Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Goldenrod

Solidago

A genus of perennials that are part of the larger Asteracae family. Increasingly popular, they combine very well with the Asters.
Most prefer full sun and can be propagated from seed or division during late autumn. Easy to grow, Goldenrods are heat, drought, wind, salt and deer resistant. They can be pinched or cut back hard in early summer for a more compact habit. The flowers are attractive to butterflies. The Goldenrods do NOT cause hay fever unlike the popular myth.

* photos taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Solidago altissima ( Tall Goldenrod )
Also called Solidago canadensis var. scabra and in fact it is very similar in appearance to S. canadensis however a separate species. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 10 ( rarely over 7 ) feet in height, that is a widespread native to North America ( from far southeast Alberta and Saskatchewan to Rainy River, Ontario to Batchewana, Ontario to New Brunswick; south to Mexico to northern Florida ). in the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common at Point Pelee during the 1800s. It is usually found in grasslands and roadsides in the wild.
The finely-toothed, oblanceolate leaves, up to 6 x 1 inches in size, are deep green. There is no clump of basal leaves unlike many Goldenrod.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on dense, pyramidal, terminal panicles, up to 12 x 6 ( rarely over 8 ) inches in size, during mid-summer to late autumn. They appear later than on Solidago canadensis.
Galls often appear on the stems. They are harmless but make identifying it easier since they do not appear on Solidago canadensis.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

* photo taken in Stratford, Ontario on Aug 3 2010

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* video found on Youtube


Solidago bicolor ( Silverrod )
Also called White Goldenrod. A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 2 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from Manitoba to Sarnia, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to Kingston, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to western Tennessee to northern Alabama to North Carolina ). It is extremely rare in Manitoba, Ontario, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. It was considered to be abundant on the Ohio shore as well as at Detroit, Michigan during the presettlement era.
The smooth-edged to toothed, broad oblanceolate leaves are up to 8.5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The white to creamy-yellow flowers are borne on upright spikes during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on sandy, well drained soil.

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* historic archive photo


Solidago caesia ( Blue Stemmed Goldenrod )
A woody-based, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet, that is native to sandy upland woods and rich open hardwood forest in eastern North America ( from eastern Iowa to southeast Wisconsin to northern Michigan to Sauble Beach, Ontario to southeast Quebec to New Brunswick & Nova Scotia; south to far southeast Texas to central Georgia ). It is considered endangered in Iowa, Wisconsin & New Brunswick. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. This Goldenrod is not invasive, it is very attractive even when not in bloom.
The alternately-arranged, coarsely-toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 1.5 ( rarely over 4 x 0.8 ) inches in size, are deep green. The willowy foliage is very attractive.
The showy yellow flowers are borne in rounded clusters originating from the leaf axils, early to mid autumn. The stems are purplish-blue. This Goldenrod is very attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, well drained soil. It is drought tolerant and also very rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Aug 29 2016 in Luzerne Co., PA


Solidago californica ( California Goldenrod )
A vigorous, rhizomatous, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 4 feet x 32 inches, that is native from California to New Mexico; south into Mexico.
The narrow, ovate leaves are up to 4 inches in length.
The very showy, golden-yellow flowers are borne on spikes during mid-July to early autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Solidago canadensis ( Canada Goldenrod )
Also called Solidago reflexa. A fast growing to invasive rhizome spreading, erect perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6 + ( rarely over 6 ) feet. Canada Goldenrod is a widespread native to meadows and open woods of North America ( from much of central Alaska to central Yukon to western Northwest Territories to far northern Alberta to Saskatoon, Sask. to Dauphin, Manitoba to Dryden, Ontario to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to Chapleau, Ontario to central Quebec to Labrador; south to Nebraska to northern Kentucky to Maryland ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was widespread and common during the 1800s and still is. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore as well as at Detroit, Michigan during the presettlement era. It has escaped into the wild in much of Europe, China and Japan where it is considered an invasive weed. It is found on old fields, roadsides and open woods in the wild.
The alternately-arranged, sharply-toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 6 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green to deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on dense panicles from late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

* photos taken on July 13 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken by Francine Mason near Niagara Falls, Ontario


'Cloth of Gold'
A dense, compact, dwarf form, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2 + feet. It bears deep yellow flowers on dense, upright panicles during mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

Solidago 'Crown of Rays'
Bushy and compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 feet, with large, golden-yellow flower sprays that are branched horizontally and borne late summer into early autumn. The very deep green foliage is rust resistant and will usually only develop powdery mildew if under drought stress..
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Solidago curtisii ( Curtis Goldenrod )
A woody-based perennial, reaching up to 3.5 x 3 feet, that is native to that is native to mountains from eastern Kentucky to southwestern Pennsylvania; south to far ne. Mississippi to northern Georgia. It is closely related to Solidago caesia and is sometimes considered to be a subspecies of it.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 2.3 inches in size, are glossy mid- green. The willowy foliage is very attractive.
The showy bright yellow flowers are borne in rounded clusters originating from the leaf axils, early to mid autumn. The stems are purplish-blue. This Goldenrod is very attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. It is drought tolerant and also very rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago cutleri ( Cutler's Alpine Goldenrod )
A moderate growing, dense, tufted, dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 2.5 feet, that is native to mountains from Quebec and Maine, south to northern New York State.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid-green.
The showy golden-yellow flowers are borne on dense clusters up to 4 inches long,, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is very tolerant of drought and sand.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Goldrush'
Denser and sturdier in habit, reaching up to 1 x 2.5 feet.
It has superior powdery mildew resistance.

Solidago erecta ( Slender Goldenrod )
An erect perennial, reaching up to 4 feet, that is native to dry upland oak-savanna in the eastern U.S. ( from southern Indiana to southeast New York State to Massachusetts; south to central Mississippi to northern Georgia to central South Carolina ). It is endangered in New York State and extinct in Connecticut.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 6 x 2 ( usually less than half that ) inches in size.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on narrow upright spikes that are more similar to Liatris than Goldenrod. The flowers are very attractive to butterflies and honey bees. They appear during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on dry, sandy soil.

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago fistulosa ( Pine Barren Goldenrod )
A fast growing, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 8 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to marshes and moist pine flatlands in the southeastern U.S. ( Louisiana to New Jersey; and south to Miami, Florida...near the coast ). It is also reported as native to Nova Scotia.
The oblanceolate to oval leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 ( rarely over 3 x 0.6 ) inches in size. The basal leaves are usually evergreen. The foliage is blue-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on open large panicles during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 11 in full sun on moist to wet sandy soil.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago flexicaulis ( Zigzag Goldenrod )
A non-rhizomatous, moderate growing, clumping perennial, reaching up to 4.5 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to rich upland woods in eastern North America ( from southeastern North Dakota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Cape Croker, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to northeast Kansas to northern Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common on the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The coarsely-toothed, pointed oval leaves, up to 7 x 4 ( rarely over 5 x 2 ) inches in size, are mid-green. The yellow flowers borne late summer to mid-autumn are great for attracting late season butterflies. They are borne on both terminal clusters up to 5 inches in length, and axilliary clusters up to 1.5 inches long.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Well established plants are tolerant of drought.

* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora



Solidago gigantea ( Giant Goldenrod )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 7 x 4 + feet in size, that is native to most of North America ( from British Columbia to northern Alberta to Dauphin, Manitoba to Sandy Lake, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to northern California to Texas to southern Florida ). It is usually found in moist meadows, woodland edge and grasslands in the wild. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Detroit River, the Point Pelee area as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The alternately-arranged, toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 1.5 ( rarely over 6 x 0.8 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on huge, dense, pyramidal panicles, up to 20 x 12 ( rarely over 12 ) inches in size, during late summer into early autumn or rarely mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist or wet but well drained soil. It tolerates temporary flooding making it ideal for floodplains but not swamps.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photos of unknown internet source




* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago glomerata ( Clustered Goldenrod )
A perennial native to high mountain coniferous forests in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina in the Smoky Mountains. It often forms extensive groundcover in the wild.
The elliptical leaves, up to 12 x 2.3 inches in size, are very large for a Goldenrod.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne on axilliary clusters from early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 ( should be tested in 4 ) in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.

* photos taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago 'Golden Baby'
Also called S. canadensis 'Baby Gold'. Sturdy and compact, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, with abundant, golden-yellow flowers borne mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9, very disease resistant.

Solidago 'Goldenmosa'
A strongly erect, dense, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 3 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves are mid-green.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on fluffy sprays, up to 12 inches long, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on just about any well drained soil.

Solidago' Golden Thumb'
A dwarf, dense, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 foot.
The attractive, narrow-ellipticl leaves are bright green or yellowish-green.
The deep yellow flowers are borne on dense, broad-pyramidal terminal panicles during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Solidago 'Golden Wings'
A strongly upright, dense, bushy perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 6 feet in size.
The toothed, lance leaves are deep green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on feathery panicles during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

Solidago graminifolia ( Fine-Leaved Goldenrod )
Also called Euthamia graminifolia. A fast growing, rhizomatous, bushy, upright, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3 + feet, that is a widespread native to grasslands, meadows and dunes of North America ( from the Queen Charlotte Islands to southwest Northwest Territories to Slave Lake, Alberta to central Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to Dryden, Ontario to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Washington State to Oklahoma to North Carolina ). It is endangered in Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas and Oklahoma. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The ferny, fine-textured foliage is glossy mid-green above, silvery beneath. The linear leaves are up to 6 x 0.4 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on dense, flattened, terminal clusters, up to 12 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( likely 2 for central Alberta seed source ) in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

* photos taken on Sep 9 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago hispida ( Hairy Goldenrod )
An upright perennial, reaching up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, that is native to sandy or rocky soils in eastern North America ( from southern Saskatchewan to Duck Mountain Prov. Park, Manitoba to northwest Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Louisiana to far northern Georgia to central Maryland. It is endangered in North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey; extinct in Massachusetts. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The basal leaves are obovate and up to 4.5 x 1 inch in size. The oblanceolate stem leaves are smaller, up to 3 x 1.2 inches in size.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on narrow, upright spikes, up to 12 inches long, during late summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained, sandy or gravelly soil.

Solidago houghtonii ( Houghton Goldenrod )
A perennial that is native to sand dunes in Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario. It is endangered in the wild.

Solidago juncea ( Early Goldenrod )
A vase-shaped, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 6 + x 4 feet in size, that is a widespread native to open sandy soils in eastern North America ( from Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Prince Edward Island; south to Missouri to northern Mississippi to North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was only known from the Leamington area and Detroit, Michigan ( where rare ) during the 1800s. It was abundant on the Ohio shore during that time. It is endangered in Iowa, Oklahoma and Arkansas. The toothed, oblanceolate to narrowly-oval leaves, up to 16 x 2.8 ( rarely over 12 ) inches in size, are deep green.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on arching, open, terminal panicles over a long season lasting 1.5 months or more during mid to late summer ( often persisting into early autumn ).
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant but does not tolerate clay or alkaline soils.

* photo taken on Sep 10 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 2 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA


* photos taken on Sep 19 2015 in Columbia, MD


Solidago latissimifolia ( Elliott's Goldenrod )
Also called Solidago elliottii. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 13 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to freshwater marshes, brackish marshes and lakeshores in Nova Scotia, Canada and in the eastern U.S. ( from Massachusetts south to south Floida, Georgia and Alabama. It is usually near the coast except in the Carolinas and Florida where it is found significantly inland. It is also widespread though rare in New Jersey and the eastern shore of Maryland and Delaware. It is endangered in Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Georgia and Alabama.
The toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 1.5 inches in size.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne during late summer to mid-autumn though may occur sporadically all year in zone 10.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun on permanently moist to wet, sandy soil.

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago 'Laurin'
A vigorous, sturdy, compact, very dense, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2.3 feet. It looks spectacular in mass plantings, especially when used with Asters.
The lance-shaped leaves are deep green.
The very abundant, very showy, bright yellow flowers are borne on horizontally branched pyramidal panicles during late summer into mid-autumn. The flowers are sterile.
Hardy zones 3b to 8 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is drought tolerant and mildew resistant.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )


Solidago 'Lemore'
Technically x Solidaster 'Lemore', the product of an bigeneric hybrid between Solidago and Aster. A sturdy, bushy, upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.7 x 2.5 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves are mid-green.
It bears pyramidal sprays of bright yellow flowers over a long season during late summer to early autumn, sometimes sporadically continuing until autumn frost.. The individual flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are more daisy like than Solidago.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is drought tolerant.

Solidago 'Little Lemon' ( Little Lemon Goldenrod )
A beautiful, vigorous but very compact, bushy, well branched, dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 2 feet. Great for edging, fronts of borders, massing and containers. It looks stunning mixed with dwarf Asters.
The attractive lance-shaped leaves are deep green.
The stunning bright yellow flowers are borne on dense, upright, terminal plumes during late summer into mid-autumn. Deadheading encourages rebloom. The flowers are attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil ranging from sand to clay. Resistant to deer and rabbits.

* photo taken on Aug 14 2014 in Ellicott City, MD


Solidago microcephala ( Slender Goldentop )
Also called Euthamia caroliniana. A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to open sandy sites on the east coast of the U.S. mostly along the coastal plain from Louisiana north to Nova Scotia. It is closely related and similar in appearance to Solidago graminifolia.
The linear leaves, up to 2.8 x 0.2 inches in size, are mid-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on large, flat-topped clusters, up to 10 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on moist, sandy soil. It is great for seaside gardens.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago missouriensis ( Missouri Goldenrod )
A fast growing, rhizomatous, dense clumping ( up to 50 stems ) perennial, reaching up to 32 inches in height, that is a widespread native to dry prairies and roadsides in western and central North America ( from Smithers, British Columbia to Dawson Creek, B.C. to Edmonton, Alberta to Saskatoon, Sask. to Dauphin, Manitoba to Minaki, Ontario to Manitoulin Island; south to Oregon to Nevada to Arizona & New Mexico to Oklahoma to central Tennessee ). It may eventually form large colonies. The smooth-edged, oblanceolate leaves, up to 4 x 0.8 inches in size, are deep green. The basal leaves can be larger, up to 8 x 0.8 inches in size.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on nodding clusters, up to 3.5 inches long, during mid to late summer, sometimes persisting into mid-autumn.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

Solidago mollis ( Velvety Goldenrod )
A rhizomatous, erect perennial, reaching up to 28 inches in height, that is native to dry prairies in central North America ( from Edmonton, Alberta to Manitoba; south to New Mexico to northern Texas...a separate population is known from Prince George, British Columbia ).
The alternately-arranged, toothed, lance-shaped to oval leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is soft velvety, gray-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on dense, pyramidal, terminal panicles during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil. It is very tolerant of heat and drought.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago nemoralis ( Gray Goldenrod )
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 2 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, that is a widespread native of North America ( from Golden, British Columbia to northeast Alberta to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to Red Lake, Ontario to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Quebec City to Nova Scotia; south to central New Mexico to Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is usually found on dry sandy prairie in the wild.
The spathulate leaves, up to 10 x 1.5 ( stem leaves not exceeding 3.5 x 0.6 ) inches, are hairy, gray-green.
The yellow flower plumes are borne late summer into mid-autumn ( rarely late autumn ).
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on light, very well drained soil. Tolerant of dry sandy sites.

* photos taken on Sep 29 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD


Solidago odora ( Anise-Scented Goldenrod )
Also called Sweet Golenrod. A fast growing to invasive perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 3 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to dry, sandy, open woods in the eastern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to southeast Missouri to southern Ohio to southern New Hampshire; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is endangered in Ohio, New Hampshire and Vermont.
The alternately-arranged, smooth-edged, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4.8 x 0.5 inches in size, are mid-green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne in dense, large panicles from mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago ohioensis ( Ohio Goldenrod )
Also called Oligoneuron ohioense. A compact perennial, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet, that is native to prairies of the U.S. Midwest ( from Wisconsin to Manitoulin Island, Ontario to Tobermory, Ontario to New York State; south to northern Illinois to central Ohio ). It is endangered in Wisconsin, Ohio and New York State. During the 1800s; it was abundant at Castalia Prairie but uncommon elsewhere on the Ohio shore.
The attractive, broadly lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 1.8 inches in size, are luxuriant mid-green.
The intense yellow flowers are borne on very showy, very large, flat-topped clusters during late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on moist soil. It is clay tolerant.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Solidago ontarioensis ( Ontario Goldenrod )
A perennial that is found only on rocky shorelines on the northern shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron. It is endangered in the wild.

Solidago patula ( Roundleaf Goldenrod )
A perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 2.5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to swamps and wet meadows in eastern North America ( from eastern Iowa to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to western New York to New Hampshire; south to eastern Texas to central Georgia ). It is endangered in Iowa, West Virginia, Maryland and Vermont; extinct in New Hampshire. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario regon; it is only known from the Lake Erie islands and Ohio shore where uncommon during the 1800s.
The toothed, broadly-ovate or elliptical leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches in size, are mid-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on large terminal clusters during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( est ) in partial shade on humus-rich, consistently moist to wet soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago 'Peter Pan'
A showy hybrid Goldenrod, originating in Germany. It is a clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 3 feet.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves are deep green.
The mildew resistant foliage remains attractive all season.
The tiny, brilliant yellow flowers are borne on spectacular, dense, pyramidal sprays during late summer into early autumn. The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil ranging from sand to clay. Drought tolerant. Deadhead old blooms to extend blooming season.

* photo taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD


Solidago plumosa ( Yadkin River Goldenrod )
Also called Plumed Goldenrod.
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to North Carolina where it is critically endangered with extinction. Its only known habitat is a single population in the floodplain of the Yadkin River where it is threatened by habitat alteration.
The alternately-arranged, linear leaves are up to 12 inches in length.
The yellow plumed flower panicles, up to 12 inches in length, are borne during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est ) in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is tolerant of temporary flooding and actually prefers it for the removal of competition. It is relatively easy to grow in cultivation despite its extreme rarity in the wild.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Solidago puberula ( Downy Goldenrod )
A woody rootstock perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet, that is native to sandy, acidic soil in northeastern North America ( from central Kentucky to far eastern Ohio to eastern Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to central Mississippi to southern Alabama to northwest Florida to central South Carolina ). It is endangered in Ontario, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia and Florida. In the wild it is found on lakeshores and the edges of sandy or rocky pine and oak woods.
The toothed, obovate leaves are up to 2 inches in length. The basal leaves can be larger up to 6 x 2 inches in size.
The bright golden-yellow flowers appear during early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil. It is heat and very drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Solidago riddellii ( Riddell's Goldenrod )
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet, that is native to wet prairie in midwestern North America ( from southern Manitoba to northern Minnesota to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to Sarnia, Ontario; south to north-central Arkansas to central Ohio. It is endangered in Ontario though can still be seen at the Ojibway Prairie. In the Windsor/Essex County region; it was only known from the Ojibway Prairie of Windsor, the Ohio shore ( abundant at Castalia Prairie, uncommon elsewhere ) and Detroit, Michigan ( where abundant ) during the 1800s.
The leaves are linear to lance-shaped. The basal leaves are up to 9 inches long, the stem leaves are up to 2.7 x 0.5 inches in size.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on dense, flat-topped inflorescences during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on fertile, wet soil.

Solidago rigida ( Stiff Goldenrod )
Also called Solidago rigidum. A stiff stemmed, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 5.2 x 2.5 feet, that is native to dry prairie and oak savanna in North America ( from Red Deer, Alberta to Saskatchewan to Manitoba to International Falls, Minnesota to central Wisconsin to Sarnia, Ontario to Niagara Falls, Ontario to Massachusetts; south to central Texas to central South Carolina ). It is extinct in Massachusetts; endangered in New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common on the Ojibway Prairie of Windsor, the Detroit River islands, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is sturdy and does not need staking, it is also not a rhizome spreading making it noninvasive. In the wild it is most often found in dry open woodlands, often sandy.
The attractive, large, broad oblong leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches in size, are deep gray-green, turning rose-red during autumn.
The showy, bright yellow, daisy-like flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne on dense, flat-topped clusters, up to 10 inches wide, during late summer into early autumn.
The flowers are attractive to bees and butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.
Tolerant of drought and anything from sand to clay.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago roanensis ( Roan Mountain Goldenrod )
Am upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5.2 x 2 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to open mountain woods in the Appalatian Mountains from south-central Pennsylvania south to northern Georgia and Alabama. it is rare throughout its native range.
The toothed, oblong or elliptical leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches in size, are luxuriant deep green.
The intense bright yellow flowers are borne on axilliary clusters over a long season from late summer to mid-autumn. The total length of bloom along the stems can be up to 14 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on sandy or gravelly, well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Solidago rugosa ( Rough Stem Goldenrod )
A vigorous rhizome-spreading, dense perennial, reaching up to 8 x 4 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to open woods and floodplains in eastern North America ( from Wisconsin to Sault-Ste-Marie to Cochrane, Ontario to central Quebec to Newfoundland; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Windsor as well as Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time. This plant is very valuable for production of nectar to bees for honey production. It looks stunning in front of shrubs with scarlet-red fall color.
The bristle-toothed, ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 1.5 ( stem leaves not exceeding 3.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The vivid golden-yellow flowers are borne on long arching sprays, up to 16 inches in length, during late summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

* photos taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 23 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Fireworks'
A graceful, compact, rhizomatous but not invasive, bushy, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6.5 ( rarely over 5 x 4 ) feet. Flowers heavily.
Otherwise similar.

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 23 2015 in Columbia, MD


Solidago sempervirens ( Seaside Goldenrod )
A non-invasive but fast growing perennial, reaching a maximum height of 9 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to salt marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts as far north as Newfoundland. Seaside Goldenrod is also found in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central America. It is also naturalized at the southern end of Lake Michigan and in the Lake Erie watershed.
The thick, smooth-edged, oblanceolate leaves are up to 22 x 2.5 ( much smaller for stem leaves ) inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy mid to deep green.
The deep yellow flowers are borne on very large panicles, up to 18 inches in length, during late summer into mid-autumn ( rarely even late autumn ).
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun and preferring moist, sandy soil. It is very tolerant of salt spray, road salt and flooding. Cut back and pinch during early summer for denser habit.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Oct 23 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC

* photos taken on Sep 17 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Sep 24 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Oct 4 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photo taken on Nov 9 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* historic archive photo


Solidago shortii ( Short's Goldenrod )
A very attractive, vase-shaped perennial, reaching up to 4.3 x 4 feet in size, that is native to southern Indiana and northern Kentucky where it is endangered remaining in only a few locations. Gaps between its Indiana and Kentucky range suggest it was once more abundant. It is similar to S. rugosa but more compact and less spreading. Short's Goldenrod is usually found on dry open sites in the wild. It is stunning when used with ornamental grasses in parking lot medians.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 0.5 inches in size, are glossy deep green, turning to bronze during autumn.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on axilliary clusters late summer into early to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is extremely drought and heat tolerant once established and is also tolerant of clay and alkaline soils. It should not be planted on flood or waterprone soils.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Solar Cascade'
A very attractive slow-spreading, clumping perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet.
The attractive foliage is glossy deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne over a very long season lasting late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* photos taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD


Solidago simplex ( Spikelike Goldenrod )
A perennial that is native to prairies and open woods in western North America ( from most of central Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to Gaspe Region of Quebec; south to central California to central New Mexico to western Texas to western South Dakota to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to central New York State to Maine ). In the Great Lakes, it is mostly found on shorelines. In habit, it looks alot like Liatris except for having golden-yellow flowers. The flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne on narrow cylindrical panicles.
The linear to narrowly lance-shaped leaves are up to 4.5 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.

var gillmannii ( Gillman Goldenrod )
Native to sand dunes and sandy shorelines in Grand Traverse and western Manitoulin Island in the Great Lakes. It is endangered in the wild.

Solidago speciosa ( Showy Goldenrod )
A vigorous, woody-based, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 x 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to North America ( from Wyoming to southern Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Stratford, Ontario to central Pennsylvania to New Hampshire; south to central Texas to Arkansas to central Georgia ). A single plant may have up to 30 stems. It is found on tallgrass prairie and pine-oak savanna in the wild. It is endangered in Ontario, Pennsylvania and Maryland. In southern Ontario, the only known remaining population is at Wapole Island, a previous population in Stratford has been destroyed by urbanization. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was only known from the Ohio shore ( uncommon but not rare ) and Detroit, Michigan ( where rare ) during the 1800s.
The alternately-arranged, lance-shaped or oblong leaves, up to 12 x 4 ( rarely over 6 x 1.5 inches along stems ). The attractive foliage is deep green.
The bright golden-yellow flowers are borne on upright, dense, pyramidal panicles, up to 12 inches long, during mid-summer into early autumn ( rarely to mid-autumn ). The flower panicles are borne atop reddish stems.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is drought tolerant.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Solidago sphaceolata
A vigorous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1.5 feet, that is native to central and eastern U.S. ( southern Illinois to southern Ohio; south to northeast Mississippi to northern Georgia )
The attractive rounded to heart-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are deep green.
The abundant, golden-yellow flowers are borne in showy sprays up to 2.5 inches wide, during late summer to mid-autumn.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 2 & 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to moderate shade on moist, well drained soil. Tolerant of heat, drought and clay.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Golden Fleece'
A spectacular, low, compact perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 6 feet, that is excellent for dense, weed-proof groundcover. Fast growing, it can spread up to 15 inches per year.
The attractive, basal foliage is semi-evergreen and rarely bothered by leaf disease.
The showy, golden-yellow flowers are borne on arching stems during late summer to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun. Drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Sep 15 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Sep 20 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 3 2016 in Harford Co., MD


Solidago squarrosa ( Stout Goldenrod )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 5.3 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to sandy open woods in northeastern North America ( from Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to southern Indiana to western North Carolina but not present in the Piedmont south of Maryland ). It is endangered in Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and Vermont.
The coarsely-toothed, pointed-ovate leaves, up to 14 x 4 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are luxuriant deep green.
The intense deep yellow are borne on very large clusters, up to 32 inches in length, during late summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Solidago stricta ( Wand Goldenrod )
Also called Willowleaf Goldenrod. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 8 x 2 ( rarely over 5 ) feet in size, that is native to the coastal Plain from eastern Texas to New Jersey; south to southern Florida. It is most effective planted in groups. It is found in pine flatlands, marshes and bogs in the wild.
The smooth-edged, oblanceolate leaves, up to 24 x 2 ( stem leaves much smaller ) inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The yellow flowers are borne on upright, narrow, long inflorescences during late summer into mid-autumn. The flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( should be tested in 4 ) in full sun on moist to wet ( preferrably sandy ) soil.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Solidago uglinosa ( Bog Goldenrod )
A perennial, reaching up to 6.4 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to northeastern North America ( from Manitoba to Winisk, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to North Carolina in mountains only, to Maryland ).
The shallowly-toothed, oblanceolate leaves, up to 14 x 2.3 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on narrow, upright plumes up to 4 inches across, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil. It is great for boggy sites as well as floodplains due to its tolerance of temporary drought once established.

Solidago ulmifolia ( Elm-Leaved Goldenrod )
A woody-based, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 4 feet, that is native to dry woodlands in eastern North America ( from southeast Minnesota to northern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Strathroy, Ontario to Buffalo, New York to southern Maine; south to eastern Texas to central Alabama to North Carolina ). It was considered extinct in Ontario until recently rediscovered at Pelee Island where it was locally common in the 1800s as well as on the Ohio shore ( abundant at Marblehead, uncommon elsewhere ). It also occurred around Niagara Falls before 1900. It is also endangered in the Carolinas and Delaware; extinct in Maine.
The coarsely-toothed, lance-shaped to ovate leaves, up to 10 x 3 ( rarely over 4 x 1.3 ) inches in size, are glossy mid-green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on drooping narrow racemes during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is drought tolerant.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Oct 2 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Nov 9 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Solidago virgaurea
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 2 feet, that is native to most of temperate Eurasia.
The finely-toothed, broad lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, are downy.
The yellow flowers are borne on branched sprays from mid-summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

'Praecox'
Vigorous and sturdy in habit, reaching up to 50 inches in height.
The foliage is luxuriant deep green.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on flat heads from mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Solidago 'Wichita Mountains' ( Wichita Mountains Goldenrod )
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2.5 feet, that originated in the wild in the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma. It was discovered by Steve Bieberich of Sunshine Nursery.
The narrow foliage is mid-green.
The showy, golden-yellow flowers are borne on strongly upright plumes up to 12 inches in length, from late summer to mid autumn.
The flowers are highly attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil ranging from sandy to clay. It is extremely heat tolerant and among the most drought tolerant of all Goldenrods making it an excellent plant to combine with ornamental grasses in stripmall and urban landscapes as well as the low maintenance home garden.

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