Monday, January 5, 2015

Violet

Viola
A genus of mostly perennials that can be both attractive landscape plants or edible weeds. The leaves are rich in Vitamin A & C and can be eaten either fresh or boiled for 15 minutes and served like spinach.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photos of unknown internet source

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arbotetum, DC


Viola affinis ( Le Conte's Violet )
A perennial, native to moist woodland and meadows in eastern North America ( from northeast Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to southeast Quebec & Maine; south to far eastern Texas to South Carolina ). It is similar to Viola papillonacea.
The crenately-toothed leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length.
The flowers are violet ( white at the petal base ).
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

Viola blanda ( Sweet White Violet )
A perennial, native to rich deciduous woods in northeastern North America ( from east-central Saskatchewan to Moosonee, Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to North Dakota to Iowa to central Kentucky to Maryland...south to northern Alabama & northern Georgia in the Smoky Mountains ). It is endangered in Saskatchewan. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore ( has since become rare ) during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The deeply cordate, ovate to rounded leaves, up to 1.6 x 1.5 inches in size, are glossy bright green, later turning to deep green.
The white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in partial to full shade on moist, cool, humus-rich soil.

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD







* photos taken on Apr 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD



* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photo


Viola canadensis ( Canadian White Violet )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet, native to deciduous and mountain forests in much of North America ( from Iskut, British Columbia to Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories to Slave Lake, Alberta to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Northwest Territories to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Quebec & New Brunswick; south to Washington State to New Mexico to Nebraska to northern Indiana to the Smokey Mountains to northern New Jersey ). It is also reported from Newfoundland. It occurred sporadically at Detroit during the 1800s but was either absent or unnoticed at nearby Windsor/Essex County at that time.
The smooth-edged, deeply-cordate, broadly-ovate leaves are up to 5 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The white flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7. The leaves are rich in Vitamin A & C and can be eaten either fresh or boiled for 15 minutes and served like spinach.

* historic archive photo



Viola conspersa ( American Dog Violet )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 foot, that is native to woodlands and swamps in eastern North America ( from Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Tobermory, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to Nova Scotia; south to Arkansas to northern Florida ). The crenately-toothed, cordate-rounded leaves are mid-green.
The violet or pale blue ( with darker veins ) flowers are borne mid-spring into early summer.
It thrives in sun or shade on moist to wet soil.

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015


Viola cornuta ( Horned Violet )
A dense, clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 foot in height, that is native to mountain meadows in the Pyrenees of France and Spain.
The oval leaves are bright green.
The purplish-red flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

'Boughton Blue'
Bright blue flowers, otherwise identical to species.

Viola culcullata ( Marsh Blue Violet )
Also called Viola obliqua. A stemless perennial, reaching up to 6 inches, that is native to moist meadows, swamps and bogs in eastern North America ( from central Minnesota to Wawa, Ontario to Abitibi, Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to eastern Arkansas to central Alabama to western North Carolina ). It may invasively self sow. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. It was also common on the Ohio shore and at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 4 inches wide.
The bright purple flowers, up to 1.4 inches wide, are borne mid-spring to early summer.
It thrives in partial to full shade on moist to wet soil. Clay but not drought tolerant.

* photo taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015


Viola glabella ( Pioneer Violet )
Also called Stream Violet. A fast spreading perennial that is native to northeast Asia and western North America ( from Kodiak, Alaska to Talkeetna, Alaska to Skagway, Alaska to Iskut, British Columbia to just west of Grande Cache, Alberta; south to far southwest Alaska; south to southern California to south-central Idaho ). It is found in moist woodland and on streambanks in the wild. It makes for a great woodland groundcover.
The toothed, cordate, broadly-ovate leaves are glossy bright green.
The intense deep yellow flowers are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soil. It prefers regions where summers are cool and moist.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by The Wild Garden, www.nwplants.com

* historical archive photo


Viola hastata ( Halberd-Leaf Yellow Violet )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 foot in height, that is native to fertile, deciduous forests in the eastern U.S. ( from northeast Mississippi to central Kentucky to northeast Ohio & Northwest Pennsylvania; south to southern Mississippi to central Georgia to North Carolina...not on Atlantic Coastal Plain ). It makes for great groundcover.
The shallowly-toothed, cordate-ovate leaves are up to 4 inches in length.
The yellow ( violet on back )flowers are borne mid to late spring.
It thrives in partial shade. It is more drought tolerant than many Violets and is often found in dry shade in the wild.

Viola labradorica ( Labrador Violet )
A stoloniferous perennial, reaching up to 8 x 16 inches, that is native to moist woods of eastern North America ( from Alaska to far northern Ontario to Newfoundland and Greenland; south to southwest North Dakota to central Minnesota to northern Ohio to the Smoky Mtns. of Tennessee to Maryland ). It was abundant at Detroit during the 1800s but was either absent or unnoticed at nearby Windsor/Essex County during that time. In very cold climates it is also found on grasslands and tundra.
It can be used for groundcover and can be planted with bulbs.
The heart-shaped leaves are smooth, deep bronze-purple.
The blue to violet-purple flowers borne mid to late spring.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial to full shade shade on moist soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Viola lanceolata ( Lanceleaf Violet )
A perennial, that is native to moist, open woodland in eastern North America ( from Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Blind River, Ontario to southern Quebec to Newfoundland; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It was considered abundant at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s but was either absent or unnoticed in Windsor/Essex County, Ontario at that time. It was also locally abundant on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The finely-crenate, lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size.
The white ( veined purple ) flowers are borne mid-spring to early summer.
It thrives in full sun to partial shade.

Viola lutea ( Mountain Pansy )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 6 x 8 inches, that is native to mountains of western and central Europe.
The oval leaves are bright green.
The yellow or yellow & purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne late spring into early summer.

Viola odorata ( Sweet Violet )
A perennial native from northern Europe to Caucasus; south to the Mediterranean to Syria to northern Iran.
The leaves are ovate to rounded.
The deep purple flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, fertile soil.

Viola pallens ( Northern White Violet )
Also called Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens. A perennial that is a widespread native of wet woods, swamps and bogs in the northern half of North America ( from far northern Vancouver Island to Prince George, British Columbia to the Northwest Territories to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to northern California to northern Nevada to Colorado to South Dakota to central Indiana to Delaware...south to northern Georgia in the Appalachian Mtns. ).
The cordate, ovate to rounded leaves are up to 2.3 inches wide.
The white ( veined purple ) flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

* photo taken by Bill Summers @ USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora


Viola palmata ( Wood Violet )
A perennial, native to rich oak-hickory woods and bottomlands in eastern North America ( from southeast Kansas to central Wisconsin to central Michigan to Sarnia, Ontario to Buffalo, New York to Maine; south to Louisiana to central Georgia to North Carolina ). It is endangered in Kansas, Ontario, Delaware and Maine; extinct in New Hampshire. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically around Amherstburg and on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The leaves, up to 4.8 inches long, are deeply-palmately 5 to 11 lobed.
The pale to deep violet flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne mid to late spring. Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Viola papillonacea ( Common Blue Violet )
Possibly a subspecies of V. soraria that is found in meadows and moist woodland in eastern North America. It sometimes becomes a weed in flower beds. An individual plant can reach up to 10 x 10 inches in size.
The cordate, broad-ovate leaves are up to 5 inches wide.
The flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne early spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* photo taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


Viola pedata ( Bird's Foot Violet )
A perennial, reaching up to 6 inches in height, that is native to dry wooded slopes and sand barrens in eastern North America ( from southeast Minnesota to central Wisconsin to northern Michigan to Buffalo, New York to southern New Hampshire; south to eastern Texas to central Georgia ). It is endangered in Iowa, Michigan and Ohio. It is critically endangered in Ontario where before mass deforestation during the 1890s, it was known to grow in Lambton County, Middlesex County, Brant County, Haldimand-Norfolk region and on the Niagara Peninsula. The only 3 remaining populations occur between Tillsonburg and Brandford ( Turkey Point Provincial Park, St. Williams Forest Station, and Brantford ). It makes for great groundcover. In Sarnia, it was last seen in 1909. In London, it was last seen in 1890. In Simcoe, it was last seen in 1905. In Paris, it was last seen around 1900. At Niagara-on-the-Lake, it was last seen around 1906. It is very likely to have also occurred within black oak savanna in west Windsor and Grand Bend in the past. It was known to occur sporadically on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The leaves are deeply-divided. The foliage appears like that of cutleaf Japanese Maple.
The pale blue flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne mid-spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. It thrives in full sun to partial shade on acidic, very well drained or sandy soil. It is clay tolerant if grown on a slope. It only thrives in regions with hot summers.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historical archive photo


Viola pubescens ( Yellow Violet )
Also called Viola pennsylvanica. A perennial, reaching up to 1.5 feet in height, that is native to dry and moist deciduous woodlands and swamps in much of central and eastern North America ( from central-eastern Saskatchewan to Kenora, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to northeast Wyoming to northeast Texas to central Alabama to central North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit at that time. It is critically endangered in Saskatchewan.
The coarsely crenate-toothed, ovate leaves are up to 4.8 inches wide.
The yellow ( veined purple ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. It thrives in partial shade and tolerates full shade.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Apr 24 2015 @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Viola rostrata ( Longspur Violet )
A perennial, reaching up to 10 inches in height, that is native to moist rich woodlands in eastern North America ( from central Wisconsin to northern Michigan to Stokes Bay, Ontario to Quebec & New Hampshire; south to northern Alabama to western North Carolina to Maryland ). It occurred sporadically at Detroit during the 1800s but was either absent or unnoticed at nearby Windsor/Essex County, Ontario during that time. It was abundant on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The cordate, broad-ovate leaves are up to 1.2 x 1.2 inches in size.
The light violet flowers are borne mid-spring to early summer.

Viola rotundifolia ( Roundleaf Yellow Violet )
A perennial, native to rich deciduous woods in eastern North America ( from southwest Ohio to Niagara Falls, Ontario to far southeast Quebec and Maine; south to central Tennessee to western North Carolina to Maryland ). It is endangered in Ontario.
The finely crenate-toothed, broadly-ovate to rounded leaves are up to 4.8 inches in length.
The bright yellow flowers are borne during mid to late spring.

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD





Viola septentrionalis ( Northern Blue Violet )
A rhizomatous, groundcover perennial, that is native to northeastern North America ( from Wisconsin to Killarney, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to southern Quebec to Newfoundland; south to far northern Illinois to Detroit, Michigan to Long Island...south to northern Georgia in mountains ). It is endangered in Illinois and New Jersey.
The cordate-ovate leaves are up to 4.3 inches wide.
The lilac to violet-purple flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD


Viola soraria ( Woolly Blue Violet )
Also called Viola papillonacea. A perennial, reaching up to 6 inches in height, that is native to upland deciduous woods and thickets in much of North America ( from far southern Alberta to east-central Saskatchewan to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Abitibi, Ontario to southern Quebec & Maine; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is critically endangered in Saskatchewan. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Point Pelee and on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit during that time. Tt is edible. Common Blue Violet is very similar to Viola papillonacea but the foliage is densely hairy beneath.
The deeply crenately-lobed, cordate, ovate to rounded leaves are up to 5 inches wide.
The violet to deep blue flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne early spring to early summer.
It thrives in sun or shade on moist to wet soil.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD





* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015








'Alba'
White flowers; otherwise identical.

* photo of unknown internet source


Viola striata ( Striped Cream Violet )
A vigorous, clumping perennial, reaching up to 20 ( rarely over 12 ) in height, that is native to moist meadows, bottomland woods and swamps in eastern North America ( from southeast Iowa to southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Sarnia, Ontario to Niagara Falls, Ontario to New Hampshire; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Alabama to North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Amherstburg and on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore during that time. It makes a great groundcover.
The crenately-toothed, cordate-ovate leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are bright green.
The creamy-white ( striped purple ) flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne mid-spring to early summer.
It thrives in partial to full shade on moist to wet soil.

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Viola variegata
A perennial, reaching up to 6 inches in height, that is native from southern Siberia to northern China and Japan.
The leaves are deep green above, violet beneath.
The large flowers are reddish-violet.

Viola walteri

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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