Monday, June 6, 2011

Cassia & Senna(s)

Cassia

A large genus of close to 100 species of mostly tropical trees and shrubs that are closely related to the Senna's and are part of the massive Legume family.
Thrives in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed which is soaked in sulfuric acid for 30 minutes then soaked in water for 24 hours before sowing. The seed can also be soaked in boiling water before sowing. These treatments softens the seedcoat thus greatly enhancing germination. Cultivars can be grown from half-hardened cuttings.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida


* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source


Cassia alata ( Candlestick Senna )
A small evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 15 ( rarely over 17 ) feet, that is native to tropical America. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 8 feet; first year - 8 feet. The roots do not fix nitrogen, unlike many other Legumes.
The pinnate leaves, up to 36 ( rarely over 24 ) inches in length, are composed of up to 40 leaflets, up to 9 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant glossy mid-green.
The yellow flowers are borne on erect terminal spikes, up to 36 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( 8 & 9 as a dieback perennial ). Drought and clay tolerant.

Cassia brewsteri ( Leichhardt Bean )
A spreading, medium-sized to large tree, that is native to Queensland in Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The pinnate leaves are composed of leaflets, up to 4.5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The yellowish-orange flowers are borne on drooping racemes up to 12 inches in length, during spring.
They are followed by brown, cylindrical pods.
The bark is very dark gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun to partial shade. Drought tolerant. Grows well in Los Angeles.

Cassia excelsa ( Crown of Gold )
An extremely fast growing ( 4 feet per year ), dense, small tree, that is native to eastern Brazil
Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 40 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 24 inches in length, are composed of up to 40 leaflets, up to 2 inches in length. The foliage is green.
The fragrant, bright yellow flowers are borne on racemes up to 12 inches in length.
The flowers are borne profusely during late summer and autumn; sporadically the remainder of the year.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( 8 & 9 as a perennial ). It is commonly planted in Florida.
Moderately drought and salt tolerant.

Cassia fistula ( Golden Shower Tree )
Also called Indian Senna. A fast growing, deciduous to semi-evergreen tree, that is native to tropical southern Asia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 7 ( rarely over 4 ) feet; 2nd year - 12.9 feet; 10 years - 30 x 30 feet; largest on record - 80 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. It is commonly planted in tropical climates around the world and containerized plants are often found in southern Florida nurseries.
The pinnate leaves, up to 2 feet in length, are composed of 6 to 16 oval leaflets, up to 8 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is green.
The fragrant, showy, intense pale-yellow flowers, up to 2 inches, are borne on pendulous racemes up to 24 inches in length, during early spring to late summer ( peaking in early summer ).
They are followed by abundant, cylindrical, deep brown pods, up to 2 feet in length.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( tolerating 20 F ). Prefers a soil PH of 5.5 to 8.7 and a yearly rainfall of 20 to 100 inches. Very drought and moderately salt tolerant.
Tolerates severe pruning. Pest free.

* historical archive photo


Cassia grandis ( Pink Shower )
A fast growing, drought deciduous to semi-evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 100 x 80 feet, that is native from southern Mexico to northern and central South America.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of 14 to 42 oblong leaflets, up to 3.5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is glossy olive-green.
The pink ( fading to creamy-white or white ) flowers are borne on upright racemes up to inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

Cassia javanica ( Rainbow Shower )
A fast growing, dry season deciduous tree, that is native to southeast Asia.
Some records include: largest on record - 133 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
It is a popular street tree for tropical climates.
The pinnate leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are composed of up to 34 drooping, narrow-elliptical leaflets, up to 4 x 0.5 inches in size. The foliage is downy at first, turning to green.
The abundant, pinkish-red flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on racemes from early spring to early autumn ( peaking during summer ).
Hardy zones 11 to 12, enjoying heat and humidity. Moderately drought and salt tolerant.

var nodosa
No spines on the trunk, otherwise similar.

Cassia leptophylla
A fast growing, semi-evergreen, small to medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum size of 50 x 40 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
The flowers are borne on clusters up to 10 inches in length.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 ( tolerating as low as 25 F ).

Cassia marginata
A moderate growing, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 feet.
Hardy zones 10 to 12. Moderately drought tolerant.

Cassia marksiana ( Cigar Cassia )
A fast growing, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet, that is native to Australia in southeastern Queensland and extreme northeastern New South Wales. Extremely endangered, less than 100 trees remain in the wild.
The pinnate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of up to 16 lance to ovate leaflets, up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is green.
The showy, bright yellow flowers are borne on long racemes during spring.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Seed pods up to 12 inches in length follow.
The gray-brown bark is wrinkled.
Hardy zones 10 to 11

* photo of unknown internet source


Cassia nemophila ( Threadleaf Cassia )
Also called Senna artemisioides subsp. filifolia. A fast growing, upright, evergreen, large shrub, reaching up to 15 x 15 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet. Some records include: 2 years - 4 feet; 3 years - 6 feet; 4 years - 7 feet; 7 years - 9 feet; largest on record - trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 2 to 8 linear leaflets up to 1 inch long. The foliage is deep green.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 0.7 inches long, appear in clusters of 5 to 8 during early spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating 18 F ) in full sun on well drained soil. Soak seed before sowing.

Cassia queenslandica
An upright, large tree, reaching a maximum size of 80 x 40 feet, that is native to Queensland, Australia.
Some records include: largest on record -
The pinnate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of up to 16 leathery leaflets, up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on pendulous racemes, up to 14 inches in length, during summer.
Hardy zones 10 to 11.

Cassia 'Rainbow Shower'
A large, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is the hybrid between Cassia javanica & C. fistula. It is the official tree of Honolulu, Hawaii.
The multi-colored flowers open pink, turning orangish then finally fading to creamy-white.
The flowers are borne during summer or at the beginning of the rainy season.
In some moist tropical climates, it may bloom from early spring to early autumn.
Hardy zones 11 to 12. Moderately drought and salt tolerant.

Cassia roxburghii ( Red Cassia )
A large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 82 x 82 feet, that is native to southern India and Sri Lanka.
Some records include: largest on record -
The ferny pinnate leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are composed of up to 30 leaflets, up to 2 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is covered in fine hairs when young.
The pink to orangish flowers are borne on racemes during summer and fall or at the beginning of the rainy season.
Hardy zones 11 to 12.

Cassia surratensis ( Glaucous Cassia )
A fast growing, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 25 feet, that is native to tropical Asia and northern Australia.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of up to 20 leaflets, up to 2 inches in length. The foliage is deep green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne nearly year round in mild climates.
They are followed by long seedpods that are brown.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( 9 as a perennial ) in full sun to partial shade. Pest free but prone to high winds.

* photo taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



Cassia wislizenii ( Wislizenus Senna )
Also called Senna wislizenii. A rapid growing shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, that is native from southern Arizona to southwest Texas; south to northern Mexico. It generally takes about 2 years for a saleable 5 gallon size plant.
The pinnate leaves are composed of up to 6 leaflets, up to 1.3 inches in length. The foliage is gray-green.
The yellow flowers, up to 1 inch long, are borne on racemes from late winter to mid-autumn.
They are followed by deep reddish-brown pods, up to 5 x 0.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 10. Very drought tolerant.

SENNA
A large genus of plants in the Legume family, with a few exceptions such as the cold hardy Senna hebecarpa; most are trees and shrubs native to the tropics, many which are also used in landscaping there.

Senna aciphylla
Some records include: 2 years - 3 feet; eventually to 4 feet.
Hardy to 20 F

Senna aphylla ( Argentine Desert Senna )
An upright, rounded, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 9 x 10 feet, that is native to Argentina. Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet; 7 years - 9 feet.
Hardy to 15 F @ Tucson

Senna artemesioides ( Feathery Senna )
A fast growing, evergreen, large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 15 feet, that is native to Australia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 3 years - 5 feet; 7 years - 8 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 2 to 10 pairs of narrow leaflets, up to 2 inches. The foliage is silvery-gray.
The yellow flowers are borne on axilliary clusters, up to 12 inches in length, spring through fall.
They are followed by flat narrow pods, up to 3 inches in length. The seedpods contain up to 12 seeds.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerates 15 F ) but also growing in zone 8 as a perennial. Thrives in full sun on just about any dry, well drained soil. The seed germinates if soaked in hot water or sulfuric acid before sowing.

Senna atomaria
Some records include: 3 years - 7.5 feet; 9 years - 11 feet; 13 years - 17 feet.

Senna auriculata ( Avaram Senna )
A dense, large shrub that is native to dry zones in India and Sri Lanka. Some records include: largest on record - 23 feet. A great plant for landscaping and using on freeway embankments.
The pinnate leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are composed of 16 to 26 leaflets, up to 1.5 x 1 inches. The foliage is dull green above, paler beneath.
The attractive, bright yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on short racemes.
They are followed by pods up to 4.5 x 0.6 inches.
The bark is smooth and cinnamon color.
Hardy zones 10 to 12. Drought tolerant.

Senna bicapsularis
A large shrub, that is native to the Caribbean, Panama and northern South America ( Columbia to Venezuela ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet; largest on record - 30 x 10 feet. It may be invasive in some tropical climates.
The pinnate leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are composed of 6 to 8 leaflets, up to 1.8 x 0.9 inches.
the yellow flowers, up to 0.6 inches, are borne on short racemes. The blooms appear late summer into autumn when grown as a cut back perennial.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( very rapid growing flowering perennial in zone 8 ). Salt tolerant and moderately drought tolerant.

Senna corymbosa
A vigorous, arching, semi-evergreen, large shrub to small tree, reaching around 10 x 10 feet, that is native to Argentina and Uruguay.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 15 x 10 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 38 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 3 x 0.2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size.
The golden-yellow, bowl-shape flowers are borne on large racemes during late summer ( or spring throught autumn in very mild climates ).
They are followed by oblong pods that ripen to brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on moist, well drained soil, requiring a warm sunny site. Very marginally hardy in Tucson. Propagation is from seed sown during spring.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* historical archive photo


Senna costata
A 5 foot perennial in Tucson

Senna didymobotrya
A fast growing, rounded to spreading, evergreen large shrub, reaching a maximum height of 30 ( rarely over 17 x 17 ) feet, that is native to tropical parts of Africa as well as Southeast Asia. It may be invasive in some tropical regions where not native.
The pinnate leaves, up to 20 inches in length, are composed of up to 26 leaflets, up to 3 x 1 ( rarely over 2 ) inches.
The leathery foliage is downy at first, turning to mid-green.
The abundant, rich golden-yellow flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne on dense, erect spikes up to 24 inches in length. The flowers are brown in bud.
They are followed by downy seed pods.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in full sun on moist, well drained soil
Propagation is from seed sown during spring.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash, DC

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jun 14 2016 in Columbia, MD


Senna emarginata
A fast growing, medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum size of 65 x 40 feet, that is native from Mexico to South America.
The pinnate leaves are composed of up to 10 leaflets, up to 6 x 3 inches.
Hardy zones 10 to 12. Drought tolerant.

Senna fasciculata ( Partridge Pea )
Also called Chamaecrista fasciculata. An annual, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from southeast South Dakota to southern Michigan to far southern Ontario to western New York State to Massachusetts; south to central Texas to southern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The yellow flowers are borne mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 10 in full sun on dry or sandy, well drained soil.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD


Senna hebecarpa ( Wild Senna )
A hardy, bushy, upright perennial member of a tropical family, reaching up to 8 x 7 ( rarely over 5 ) feet that is native to open woodlands of eastern North America ( from southern Wisconsin to southern Michigan to the north shore of Lake Erie to southern Maine; south to southwest Tennessee to central North Carolina ). It is extinct in New Hampshire and Rhode Island; endangered in Ontario, Alabama, Georgia, the Carolinas, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred on the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. This plant goes very well with ornamental grasses and Yucca and should be planted much more often. It definately delivers on creating a tropical effect in the northern landscape, especially when used with ornamental grasses, Yuccas and Opuntia cactus.
The pinnate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 13 to 21 elliptic or oblong leaflets up to 2 x 0.5 inches in size. The attractive, lacy foliage is luxuriant deep green.
A very attractive show of yellow flower spikes top the plant in July and August. Each individual flower is up to 1 inch wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on most well drained soils and is flood tolerant. Very drought and clay tolerant. Resents root disturbance, install plants when small.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken at Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* video found on Youtube



Senna hirsuta
A 7 foot perennial in Tucson where it can reach 7 feet in the 2nd year.

subsp 'glaberrima'
A perennial reaching up to 4 feet in the 4th year in Tucson.

Senna italica
A small perennial to shrub ( in mild climates ), reaching a maximum height of 4 feet, that is native to Africa.
The pinnate leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are composed of up to 14 elliptical to rounded leaflets, up to 1.3 inches. The foliage is blue-green.
The small bright yellow flowers are borne on clusters.
They are followed by sickle-shaped seedpods up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Senna ligustrina ( Privet Cassia )
A fast growing, erect, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 15 x 8 ( rarely over 8 ) feet in size, that is native to central & southern Florida and the Bahamas.
The pinnate foliage is deep green.
The flowers are bright yellow.
Hardy zones 8b to 11 in full sun to partial shade on just about any humus-rich, well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant but not salt tolerant.

Senna lindheimeriana ( Lindheimer's Senna )
Also called Velvet Leaf Senna. A herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 8 x 6 feet, that is native to the southwestern U.S. from southeast Arizona to central Texas and south. It can reach up to 8 feet in just 3 years though on average sites is much lower.
The pinnate leaves are composed of leaflets up to 2 x 0.7 inches in size. The soft velvety foliage is deep blue-green.
the bright golden-yellow flowers are borne late summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( possibly 7 b ) in full sun on well drained soil. It is tolerant of alkaline soil.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Senna marilandica ( Wild Senna )
A woody-based perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 7 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from southeast Nebraska to southern Wisconsin to northern Indiana to northeast Ohio to New York City; south to central Texas to central Florida ). It is usually found in open woodlands and roadsides in the wild. Wild Senna occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The pinnate foliage is mid-green.
The yellow flowers are borne during mid to late summer.
They are followed by seed pods that are an important food source for gamebirds.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Easy to grow and very tolerant of drought, clay and temporary flooding. Transplant while small as it dislikes transplanting.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on June 10 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 15 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD


Senna moschata ( Bronze Shower )
A medium size tree native to northern South America.
Some records include: largest on record - 66 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to inches in length, are composed of 10 to 18 leaflets, up to 2 x 0.5 inches.
Hardy zones

Senna multijuga
A fast growing, dense, large tree, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet, that is native to northern South America.
Some records include: growth rate - 3 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are composed of up to 80 leaflets, up to 2 x 0.5 inches.
The small, yellow flowers are borne on terminal panicles, up to 12 inches in length, during late summer and fall.
They are followed by black pods.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 requiring well drained soil. Plants will resprout after freezes if temporary.

Senna occidentalis
A small tree native to western Mexico.
Some records include: largest on record - 27 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 11 inches in length, are composed of up to 10 elliptic leaflets, up to 4 inches.
Hardy zones 10 to 12



Senna odorata
A medium size shrub native to moist coastal areas from southern Queensland to New South Wales in Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 7 feet.
A low prostate form is sometimes used as a groundcover.
The pinnate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of 12 to 26 leaflets, up to 1.5 x 0.5 inches. The foliage is deep green.
The yellow flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne on small axilliary clusters, drom spring to fall.
They are followed by flat pods, up to 4 inches in length. The pods contain only a few seeds.
Hardy zones 9 to 10

Senna oligophylla ( Outback Cassia )
Also called Senna artemisioides oligophylla. A moderate growing, rounded shrub that is native to central Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 12 x 12 feet. The lance-shaped leaves are composed of 4 lance-shaped leaflets up to 1 inch in length. The foliage is gray-green to mid-green. The golden-yellow flowers appear during late winter into early spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun on well drained soil. As a shrub it tolerates as low as 18 F. It is a perennial reaching up to 2.5 feet each season at Tucson where it freezes every winter. It is extremely heat and drought tolerant. The seed germinates if soaked in hot water or sulfuric acid before sowing.

Senna pallida ( Sonoran Cassia )
An evergreen, large shrub, reaching up to 15 x 10 feet, that is native to Mexico, the Caribbean and northern South America. A 7 foot perennial in Tucson where it reaches 7 feet in its second year.
The flowers are golden-yellow.
Hardy zones 9b to 11 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

Senna phyllodinea ( Silver Cassia )
Also called Senna artemisioides subsp. petiolaris. A fast growing, dense, evergreen shrub native to the dry inland of Australia. Some records include: 7 years - 7.5 feet; largest on record - 15 x 10 feet
The pinnate leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are composed of 2 or 4 leaflets. The foliage is very silky at first.
The deep yellow flowers are borne in small axilliary clusters sporadically throughout the year if weather conditions are favorable. They usually appear most abundantly during early spring.
They are followed by flat, curved pods, up to 0.7 inches in length.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 20 F ) in full sun on well drained soil. It requires an arid or mediterranean climate. The seed germinates if soaked in hot water or sulfuric acid before sowing.

Senna pleurocarpa
Some records include: 2 years - 7 feet

Senna polyantha ( Baja Senna )
A deciduous, large shrub to small tree native to Baja California. Some records include: 2 years - 4 feet; 6 years - 7 feet; largest on record - 23 feet
The pinnate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of up to 38 oblong leaflets, up to 1 inch in length. The foliage is deep green.
The flowers are golden-yellow.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 tolerating as low as 16 F. It is very tolerant of drought.

Senna polyphylla ( Desert Cassia )
A moderate growing, stiff branched, small tree native to the Caribbean.
Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The pinnate leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are composed of up to 26 leaflets, up to 0.5 inches. The foliage is olive-green above, lightly downy beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in small clusters of up to 3. Hanging flattened seed pods follow.
Hardy zones 9 to 12. Very salt tolerant and moderately drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida








Senna racemosa
A small tree native to Central and South America.
Some records include: largest on record - 33 feet
The pinnate leaves, up to 11 inches in length, are composed of up to 24 leaflets, up to 2.5 inches. The foliage is glossy green.
The flowers are yellow.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Senna reticulata
A small tree native to Central and South America.
Some records include: largest on record - 30 feet.
The huge pinnate leaves, up to 34 inches in length, are composed of up to 30 oblong leaflets, up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Senna siamia ( Kassod Tree )
A dense rounded evergreen tree, to 65 x 40 feet, that is native from Burma to Indonesia. Some records include: 1.5 years - 13 feet; 2 years - 21 feet; 3 years - 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; largest on record - 100 x 80 feet. The surface roots can reach as much as 23 feet from the tree within the first year. It is a popular shade tree and windbreak in tropical regions around the world.
The pinnate leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are composed of up to 28 ( rarely over 20 ) leaflets, up to 3.5 x 1 inches. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The yellow flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne on branched terminal clusters, up to 24 x 5 inches in size. The flowers are borne profusely during early summer, and sometimes sporadically throughout the entire year.
They are followed by long flat pods, up to 12 x 1 inches, that contain many flay seeds that are glossy brown. The seeds and foliage is poisonous.
The slightly fissured bark is light brown.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 preferring deep, fertile, well drained soil with a PH from 5.5 to 7.5. It requires monthly average temperatures ranging from 68 to 90 F and yearly rainfall exceeding 60 inches though will tolerate dry seasons up to 4 months.
The Kassod Tree is not salt tolerant.

* photos taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



Senna singeana
A small tree native to tropical Africa.
Some records include: largest on record - 50 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of up to 24 leaflets, up to 3 inches.
Hardy zones

Senna spectabilis
A fast growing, dense, medium to large-size tree, reaching a maximum size of 90 x 75 ( rarely over 70 ) feet; that is native to tropical regions of Central and South America.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet.
It makes a great street tree and is planted in tropical regions around the world.
The very large, pinnate leaves, up to 30 inches in length, are composed of up to 40 ( rarely over 30 ) lance-shaped leaflets, up to 3.5 x 1 inches.
The abundant, yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on large, erect spikes, up to 36 inches in length.
They are followed by seed pods, up to 12 inches in length, that contain many seeds.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( tolerating only as low as 26 F ) on deep, moist, sandy loam soils. Very drought tolerant. Strickly tropical; it thrives where average monthly temperatures range from 60 F or milder, to around 82 F and where annual rainfall ranges from 60 to 100 inches. It can be coppiced up to an age of about 50.

* video found on Youtube


Senna splendida
A moderate growing, large shrub, reaching up to 18 x 15 feet in size.

Senna sturtii
A fast growing, dense, rounded, medium-size shrub, that is native to southern Australia. Some records include: 3 years - 4 feet; 7 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet.
The pinnate leaves, are composed of 5 to 16 leaflets, up to 1 inch. The foliage is silvery.
The yellow flowers appear during early spring.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 tolerating as low as 22 F as a shrub, it is usually a perennial in Tucson. The seed germinates if soaked in hot water or sulfuric acid before sowing.

Senna surrattensis
Fast growing.
Some records include: largest on record - 38 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of up to 20 leaflets, up to 1.5 x 0.6 inches. The flowers are deep yellow.
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Senna tomentosa
Some records include: largest on record - 23 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to inches in length, are composed of 8 leaflets, up to 2 inches.
Hardy zones 9b to 12.

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