Thursday, February 2, 2012

Cardamine

Cardamine

Cardamine bulbifera
A perennial, reaching up to 2.3 feet in height, that is native to moist deciduous forests and floodplains in Eurasia ( from the British Isles to central Russia; south to Turkey to the northern Caucasus & northern Iran ).
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich soil.

Cardamine diphylla ( Toothwort )
Also called Dentaria diphylla. A woodland groundcover perennial, reaching up to 1.2 x 1 foot, that is native to moist rich deciduous forests and bottomlands in eastern North America ( from Minnesota to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Huntsville, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to Arkansas to northern Georgia to New Jersey ). It is endangered in Illinois, Indiana, Rhode Island, New Jersey and Mississippi. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally abundant around Windsor and the Canard River Valley during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan but rare on the Ohio shore during that time.
Each leaf is composed of 3 ovate leaflets up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage dies down during summer as the plant goes dormant.
The white flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 3 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


Cardamine enneaphyllos
A perennial, reaching up to 16 inches x 2 feet, that is native to the mountain forests in the Carpathians and Balkans in southeastern Europe. It slowly forms sizable colonies.
The leaves are composed of 3 toothed leaflets.
The extremely beautiful foliage is deep red at first, turning to glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in shade on moist, light, humus-rich soil. Propagation is from division or seed.

Cardamine heptaphylla
A mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet, that is native to mountain forests in central Europe.
The large pinnate leaves are composed of up to 7 leaflets. The deep green foliage is early deciduous.
The large, lilac-white flowers are borne during early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, light, humus-rich, well drained soil. Propagation is from division or seed.

Cardamine latifolia
A mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 20 inches x 2 feet, that is native to the Pyrenees Mountains in Europe.
The pinnate foliage is bright green at first, later turning to mid-green. The leaves resemble that of Watercress.
The lilac-pink flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, well drained soil. Propagation is from division or seed.

Cardamine macrophylla
A deciduous perennial, reaching up to 4 x 2 feet, that is native to mountain woods in the Himalayas from Nepal to western China at elevations up to 12000 feet or more.
The pinnate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are glossy bright green.
The fragrant flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are pink.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( 8 & 9 in maritime climates ) on moist, humus-rich soil, it prefers cool summers. Propagation is from division or seed.

Cardamine pentaphyllos
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 ( rarely over 1 ) feet, that is native to mountains of central Europe.
The leaves are composed of 3 or 5 toothed leaflets. The foliage is mid-green.
The white to very pale purple flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 5b to 8 in partial shade on light or sandy, well drained soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Cardamine pratense ( Cuckoo Flower )
A fast growing to invasive, herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 ( rarely over 1 ) feet, that is native to most of Europe eastward into western Siberia though also naturalized in parts of North America.
The pinnate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of up to 15 leaflets, up to 0.4 inches in length. In mild climates the foliage clump may be evergreen. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The pale pink ( less often white ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne on a spike up to 12 inches in length. The foliage is mid-green.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil. Propagation is from division or seed.

* photos of unknown internet source




'Edith'
Abundant, pure white, double flowers. It is otherwise identical to the species.

'Flore Pleno'
Double lilac flowers, otherwise identical to the species.

'William'
Purple tinted foliage and deep lavender flowers, otherwise identical to the species.

* photo of unknown internet source


Cardamine rhaphanifolia
An evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum height of 28 inches, that is native to open forests and meadows in the mountains from France & Spain to Greece and Turkey.
The rounded leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are glossy green.
The rich pink flowers are borne during mid spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun, it will form a large colony on moist soil or standing water. Propagation is from division or seed.

Cardamine trifolia
An very attractive, slow spreading, rhizomatous, mat-forming, evergreen perennial, forming a clump up to 12 x 20 inches. It is native to moist woodlands in central and southern Europe.
The leaves, up to 1.8 inches in length, are deep green above, purple beneath.
The white flowers are borne during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in shade on moist, humus-rich soil. Drought tolerant. Propagation is from division or seed.

Dentaria laciniata ( Cutleaf Toothwort )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 16 inches in height, that is native to old growth moist hardwood forests and floodplains in eastern North America ( from eastern South Dakota to northern Minnesota to southern Ontario & southern Quebec to New Brunswick; south to Louisiana to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally abundant around Windsor and the Canard River Valley during the 1800s. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore during that time.
The leaves, up to 3 x 5 inches are palmately 3 to 5 lobes. The lobes are toothed and narrow. The foliage turns yellow during late spring and disappears during summer. Each stalk usually has 3 leaves.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, have 4 petals each and are borne on short racemes during mid to late spring.
It is among the first perennials to bloom during spring in the eastern hardwood forests.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( possibly 3b for hardiest seed source ) on moist, fertile, humus-rich soil that is shaded during summer. A mulch of chopped leaves is preferred.

* photos taken on Apr 15 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 @ Western Regional Park, Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

2 comments:

  1. Great article ...Thanks for your great information, the contents are quiet interesting. I will be waiting for your next post.
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