Wednesday, June 16, 2010

Thermopsis - Carolina Lupine

Thermopsis

Hardy north to zone 3; these are lupine like plants that have palmate trifoliate foliage and racemes of yellow flowers from early to mid summer. The foliage remains attractive all season.
They prefer deep, fertile soil in full sun to partial shade. These very attractive plants perennials make native gardening very easy and enjoyable. Once established, they are difficult to move due to the deep taproot which is also the reason for they're tolerance of drought. Deer resistant.

* photo taken by L.D. Bailey @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Thermopsis caroliniana ( Carolina Lupine )
Also called Thermopsis villosa. An attractive, long-lived, upright, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 ( rarely over 5 x 4 ) feet, native to open upland woodlands in the southeastern U.S. ( from Tennessee to western North Carolina; south to central Alabama & northern Georgia ). It has naturalized in parts of Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia. Vigorous in habit, up to 30 flowering stems may be produced on a plant as young as 3 years.
The leaves are up to 5 inches in length, composed of 3 obovate leaflets up to 4 x 1.5 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in size. The attractive, blue-green foliage is downy beneath.
The showy, deep yellow flowers, up to 0.7 inches long, are borne in dense inflorescences, up to 12 inches long, during early summer.
They are followed by hairy, flattened, oblong pods up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on moist, deep, fertile, well drained soil. Drought, heat and sand tolerant. It also tolerates temporary flooding and may also be found occasionally on well drained river plains. It is often sheared back after blooming for a tidier habit.

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Album'
White flowers.

Thermopsis chinensis 'Sophia'
A long-lived, bushy, upright perennial, reaching up to 4 ( averaging 2 ) x 3 feet in size. It is stunning planted in groups and mixed with blue flowering Phlox stolonifera. 'Sophia' is a denser more compact version of regular T chinensis which easily reaches 4 feet and is native to eastern China and Japan.
The handsome foliage is blue-green. The trifoliate leaves consist of 3 oblong leaflets up to 1.8 x 0.8 inches in size.
The very abundant, showy, bright yellow flowers are borne on spikes up to 18 inches long, during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( 3 & 4 on protected sites with deep winter mulch ) in full sun preferring fertile, deep, sandy, well drained soil though is generally very easy to grow, even tolerating clay. It is drought and very heat tolerant. Plant when very small and leave along, they do not like root disturbance.

* photo taken on Sep 23 2013 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on Apr 2012 in Burtonsville, MD


Thermopsis lanceolata
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3 feet in height, that is native to grasslands of Siberia, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, northern China and northern Japan.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 narrowly-oblong leaves, up to 3 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is blackish at first, turning to bright green.
The soft yellow flowers, up to 1.1 inches long, are borne on racemes, up to 7 inches long, during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun.

Thermopsis lupinoides
Also called Thermopsis fabacea. A sturdy, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 3.5 x 3 feet, that is native to beaches and river plains in Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 broadly-elliptic leaves, up to 3.2 x 2.8 inches in size. The very attractive foliage is silvery-green.
The very abundant, bright yellow flowers are borne on compact, short inflorescences, up to 10 inches long, during early to mid summer.
They are followed by narrow pods up to 4.8 inches long.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 in full sun on fertile, moist, well drained soil. Very drought tolerant. Plant in permanent site while small, they do not enjoy transplanting.

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos
* excellent photo link
http://www.cgf.net/Images/Encyclopedia/therca161_big.jpg

Thermopsis macrophylla ( Santa Inez Goldenbanner )
See external link on Wikipedia... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermopsis_macrophylla

* photo taken by H.L. Person and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Thermopsis mollis ( Allegheny Goldenbanner )
Native to dry open, upland woods in the eastern U.S. from eastern Kentucky to central Virginia; south to northern Alabama to central North Carolina. It forms a rhizomatous, compact and dense perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in height. It is very rare to endangered in the wild.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 oval leaflets to 1.6 inches in length.
The yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne on pyramidal inflorescences during mid-summer.
They are followed by pods up to 3 inches in length.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun or partial shade.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Thermopsis montana ( Mountain Thermopsis )
An upright, dense, large perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3.5 feet, that is native to mountain meadows in western North America ( from British Columbia to Alberta & Montana; south to Nevada to Colorado ). Very attractive but can be invasive.
The leaves are composed of 3 obovate leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
The lemon-yellow flowers are borne on dense spikes up to 12 inches long, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 and very drought tolerant and easy to grow. Prefers full sun on sandy or light, well drained soil but tolerates partial shade. It is often sheared back after blooming for a tidier habit.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Thermopsis rhombifolia ( Buffalo Bean )
A very aggressively rhizomatous but attractive, spreading perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2 + feet, that is native from Golden, British Columbia to Fort McMurray, Alberta to Saskatchewan to Ontario; south to New Mexico to Wyoming. It also occurs locally in north-central British Columbia at Ingenika River near Hazelton. It smaller gardens it may need to be contained. Very deep rooted, the roots may penetrate as much as 5.5 feet into the soil. The deep rhizomatous roots are reported to withstand fire. It is found on dry open prairies in the wild where it sometimes occurs in large colonies.
The leaves are composed of 3 broad oval leaflets up to 1.6 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, silvery downy beneath.
The showy, soft hairy, bright yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne on dense racemes up to 12 inches in length, from late spring into early summer.
They are followed by downy seed pods.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source

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