Monday, January 5, 2015

Chain Fern

Woodwardia

Woodwardia areolata ( Netted Chain Fern )
A fast growing, rhizomatous fern, reaching up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in height, that is native to acidic wet woods and swamps in the eastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southern Michigan to Vermont; south to eastern Texas to south Florida...it is also native to Nova Scotia ). It varies from deciduous in temperate climates to evergreen in the tropics. It is extinct in the wild in Michigan and Maine as well as endangered in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and New Hampshire. It is not known to be native to Ontario however undiscovered populations may occur along the Lake Erie shoreline.
The fronds are up to 11 x 7 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soils. It is tolerant of flooding but not salt.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD


Woodwardia fimbriata ( Giant Chain Fern )
A large sturdy, stately fern, reaching up to 6 x 7 ( rarely over 4.5 ) feet, that is native from far southwest British Columbia to Mexico.
In ideal conditions, it is known to produce upright to arching fronds up to 10 x 1.5 feet in size. The foliage is bright green. It is evergreen in mild climates.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in shade ( or partial shade also in cooler moist climates ) on consistently moist soil. Flood tolerant.

* photo taken by W. Carl Taylor @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora

* photo of unknown internet source


Woodwardia orientalis
A stately, rhizome-spreading fern, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet in size, that is native from the Himalayas to Japan; south to southern China.
The fronds are up to 42 x 14 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 in partial to full shade ( sun tolerant with consistent moisture ).

* historic archive photo


Woodwardia radicans ( European Chain Fern )
A stately evergreen fern, reaching up to 7 x 13 feet in size, that is native to the Atlantic Islands and southwestern Europe.
The gigantic fronds are up to 8 x 2 feet in size. The foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in partial to full shade on moderately moist to wet sites. Propagation is from division or spores.

Woodwardia unigemmata
A stately evergreen fern, reaching up to 7 x 13 feet in size, that is native from the Himalayas to Japan; south to southern China.
The gigantic fronds are up to 78 x 16 inches in size. The foliage is deep red at first, later turning to green.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 in partial to full shade ( sun tolerant with consistent moisture ). Propagation is from division or spores.

Woodwardia virginica ( Virginia Chainfern )
A very fast growing, rhizomatous fern, reaching 4.5 to 6 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in height, that is native to bottomland forests and acidic swamps in eastern North America ( from Chicago, Illinois to Traverse City, Michigan to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to Tobermory, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is critically endangered in the wild in Illinois as well as Kentucky and Tennessee.
The fronds are up to 24 x 12 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
Hardy zones 3 to 10 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soils.

* Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 2014 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on Jul 11 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 30 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on June 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

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