarf; reaching up to 4 x 3.3 feet in 14 years; eventually slightly more..

'Pendula' ( Weeping Norway Spruce )
Grows to 1.5 feet per year to 20 x 25 feet ( sometimes trees with a strong central leader will grow up to 60 feet with pendulous side branches ).
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 3 ( rarely over 8 ) feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 32 x 33 x 1.3 feet @ Delaware Community College in Media near Philly.
Foliage is dark green.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA on March 1994

* photo taken in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos of unknown internet source

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photo


'Procumbens' ( Procumbens Norway Spruce )
Spreading and flat topped with horizontal branches it grows to 20 inches x 10 feet in 10 years, to an eventually size of 3.5 x 20 feet with lush green foliage the entire year. A great groundcover for full sun from zone 2 to 7 that is not commonly used.

'Pumila' ( Pumila Norway Spruce )
Dwarf, dense and spreading in habit; reaching 11.5 x 20 feet at most, but usually to 4 x 8 feet at maturity. Some records include: 2 x 5 feet in 10 years.
The foliage is glossy deep green.


* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Pumila Nigra'
Similar to 'Pumila' but reaching up to 10 x 13 feet at maturity. Very deep green foliage.

'Pygmaea'
Very slow growing, dense, irregular-globular and dwarf; it reaches only 2.8 x 4 foot in 10 years and with extreme age, a maximum size of 14 x 14 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Pyramidata'
Narrowly conical, reaching up to 30 x 4 feet in 20 years; largest on record - 133 x25 feet. The foliage is mid-green.

'Reflexa'
Trainable as a small weeping tree to 10 feet; it is typically a naturally prostrate groundcover forming a low dome with upturned branch tips that can reach 5 x 20 feet in 10 years.

'Repens'
Low compact mounding form to 5 x 16 feet with crowded foliage. Some records include: 14 years - 3.3 x 11 feet.

'Rotenhausii'
A very vigorous, large, weeping tree, eventually exceeding 45 feet.
It has a strongly upright leader and weeping side branches.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 14 x 4 feet ( average ). The foliage is mid-green.

'Rubrospicata'
Upright in habit, reaching up to 20 x 8 feet in 10 years.
The foliage is scarlet-red at first, later turning to mid-green.
The needles are short, resembling that of Picea orientalis more than P. abies.

'Tabuliformis'
Horizontally prostrate branches, dense and domed in habit, reaching up to 9 x 22 feet.
The foliage is deep green.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Virgata'
A very fast growing, large, weeping spruce, reaching up to 12 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually to a maximum size of 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The very long stems bear mid-green needles.

* historic archive photo


'Waartburg'
A large weeping form, that is staked for height when young. It can reach up to 12 x 4 feet in 10 years if staked, eventually larger.
The needles are long and mid-green.
The thick stems are orange.

Picea alcoquiana ( Alock Spruce )
Also called Picea bicolor. A dense, broadly-pyramidal, horizontally-branched, tall coniferous tree reaching up to 80 + feet. It is native to subalpine forests of central Honshu Island in Japan where it is endangered. Some records include: 20 years - 27 feet; 30 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 150 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The needles, somewhat resembling Picea abies, are stiff and deep green.
The cones are cylindrical, purple-pink when young, later turning to brown.
The scaly bark is gray to grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 tolerating -50 F but also thrives in more moderate climates such as England. Prefers moist soil and does not like pollution.

* historical archive photos

* historic archive photo


'Howell Dwarf'
Dwarf and vase-shaped with a flat top, reaching up to 6 x 5 ( rarely over 3 x 4.5 ) feet in 10 years, eventually to as much as 11 x 20 feet in size.
The needles are mid blue-green above and bright bluish-white beneath.

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Picea asperata ( Dragon Spruce )
An impressive tall pyramidal conifer reaching up to 90 feet or more, that is basically the western Chinese equivalent of Picea abies. It has a moderate growth rate and some records include: 40 years - 70 feet; largest on record - 150 x 44 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 65 x 45 feet at Morris Arboretum, Philly. The subspecies var retroflexa ( often also treated as a separate species ) is endangered in the wild, suffering severe declines from logging in the mountains of southeast Xinjiang, Quinghai and western Sichuan.
The needles are arranged all around the shoots and last up to 7 years making the trees canopy very dense. The needles are up to an inch in length and are stiff and prickly but not sharp like Colorado Blue Spruce. The needles are also more upright than the similar Picea pungens.
The pendulous cones are gray ripening to reddish-brown.
The shoots are yellowish and shiny and the grayish-red bark peels in irregular, thin flakes.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and even grows well in the harsh climate of Calgary, Alberta as.
It also grows well in moderate climates such as the British Isles.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'China Blue'
Very blue foliage.

Picea brachytyla ( Sargent Spruce )
A large tree native to the Himalayas that can reach well over 100 feet and is shaped like the Cedrus deodara. It is conical when young eventually becoming rounded and branching horizontally, many of the branches turning upward towards the tips.
The Sargent Spruce is very fast growing and some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; 50 years - 82 feet; largest on record - 210 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet.
The new foliage flushes late in the spring and the needles are flat, crowded and up to an inch in length. They are glossy yellowish-green above and have 2 blue-white bands below.
The cylindrical cones, up to 3 inches in length, are pendulous and are purplish later ripening to dull brown in color.
The bark is smooth and gray-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Endangered in the wild. Thrives in the British Isles and has been known to exceed 100 feet in 75 years there.

Picea breweriana ( Brewer Spruce )
A very rare, moderate growing, large tree native to the Siskiyou Mountains in northern California and Oregon. It can grow very tall to over 100 feet and is broadly conical ( much more narrow in the forest ) with horizontal branches in which very long streamer branchlets up to 12 feet in length hang down from.
Some records include: 20 years - 27 x 17 feet; largest on record - 200 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet.
The flattened, deep blue green needles, up to 1.5 inches in length are not sharp.
The cones are reddish brown and up to 4 inches in length.
The flaky bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( reported in 4 ) and tolerates down to - 20 F but prefers a maritime climate with cool, moist summers. It grows especially well in the British Isles, western Europe, coastal Maine or milder parts of the Canadian Maritimes.

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* photo taken by A.K. Grebbin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Picea chihuahana ( Chihuahua Spruce )
A tall, broad conical, rare conifer native to Mexico that is very similar to Picea pungens Blue Spruce. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 120 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The blue-green needles are up to an inch in length, very sharp, curved and 4 sided.
The cylindrical cones are yellow-brown.
The bark is silver gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( possibly even hardier...reported to survive in southern Michigan ) and VERY HEAT TOLERANT!

Picea crassifolia ( Tainghai Spruce )
A rare, densely broad-conical spruce, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet, that is native to China. The densely-arranged needles, up to 1.5 inches in length, are intensely bright blue.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Picea engelmannii ( Engelmann Spruce )
A tall, dense, columnar or pyramidal conifer native to the Rocky Mountains of North America ( from Atlin, British Columbia to Fort Nelson, B.C. to Grande Cache, Alberta to Drayton Valley, Alberta to Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan; south to northern California, Arizona and New Mexico ). Engelmann Spruce also thrives in northern Europe where it is planted as a landscape tree and for timber. It is moderate growing and can reach over 100 feet. Some records include: 20 years - 40 x 10 feet; largest on record - 240 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. The Engelmann Spruce can live up to 850 years. The Engelmann Spruce is known to have already exceeded 100 feet in Scotland where it is not native.
The gray-blue needles up to 0.7 inches are sharp pointed and 4 angled.
The cylindrical cones up to 2.3 inches are pendulous and are green and flushed with purple.
The grayish-brown to reddish bark is scaly.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 and tolerates poor soils. Slow to establish after being transplanted. It thrives as far north as Fort McMurray in Alberta. Trees grown from seed sourced around Banff National Park in Alberta, proved fully hardy in trials at both Indian Head, Saskatchewan and Brandon, Manitoba.

* photos taken on Aug 1998 in Banff National Park, Alberta

* photo taken by Ray M. Filloon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos



'Bush's Lace'
A small tree with an upright main leader and strongly weeping side branches.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 3 feet. It may need to be staked when young to encourage height.
The long needles are bright blue above, silvery-blue beneath.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Tolerates partial shade.

'Fendleri'
pendulous branches and needles up to 1.3 inches in length.

'Glauca'
light blue needles

Picea glauca ( White Spruce )
A tall, fast growing, pyramidal conifer with drooping branchlets that is native to North America ( from northwest Alaska to northern Yukon and northwestern Northwest Territories to far southern Nunuvat to far northern Ontario to most of Quebec to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to southern British Columbia to southern Alberta to central Minnesota to central Michigan to northern New York State ). It is also thrives in northern Europe where it is frequently planted. Some records include: 5 years - 18 x 11.5 feet ( Calgary - not from seed ); 10 years - 25 x 15 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 230 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. It can live up to 500 years but on average rarely exceeds 200. Some of the tallest known White Spruce use to grow in the massive wilderness along the Peace River in northern British Columbia and Alberta, a region that has been heavily damaged by oil fracking in recent years.
The aromatic, needles, up to 0.5 inches are 4 angled, and blue green.
The cones are small ( up to 1.7 inches ) and narrow.
The gray-brown bark is scaly.
It's lumber is used commercially in the production of paper. This is among the most important of all timber trees in Canada.
It requires well drained soil to thrive and is hardy from zones 1 to 6 tolerating as low as -70 F. The White Spruce prefers acidic soil and hates weed competition. Though generally a tree of continental climates; the White Spruce is known to reach as high as 90 feet in the British Isles. In trials in Indian Head, Sask. and Brandon, Manitoba; only seed sourced from native northern plains populations thrived where seed sourced from the east didn't survive the winters out on the windswept plains.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario



* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY


* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos of unknown internet source

* photo taken by R.K. LeBarron @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Alberta Blue'
Silvery blue foliage

'Alberta Globe'
Dwarf and rounded with short needles that are bright, fresh green in early summer, later turning to deep green. It can reach 20 x 24 inches in 10 years and the largest on record is 12 x 4 feet.

'Conica' ( Dwarf Alberta Spruce )
A dense and neatly conical shrub that sometimes becomes a small tree after many years that can be limbed up and thinned. Some records include: 10 years - 6.6 x 3 feet; 25 years - 10 feet; 30 years - 13 feet; largest on record is 30 x 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 17 inches ( 100 years ).
The foliage during early summer is fresh bright green, later aging to blue-green. The needles are shorter than that of the species, only up to 0.5 inches.
Spider mites may be a severe problems in some areas, especially where summers are hot.




* photo taken on April 5 2010 near Wilkes-Barre, PA


* photo taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Densata' ( Black Hills Spruce )
Densely-pyramidal in habit, reaching up to 20 x 8 feet in 20 years. It can eventually reach a maximum size of 96 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet and lives up to 350 years. It makes for a great windbreak.
The foliage is blue-green.
Very tolerant of alkaline soil. Deer resistant.

* photo taken on May 11 2015 in Howard Co., MD


'Echiniformis'
Dwarf, compact and dense, reaching up to 1.5 x 1.5 feet in 10 years. The largest on record is 10 x 6 feet.
The gray-green foliage completely hides the stems.

'Pendula'
Narrow in habit, with a very upright main leader and strongly weeping side branches. Some records include: growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 20 x 6 feet. Young plants may need to be staked until they decide to grow vertically.
The foliage is gray-green.

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Rainbow's End'
Similar to 'Conica' but even smaller reaching only 4 feet in 10 years with a maximum eventual size of 8 x 3 feet.
The spring growth is attractive yellow.

'Sander's Blue'
Similar to 'Conica' except with powdery-blue foliage.

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


Picea glehnii ( Sakhalin Spruce )
A fast growing, tall conifer, that can easily exceed 100 feet, that is native to eastern Siberia, Sakhalin & subalpine forests in the mountains of Hokkaido & Honshu Islands of Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 170 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The needles, up to 0.6 inches in length, are mid-green.
The scaly bark is reddish-brown to dark brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 and an excellent choice for continental climates though has also exceeded 70 feet in maritime England. It is also very alkaline as well as flood tolerant.
* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photos


Picea jezoensis ( Yezo Spruce )
A dense, spire-like, tall conifer that is a widespread native of eastern Siberia, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Korea & northern Japan. It is found on both mountains and river valleys in its natural range. The branches are layered elegantly. Reaching over 80 feet, some records include: 20 years - 40 x 13 feet; largest on record - 230 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. The trunk is sturdy and the branches sweep the ground and curve up at the tips.
The needles, up to 0.7 inches in length, are deep green above, blue-white beneath and are crowded on the top sides of the shoots. This spruce flushes bright green new growth early which is thus prone to damage from late frosts.
The cones are cylindrical and small, crimson maturing to rich brown in color.
The gray to brown bark is fissured and sheds in plates.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 and prefers continental climates making it an excellent choice for the northern Great Plains. It also grows well in the maritime climate of the British Isles and is known to exceed 100 feet there.

* photos taken on Jul 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON

* historic archive photo


var hondoensis
Reddish-brown bark; otherwise similar to species.
It is native to subalpine mountain forest of central Honshu Island in Japan.

Picea koraiensis ( Korean Spruce )
A fast growing, broadly-conical medium-size tree, reaching a maximum size of 100 feet, that is native from eastern Russia into northern Korea as well as the Manchurian region of China. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 1.5 feet. It has been trialed for forestry in Finland. Endangered in the wild.
The branches curve upwards towards the tips.
The stiff, sharp needles, up to 0.9 inches long, are deep blue-green.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Picea koyamai ( Koyama Spruce )
An attractive, fast growing, tall conifer reaching up to 100 feet or more. It is native to an area of less than 40 square miles of subalpine forests on Mount Yatsugatake in central Honshu Island of Japan. It forms pure stand forests though it has become critically endangered due to environmental destruction. Some growth records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 26 feet; 34 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 270 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The densely packed needles, up to 1 inch long, are blue-green.
The cones, up to 3 inches in length, are green later maturing to brown.
The branches are distinctly orange-red and the bark is flaking and gray.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 this tree is an excellent choice for the northern Great Plains including southern Alberta ( some irrigation recommended there ). It also grows well in more maritime climates such as the British Isles and has already exceeded 80 feet there.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photos


Picea likiangensis ( Lijiang Spruce )
A tall, vigorous, broadly-conical conifer with a straight sturdy trunk reaching up to 100 feet or rarely more, that is native to Sichuan Province in China. Some records include: 20 years - 47 x 27 feet; largest on record - 170 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. The branches are widely spaced and upturning.
The needles, up to 0.5 inches in length, are blue-green and sharp. This spruce flushes new growth early which is thus prone to damage from late frosts.
The flowers are profuse and intense red. The young cones are violet-purple.
The shoots are bristly and the bark is thick and deeply furrowed.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in both continental and maritime climates ( already exceeded 70 feet in Ireland ).

'Balfouriana'
Foliage is intensely blue.

Picea mariana ( Black Spruce )
A slow growing, narrow pyramidal conifer native to the boreal forests of Canada reaching from the Arctic Circle ( from northern Alaska to northwestern Northwest Territories to far northern Ontario to most of Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland; south to the northern edge of the Canadian Prairies to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to northeast Pennsylvania ). Often rarely reaching its full potential due to growing on sites where few other trees will even survive, let alone grow; when given ideal conditions it can exceeed 70 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 20 years - 20 x 10 feet; largest on record - 150 x 21 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The Black Spruce can live up to 343 years and is used commercially for paper production.
The Black Spruce thrives in northern Europe and has reaches as large as 90 feet with a 32 inch trunk diameter in England.
The needles are deep blue-green, blunted instead of sharp and up to 0.6 inches in length
The purple brown cones are small yet abundant and long persistant unlike most other Spruces.
The shoots are densely hairy and the bark is red-brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 ( tolerates as low as -80 F ) and grows best in open sunny sites on moist soil. Flood tolerant. Prefers soil PH from 4.5 to 6.5. It does not grow well in regions with hot humid summers. In trials at both Indian Head, Sask and Brandon, Manitoba; seed sourced from central Canada thrived where seed sourced from eastern Canada struggled.

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
* historical archive photos


'Aureovariegata'
Slow growing and pyramidal in habit. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 1.5 feet; 10 years - 10 x 4 feet.
The foliage is glowing golden-yellow at first, later turning to blue-green.

'Doumetii'
Lower growing and dome-shaped, only reaching a maximum of 30 feet with foliage broader than average for Picea mariana. Some records include: 10 years - 12 x 6 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.

'Ericoides'
Rounded and dwarf with soft, blue-green, heath-like foliage. It can reach up to 4 x 4 feet in 10 years. The largest on record is 17 x 15 feet.

'Nana'
A very slow growing, dwarf, rounded shrub with blue green foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 4 ( rarely over 1 x 3 ) feet; largest on record is 4 x 6 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Wellspire'
A dense, narrow, upright form, reaching up to 15 x 3 feet in 10 years; eventually reaching up to 30 x 8 feet.
The soft foliage is deep green.

'Weeping Form'
A strongly weeping form, that can reach up to 10 x 4 feet in 10 years if staked when young.
The foliage is blue-green.

Picea martinezii ( Nuevo Leon Spruce )
A tall, dense, vigorous, extremely attractive conifer exceeding 80 feet that is native to the mountains of northeastern Mexico where critically endangered. The largest on record is 120 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. It is usually pyramidal in habit.
The foliage is bright green.
Hardy north to zone 8 and VERY HEAT TOLERANT! It surprisingly thrives in England.

Picea maximowiczii ( Maxim's Spruce )
Also called Japanese Bush Spruce, is a dense-crowned, tall conifer to 70 feet that is native to high mountains in central Honshu Island of Japan where critically endangered. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 166 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 70 x 50 feet at Morris Arboretum, Philly; more recently a tree of 90 x 48 feet has been reported at Westtown School in Westtown near Philly. Long-lived, this tree is known to survive as long as 500 years.
The needles are shiny, deep green up to 0.8 inches in length.
The thick, fissured bark is orangish to grayish-brown.
Hardy zone 4 to 7.

* historic archive photo


Picea mexicana ( Mexican Spruce )
Very closely related and similar to the Engelmann Spruce but native to the mountains of Nueva Leon in Mexico ( at elevations around 9000 feet ). It is among the worlds rarest trees and is highly endangered with extinction.
This attractive conical Spruce bear powdery-blue to blue-green needles up to 2 inches in length and has whitish bark.
Some records include: 10 years - 12 x 6 feet; 20 years - 34 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches; largest on record - 100 ( rarely over 70 ) feet.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, it is very adaptable outside its native range, even thriving as far away as England.

Picea meyeri ( Blue Meyer Spruce )
A very fast growing, widely pyramidal conifer, up to 75 feet, that is similar in appearance to Picea asperata. It is native to high mountains up to 9000 feet in China and is therefore a very tough hardy tree. On ideal sites, some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The needles are light blue and up to 1.3 inches in length.
The young stems are orangish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 and very drought and heavy clay tolerant. It can also tolerate anything between -50 F and 100 F and is an excellent Blue Spruce substitute that is highly recommended for the upper Midwest. Rarely bothered by pests or disease.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Picea morrisonicola ( Taiwan Spruce )
A tall sturdy trunked conifer that is native to mountains up to 10 000 feet in Taiwan where it is endangered. Some records include: 20 years - 26 feet; largest on record - 170 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. This spruce is very similar to Picea glehnii.
The deep green needles up to 0.7 inches in length are pointed and 4 sided.
The shoots are smooth and the bark is reddish brown later becoming gray and shedding in flakes.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( reports of 6 on sheltered sites ); this Spruce is HEAT TOLERANT in the southeast U.S. where few other spruces will grow. Extremely rare in the U.S. but has great potential.

Picea obovata ( Siberian Spruce )
Native from Finland to Kamchatka; south to Mongolia; this Conifer closely resembles Picea abies and is one of the worlds most cold hardy trees, forming much of the forests in Scandinavia, northern Russia and Siberia. It can grow very large to over 100 feet and some records include: 20 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 200 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet; largest in New York State - 103 feet at Bailey Arboretum. The largest known tree in Pennsylvania grows at Haverford College.
The deep green needles are up to an inch in length, blunt rather than spine tipped, deep green above and with whitish lines below.
The pendulous, cylindrical cones are shiny brown and up to 8 inches in length.
The shoots are covered in fine, red-brown hairs when young.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 ( tolerating as low as -76 F ), it grows poorly in maritime climates.

* historical archive photo


'Glauca'
Powdery blue foliage on this most attractive spruce..

Picea omorika ( Serbian Spruce )
An elegant, fast growing, dense, narrow-pyramidal, tall conifer, reaching over 70 feet with weeping side branchlets, that is native to Bosnia and Serbia. Some records include: 20 years - 57 x 17 feet; largest on record - 170 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is one of the most beautiful of all Spruces. Wider growing forms may be eventually placed on the market. Before the last Ice Age; the Serbian Spruce was very widespread in Europe, it is now frequently planted as a landscape and timber tree from northwestern to eastern Europe..
The needles are glossy dark green above, bluish white below. The needles, up to 1 inch long, are flattened and soft-tipped.
New growth flushes late in the spring.
The narrow, oval, hanging cones are purple-brown and up to 2.5 inches in length.
The shoots are hairy and pale brown. The purple-brown to reddish bark cracks into square plates.
Hardy zones 3 to 8; it is tolerant of air pollution and most soil. Very heat and alkaline tolerant; it is an excellent choice for the Great Plains while also considered the best spruce in much less harsh London, England.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010

* photo taken in Howard County, MD

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Wash., DC

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Mansion, Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* historic archive photo


'Blue Sky'
Broadly conical-upright in habit, reaching up to 7 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually 25 feet or more.
The foliage is intensely silvery-blue.

'Nana'
Rounded to conical with an irregular outline; reaching up to 9 x 6.5 ( averaging 4 x 4 ) feet in 10 years. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 9 inches; largest on record is 33 x 13 feet.
The foliage is yellow-green above and glaucous-blue below.

* photos taken on Dec 8 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Pendula'
An extremely graceful, strikingly handsome, narrow-conical tree with a strong leader and long weeping branchlets. Otherwise similar to regular Picea omorika. Can reach 20 x 5 feet in 10 years and 66 feet in 35 years, eventually more.
'Berliner's Weeping' is very similar with blue-green foliage.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Estata. Elkridge, MD


'Riverside'


* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Picea orientalis ( Oriental Spruce )
A tall, upright, dense, pyramidal tree reaching up to 100 feet with pendulous branches retained to ground level. The "Oriental Spruce" is not one of the Spruces native to the real Orient; this one is actually native to the Caucasus and eastern Turkey. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 47 x 20 feet; 25 years - 60 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; 60 years - 150 feet; largest on record - 200 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 100 feet @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly. Many are over 80 feet at the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, NC and the famous tree park Spring Grove Cemetary in Cincinnati. Oriental Spruce is known to live as long as 400 years.
The needles are short, up to 0.5 inches in length and deep glossy green. The are rigid but are blunt tipped rather than sharp. The needles pointed forward and densely cover the pale brown shoots all around.
Spring flower catkins are brick red.
The flowers are followed by purplish pendulous cones, up to 4 inches in length that ripen to brown.
The pinkish brown bark flakes in small plates.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. A better choice than the Norway Spruce in the South as well as drier climates.
The Oriental Spruce is generally disease free and among the best Spruces for hot humid summers.

* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly on August 2004


* photos taken on March 17 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA




* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Catonsville, MD

* photos taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photo


'Aurea'
bright yellow new growth that turns to green in summer.
Reaches up to 20 x 10 feet in 10 years. Largest on record - 82 x 17 feet.

'Aureospicata'
Conical in habit, reaching up to 70 x 30 feet with upward curving branches. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 5 feet.
The foliage is creamy-yellow at first, turning to deep green.

'Connecticut Turnpike'
A dwarf, dense, broadly-pyramidal shrub, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet, with deep green foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet; 20 years - 6 x 9 feet.

'Gowdy'
A slow growing, dwarf, upright, columnar ( becoming broader with age ) form, reaching up to 15 x 12 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 9 inches; 10 years - 7 x 4 feet; 23 years - 10 x 12 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Gracilis'
Slow growing, dense and rounded, later becoming pyramidal to 12 x 8 ( averaging half ) feet in 14 years, eventually somewhat larger. The largest on record is 37 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The foliage is deep green.

'Skylands'
Fast growing, dense and narrow-conical with golden-yellow foliage. Reaches a maximum of 33 x 13 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 70 x 20 feet.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Picea polita ( Tigertail Spruce )
Also called Picea torana. A fast growing, very large, pyramidal tree with older trees having long streamers ( "tigertails" ) that hang down from the horizontal side branches. The Tigertail Spruce is native to Japan. Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet; largest in New Jersey - 80 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The sharp needles, up to 1 inch long, are glossy deep green. The needles surround the shoots.
The beautiful cones are pink at first.
The deeply-fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photos


Picea pungens ( Colorado Blue Spruce )
An eventually large pyramidal tree with tiered horizontal branching; that is native to the central U.S. from Idaho to Wyoming; south to Utah & New Mexico. It is often planted from northwest to central Europe. Some records include; fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 25 feet; 20 years - 43 x 13 feet; largest on record is 200 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest in North Dakota - 85 x 30 feet; largest in Maryland - 70 feet in Annapolis. The Blue Spruce can live up to 800 years.
The foliage is stiff, needle like, sharp, blue-green to deep green and up to 1.5 inches in length. The needles are densely arranged all around the shoots and last up to 4 years.
The hanging, cylindrical cones are light brown and up to 5 inches in length with tooth tipped cone scales.
The shoots are pale brown and the bark is red-brown and scaly.
The most drought tolerant of the Spruces. Hardy zones 2 to 8 ( thrives as far north as Edmonton in Alberta ) and tolerant of salt, heat and pollution. It often grows poorly in the eastern U.S. south of zone 6 ( in places other than New England & Long Island ) due to its dislike of high nighttime temperatures. In trials on the northern Great Plains at both Indian Head, Saskatchewan and Brandon, Manitoba; it has generally proven fully hardy with exception for some slight damage to some during the initial winters. Prefers soil PH from 5.5 to 7.8
Cultivars are propagated by grafting or hardwood cuttings taken during winter.

* photo taken by K.D. Swan @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010




* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD






* photo taken on May 5 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 10 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario


* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 4 2012 in Blyth, Ontario


* photo taken on Jan 14 2012 in Ellicott City, MD
* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* historical archive photos


'Argentea' ( Silver Colorado Spruce )
Silvery white foliage; otherwise identical to species.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photo


'Baby Blue'
Smaller in size, reaching up to 30 x 15 feet, forming a pyramid of bright blue foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet.

'Bakeri'
Slow growing and conical in habit, reaching up to 15 feet in 10 years, eventually much more.
The foliage is powdery-blue.

'Fat Albert'
Densely broad-conical in habit with bright blue foliage. Moderate growth rate, reaching an average size of 40 x 25 feet at maturity. Some records include; fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 15 x 12 feet; largest on record - 65 x 25 feet.

'Glauca Compacta'
Rounded and dense shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 15 ( rarely over 7 x 8 ) feet, with bright blue foliage.

'Globosa'
Dense, dwarf and rounded, reaching up to 2.8 x 3.3 feet in 10 years; 5 x 6 feet in 20 years. The largest on record is 33 x 17 feet.
The foliage is silvery blue.

* photos taken in Howard County, MD


* photo taken on Aug 15 2011 in Columbia, MD

* 3 hour shrub to bonsai pruning project turns out extremely perfect







* photo taken on Apr 13 2012

* photo taken on May 7 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Mar 1 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 29 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Hoopsii'
Slower growing with a dense conical habit. Some records include - 10 years 10 feet; 42 years - 62 x 27 feet.
The foliage is silvery blue.

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


'Iseli Fastigiata'
Narrow and columnar in habit, reaching up to 10 x 3.5 feet in 10 years, 30 x 8 feet in 20 years; with an eventual maximum size of 50 x 10 feet.
The foliage is bright powdery-blue.

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Koster'
Intense bright silvery-blue foliage.
It is smaller and slower growing than the species. Some records include: 10 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 60 x 16 feet.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Mission Blue'
Rapid growing, very full and wide.
The foliage is blue-white.
Hardy north to zone 2.

'Moerheimii'
Densely conical with longer, silvery blue-white foliage.

'Montgomery'
A semi-dwarf, dense, fat pyramidal Blue Spruce, reaching up to 8 x 8 feet in size. Slow growing, it typically grows no more than 6 inches in a year. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3 feet; 20 years - 10 x 6 feet.
The foliage is intensely bright blue.

* photos of unknown internet source



'Pendula'
Also called 'Glauca Pendula'.
Conical in shape with twisted, weeping branchlets. Young trees may need to be staked but they will eventually decide to send up a strong upright leader on their own.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 4 feet; largest on record - 40 x 5 feet.
The foliage is powdery-blue.

* photo taken during July 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photo taken on June 28 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Prostrata'
Also called 'Glauca Prostrate'. A low growing, prostrate cultivar to 2 x 10 feet in 10 years. The largest on record is 5 x 17 feet, very old plants may develop a domed center. The fastest possible growth rate is 16 inches on leading shoots. It can be staked to make a weeping tree.
The foliage is bright powdery blue.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'The Blues'
Very weeping in habit, requiring staking for height ( up to 6 x 4 feet in 10 years ).
It looks similar to Weeping Norway Spruce except that it's needles are longer and bright powdery-blue. A spectacular specimen plant.

'Thompson'
Intense, bright silvery blue foliage

'Viridis'
Very dark green foliage.

'Walnut Glen'
Dwarf and conical in habit, reaching up to 4 x 2 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 10 x 8 feet.
The foliage is powdery-blue, dusted with creamy-yellow at first.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Picea purpurea ( Purple Coned Spruce )
A dense, conical, large tree considered by many to be a form of Picea likiangensis. It is native to northwestern China.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 170 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
Foliage is similar to P.likiangensis but is more densely crowded and on densely hairy shoots. The needles, up to 0.5 inches in length, are glossy mid-green above; grayish-white beneath.
The cones are small and violet-purple when young.
Bark is orange brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( unconfirmed reports of 3 ).

Picea rubens ( Red Spruce )
A tall pyramidal tree native to high altitudes in eastern North America from Algonquin Park, Ontario to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to Pennsylvania ( North Carolina in high mountains ). It is very common in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 162 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. Lives up to 445 years. It is the provincial tree of Nova Scotia.
The twigs are not pendulous and the branches spread horizontally.
The foliage is crowded, incurved and twisted.
Cones are cylindrical, short and purple-green turning to glossy brown as they mature.
The bark is red-brown and scaly. Branches are slender.
Hardy zones 2 to 5. It thrives in Englands cool summers and has already reached over 60 feet there. Trees in the high Appalations have been struggling over the past few decades, likely due to acid rain.

* photo taken by C.A. Abell @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Picea schrenkiana ( Schrenk's Spruce )
A dense, slender, pyramidal, tall tree with drooping branchlets that is native to the Tien Shan Mountains region in central Asia ( from Turkestan to Xinjiang province in northwest China ) where it is rare. Some records include: 20 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 230 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet.
The gray-green needles are up to 1.3 inches in length.
The flaking bark is dull brown or gray.
Hardy zones 2 to 7.

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* excellent photo link
http://plantarium.ru/page/image/id/8466.html

Picea sitchensis ( Sitka Spruce )
A very large tree to 180 + feet that is native to the Pacific Coast of North America ( from Aleutian Islands to Atlin, British Columbia to Smithers, B.C. to Hope, B.C.; south to northern California ). It is frequently planted both as a timber and landscape tree in northwest and central Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 66 feet; 30 years - 100 feet; 42 years - 135 feet; 50 years - 3 foot trunk diameter; 70 years - trunk diameter of 4.3 feet; 100 years - 200 feet; 130 years - 220 feet with a 9 foot trunk diameter; largest on record - 400 x 71 feet with a trunk diameter of 26 feet ( no trees that large remain though over 300 feet is entirely possible ). One tree was even reported to be 31 feet in diameter at 2 feet of the ground. Relatively recent records include 317 x x 18.5 feet. After the Redwoods; the Sitka Spruce holds it's own well as one of the worlds largest trees; it can also live up to 800 years. Trees over 100 feet in height still frequently add up to 3.5 feet of new growth in a season.
Unlike most spruces; the Sitka Spruce often produced a second flush of new growth during the summer. Has been grown in the eastern U.S. Some records in Wooster, Ohio include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 6 years - 13 feet.
The narrow, stiff, sharply pointed needles up to 1.5 inches in length are glossy blue-green above and silvery below.
The hanging, cylindrical cones are pale brown and up to 4 inches in length.
The shoots are pale brown and the bark is red-brown, flaking in large scales.
Widely planted as a timber tree. The timber is unusual in that is it very strong and light. The wood is used in construction and boatbuilding. The Sitka Spruce is also valuable for paper production.
The Sitka Spruce is also commonly commercially grown in the west for Christmas trees.
New growth starts very early in spring and is prone to late frost damage. Prefers sandy soils and needs high summer rainfall and cool humid summers. The Sitka thrives in western Europe, especially in England and Ireland where it is grown commercially for its timber. It transplants easily when young unlike many other spruces. The Sitka is hardy from zones 4 to 8 and hardier clones can tolerate as low as -33 F. It has proven fully winter hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada surviving 40 years then finally succumbing to the hot summers.


* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos

* excellent videos found on Youtube




'Papoose'
A miniature form that is globular to broadly-conical, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3 feet.
The foliage is blue-gren.

Picea smithiana ( Morinda Spruce )
An extremely beautiful, tall, pyramidal conifer with foliage cascading from horizontal branches, that is native to Afghanistan, Nepal, northern India, and Tibet. It is always a very ornamental tree. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 60 x 20 feet; largest on record - 240 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.6 feet.
The finely-pointed needles, up to 2 inches in length, completely surround the branches and are deep green.
The pendulous cones at the branch tips are shiny, purplish brown and up to 8 x 2 inches, the largest of any Spruce.
The shoots are glossy pale brown and the purple-gray bark flakes in scales.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Prefers cool summers and thrives in England but also does well in much of the eastern U.S. tolerating milder climates where similar looking Brewers Spruce won't grow. It does however start into growth early and may be damaged by late spring frosts where they do occur. Does not like to be transplant so purchase small trees only. Very easy to grow, it is limestone tolerant and is resistant to Spruce Aphid and Spruce Mite which affect many other Spruce.
The large cones produce abundant seed which is easy to germinate.

* historical archive photos


Picea spinulosa ( Sikkim Spruce )
A tall conifer with pendulous branches that resembles Picea smithiana.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 240 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet.
The sharp tipped needles up to 1.5 inches in length are overlapping and crowded.
They are deep green above and have 2 whitish bands below.
The cylindrical cones are purplish green later ripening to shiny brown.
The bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. It thrives in Englands cool summers and grows very large there.

Picea wilsonii ( Wilson's Spruce )
The Wilsons Spruce is a conical, very large spruce that is native to northwest China.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 15 x 10 feet ( average ); largest on record - 180 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet.
It has uniform branches spread from base to tree top and is narrow.
The densely packed needles, up to 1 inch in length, are sharp pointed and glossy deep green.
The bark is red brown and furrowed.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and grows best in moist well drained soil in full sun.



* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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