Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Pines - part1

The largest genus of conifers and among the most widespread and important genus of trees around the world. With most Pines preferring well drained soils, Pines love fertilizer with super phosphate. On dwarf Pines too much fertilizer produces rank growth.
While Pines are commonly grown from seed; self fertilized seed should not be used as it grows slowly. Cultivars are grafted.
Tea can be made from the needles of all Pine, is rich in Vitamin C.
Pine needles make an excellent mulch for plants that like acidic soil.
The wood of many Pines are valuable for construction and paper production.
Most Pines do not make good firewood though, burning fast and throwing sparks.
The sawdust is sometimes mixed with concrete and used in the making of building blocks.







* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos





* video found on youtube


Pinus albicaulis ( Whitebark Pine )
Native to the Rocky Mountains from Terrace, B.C. to western Alberta; south to central California, Nevada to Wyoming. This is a slow growing conifer that is generally straight and conical in shape with spreading and ascending branches. The Whitebark Pine is extremely long lived; up to 1000 years. It is slow to moderate growing with the record fastest being 15 feet in 10 years. Eventually on good sites this tree can reach 60 feet with the largest extreme aged ones being up to 108 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.5 feet. This beautifully rugged tree has become threatened in its native range as large populations are getting wiped out by Mountain Pine Beetle and Blister Rust fungus.
The needles are short and yellow-green to blue green. The needles persist up to 8 years and densly cloth the stems. The small cones last on the trees for several years. The bark is smooth and white on young trees but becomes more gray and rough on older trees.
Hardy from zone 2 to 5 and tolerating as low as -60 F; the Whitebark Pine grows well in many places far outside its native range whether in maritime Newfoundland, harsh continental Saskatoon, Alberta or warmer humid New Jersey where it reaches 30 feet at Willowwood Arboretum. This Pine also grows well in northern England at high elevations.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Torkel Korling @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by K.D. Swan @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos







Pinus aristata ( Bristlecone Pine )
A small Pine in its windblown high altitude montane habitat in the west from the California Sierras, Nevada to Colorado, south into the mountains of Arizona. In cultivation it can become faster growing to a foot increase in a year and reaching up to 13 x 10 feet in 20 years. This Pine is also the worlds longest lived tree reaching up to 4700 years. Even at that age; the largest on record is only 100 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet ( small compared to the much more vigorous Redwoods ). The crown is often irregular and giving the tree the appearance of a "natural bonsai".
The dark blue-green foliage is up to 2 ( rarely 2.7 ) inches in length and can last up to a decade. The needles can last as long as 40 years in alpine mountain climates ( much less on vigorous cultivated trees ). The needles are borne in 5s.
The bark is red-brown. This tree is not prone to pests or diseases and thrives with an annual rainfall to as low as 15 inches in cool climates. This combined cold and drought tolorance makes this an excellent landscape tree in Alberta, Canada.
This tree also seems to thrive in more humid summer climates such as Ontario and Pennsylvania however unlike in the west; it will never reach extreme ages in the East since root rot usually hits it before a hundred years.
Hardy from zone 3b to 7 preferring sandy, well drained soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* historical archive photo


'Blue Bear'
Vigorous with up to 8 inches of growth in a year. Bluish leaves

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



Pinus armandii ( Chinese White Pine )
The Chinese White Pine is a fast growing, broadly-pyramidal, large tree from c & w China, s Japan and Taiwan with widely-spreading horizontal branches. Some recorded growth rates include 25 feet in 10 years and 37 feet in 18 years to an eventual size of 170 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. It is very long-lived, persisting up to 700 years.
Its drooping, soft green needles, up to 8 inches long, are borne in clusters of 5. They persist up to 3 years.
This Pine is resistant to blister rust and is very beautiful. Highly recommended in eastern North America from zones 3 to 8 and also grows well in England. Rare but reported to thrive in the Mid Atlantic and Chicago. It has proven fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada with only shelter from surrounding trees.


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario





* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


var dabeshanensis
Also called Pinus dabeshanensis. A subspecies native to the Dabie Shan mountains in the province of Anhui in eastern China

Pinus armandii x lambertiana
A very fast growing hybrid White Pine that eventually grows HUGE!
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it thrives in the hot humid summers of the southeast, Midwest and Mid Atlantic U.S.

Pinus attenuata ( Knobcone Pine )
Native to mountainous areas of California and Oregon; this Pine is fast growing to 47 feet in 17 years and eventually exceeds 100 feet on good sites. The largest Knobcone Pine on record is 150 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The record single year growth increase is 4 feet.
This Pine typically grows with a narrow pointed crown with horizontal branches that turn up at the ends.
The blue-green needles are up to 8 inches in length, are clusters in 3s and last up to 5 years.
The cones are up to 6 inches and are often in clusters and remain on the trees for decades. They often require fire to open them up to release the seeds.
The bark is brown with scaly ridges. Growing in climates with 25 inches of rainfall or more in a year; the Knobcone Pine is hardy from zone 6 to 9. Very drought tolerant due to its deep root system.

* historical archive photo


Pinus x attenuradiata
A hybrid between the Monterey & Knobcone Pines that is extremely fast growing, drought tolerant and hardy north to zone 7. Great for reforestation.

Pinus ayacahuite ( Mexican White Pine )
Native to high mountains of Mexico and Central America; this Pine grows with a conical outline when young eventually becoming oval and irregular with age. Fast growing; it can reach up to 100 feet or more. Some records include:
10 years: 27 x 17 feet; 16 years - 34 feet with trunk diameter of 8 inches;
25 years - 65 feet with trunk diameter of 12 inches;
largest tree recorded: 190 x 62 feet with trunk diameter of 7 feet.
A 55 x 32 foot tree grows at Morris Arboretum in Philly, PA. A larger tree of approx. 75 x 48 x 4 feet grows at Westtown School in Westtown near Philly.
The soft blue-green needles grow in clusters of 5 and reach up to 8 inches in length.
The cones are long up to 12 inches in length, have no prickles and fall from the tree in Autumn. The bark is rust-brown and fissured.
This Pine is hardy from zone 5 to 11 and can survive as low as -22 F. It is very pollution tolerant allowing its use in urban areas.

* historic archive photo


Pinus balfouriana ( Foxtail Pine )
An endangered native to the mountains of California. A straight narrow conical tree; it grows moderately slow to 33 feet in 20 years and eventually to 60 feet. The largest tree on record is a massive 120 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet and the oldest on record is 3000 years!!! The needles are stiff, crowded, in clusters of 5, up to 2 inches in length, curve upwards and last up to 15 ( rarely 30 ) years. The branches have a bushy foxtail appearance.
The pendulous cones are brown and up to 4 inches long. They mature in 2 years and fall from the tree. The bark is smooth and whitish; later turning orange-red.
Threatened in the wild; the Foxtail Pine is hardy from zone 4 to 8 and thrives where rainfall exceeds 32 inches in a year. It grows well in parts of the eastern U.S. especially New York State. Prefers well drained sandy soil.

* photos taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* historical archive photos




* photo taken by Herbert A. Jensen @ Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library





Pinus banksiana ( Jack Pine )
Native to northern North America ( from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to near Churchill, Manitoba to central Quebec to Nova Scotia, south to central Alberta, Minnesota to central Michigan to New York State ); the Jack Pine is an extremely hardy medium-size tree. Jack Pine is native to all northern Ontario except for the Hudson Bay Lowlands. It is often planted for forestry on the harshest subalpine sites in the mountains of Europe. Usually moderate growing; on good sites it can reach 40 feet in 20 years and the record growth rate recorded is 3 feet. The mature size is typically 40 to 60 feet though on good sites without competition from other trees it can grow much larger with the record being 131 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. Growing well in extremely harsh climates; this tree is known to reach up to 50 x 40 feet in North Dakota. The maximum lifespan is 246 years. In the wild it usually colonizes land cleared from fire and logging and is also often found on rock outcrops in the Canadian Shield where little else grows. The Jack Pine is used for land reclaimation, Christmas trees, timber for railway ties, telephone poles and pulpwood. In the Mid Atlantic region of the U.S. it is replaced by the similar looking Virginia Pine. This tree usually grows straight with an irregular outline thought on open sites it is often twisted and picturesque. Grown from seed this tree will only reach 2 inches in height in the first year. In the second year it can reach 6 inches and in the 4th year it can reach up to 3 feet as by that time its growth will have sped up.
The needles are in pairs and are short and twisted. The needles persist up to 3 years.
The slightly curved cones reach up to 2 inches long. They persist up to 4 years.
The bark is orange gray and shallow fissured.
Hardy from zone 1 to 6; this tree can survive as low as -65 F but needs full sun and prefers well drained deep acid soil. Grows north to the Arctic Circle. It usually only thrives when planted at very small sized. Besides fire, cold temperatures are necessary for reproduction, when temperatures reach -46°C, the cones will open, due to the nature of the resin.

* photo of unknown source on internet

* photo taken by G.B. Sudworth @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by R.K. LeBarron @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


* historical archive photos










* historic archive photo of 8 year plantation


'Girard's Weeper'
Strongly weeping, requiring staking when young. It can reach up to 6 x 4 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 10 feet across.

'Pendula'
Upright leader with non-twisting, weeping side branches.

Pinus brutia ( Turkish Pine )
Sometimes considered a regional variant of Pinus halepensis; this Pine is native of the eastern Mediterranean. It has an open crown with irregular branching and can grow fast on ideal sites with the fastest rate recorded being 20 x 27 feet in 6 years and 33 feet in 17 years ( 24 inches of growth in a year is closer to average ). The Turkish Pine has been known to reach heights of 6 feet in the 2nd year from a one gallon container and also live up to 130 years or more. Often over 100 feet tall and 3 feet in trunk diameter; the largest on record is 135 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The fairly stiff needles, up to 6.5 inches in length, are bright green. They are borne in 2 s.
The small cones are shiny red brown when ripe.
The thick bark is orange with black fissures.
This Pine is very heat and drought tolerant and is often grown in Italy, France and Yugoslavia. Turkish Pine can tolerate dry seasons up to 6 months long. Recently this tree is dying out in Texas from Diplodia Blight the same disease that afflicts the Austrian Pine and is no longer recommended in that state.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. This Pine grows well in regions worldwide with a Mediterranean climate and is planted for both lumber and shade.

Pinus bungeana ( Lacebark Pine ) -
A typically multi-stemmed rounded canopy Pine native to the mountains of northwest China. Slow growing; it can grow to 11 x 15 feet in 10 years and 26 feet in height in 20 years. Eventually it can reach 60 feet and the record is 120 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet in its native China ( this Pine is also extremely long lived ). In the U.S. it has already reached 80 feet at Rutgers University. The record known single year growth increase is 22 inches.
The foliage in 3s is short and aromatic, to 4 inches in length ( rarely to 5.5 inches ), lasting up to 4 years.
The cones are small and oval either single or in pairs. The bark is smooth and blotched white, gray-green and brown and looks similar to that of the London Plane.
This Pine is somewhat drought & heat tolerant and grows in temperate climates with 20 or more inches of rain per year. Hardy from zone 4 to 9.

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2010







* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA






* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


'Silver Ghost'
Has bark much more white than that of the species, otherwise very similar.

Pinus canariensis ( Canary Island Pine )
A tall tree with a heavy set straight central trunk and a dense oval canopy that is native to mountains of the Canary Islands. This tree is so widely planted as an ornamental and has become wild in parts of Australia, Italy and South Africa that many people have no idea this tree comes from a tiny place in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. There in its native range; the Canary Pine is from the cloud forest belt of the Canary Islands where the official rainfall is about 20 inches per year however it more like 80 inches when you include condensed fog that drips from the branches to the forest floor ( common occurence in the Redwood belt of California as well ). This beautiful Pine is also fast growing to 100 feet or more. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 32 years - 92 x 20 feet; 120 years - trunk diameter of 5.4 feet; largest on record - 200 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.5 feet!
The the long drooping needles are up to 13 inches and sometimes even to 18 inches in length! The cones are shiny and brown. The bark is reddish brown and very attractive.
This is also one of the very few Pines that can resprout after fire.
Drought tolerant; this tree is best in sun on rich, well drained soil.
The Canary Island Pine is hardy from zone 8 to 11 and can survive as low as 3 F.

* historical archive photos




* excellent videos found on Youtube



Pinus caribaea ( Caribbean Pine )
A very fast growing Pine native to the Caribbean that can easily reach 100 feet with the record being 150 feet in height and 4.5 feet in trunk diameter. The record growth is 30 x 13 feet in 10 years & 90 feet tall with trunk diameter of 20 inches in 34 years. The record single year growth increase is 8 feet! The canopy is irregular, open and broad and the trunk is tall as it typically sheds the lower branches as they get shaded out. The needles are often bunched at the branch tips and are long, dark green and shiny to 12 inches in length. The cones are small, shiny and red-brown with sharp prickles.
This Pine is used for forestry in the tropics though it can be invasive on the Pacific Islands. Hardy from zone 9 to 12.
subsp 'Hondurensis' is similar from Central America but even faster growing with longer needles to 13 inches. Some recorded growth rates include:
2 years - 12 feet tall with trunk diameter of 2 inches
3 years - 27 feet in height!
5 years - 37 feet in height and 6 inches in trunk diameter
12 years - 60 feet tall and 1 foot in trunk diameter
15 years - 100 feet tall with 1.5 foot trunk diameter
40 years - 120 feet tall
Tallest on record - 150 feet

Pinus cembra ( Swiss Stone Pine )
Native to central Europe; especially the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. A narrow conical to almost columnar conifer that is slow growing though with the best of conditions may become a moderate grower. The most it can reach is 40 x 10 feet in 20 years; and 60 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 2 feet in has been recorded in 70 years in England. The mature height is typically 70 feet after a century or more however the largest ever recorded is much larger at 160 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet. It thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada, having already reached 50 x 15 feet. The Swiss Stone Pine is usually densely branched to the ground.
The densely-arranged, twisted needles, up to 5 inches in length, are borne in 5 s. The foliage is deep green.
The small cones are usually only seen on very old trees.
The scaly bark is reddish-gray.
Hardy from zone 2 to 7 ( tolerating -60 F ), even thriving on the northern Great Plains in places such as Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Resistant to Blister Rust and high winds.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 30 2016 in Luzerne Co., PA

* historical archive photo

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


* historical archive photos




'Blue Mound'
A slow growing, upright dwarf, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 4 feet.
The foliage is intensely powdery-blue.

'Chalet'
A dense, upright, narrowly-conical form, reaching up to 7 x 2.5 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 22 x 8 feet.
The soft foliage is intensely blue-green.
Hardy zones 2 to 7.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Prairie Statesman'
A dense, erect columnar form, reaching up to 30 feet in height in 25 years, eventually more. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green above, silvery-blue beneath. It is a very beautiful conifer developed for use on the northern Great Plains.
Hardy zones 2b +.

subsp 'Sibirica'
Native to Siberia, western & northern Mongolia and Xinjiang; it can tolerate as cold as - 90 F as well as high winds. It can grow as large as 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet and live as long as 850 years. It is fast growing, very clay and also flood tolerant. It is not prone to Blister Rust. An excellent ornamental tree for central Canada and should be planted more. It grows very well in Edmonton & Saskatoon as well as in the Ottawa Valley.

Pinus cembroides ( Mexican Pinyon )
Native to Mexico and neighboring U.S. States; this is a slow growing rounded canopy Pine. Both very heat and very drought tolerant; this Pine can reach up to 26 feet in 20 years and 40 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 1 foot in 50 years. On ideal sites it can grow larger with the largest ever recorded being 70 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The needles are olive-green and in pairs or in 3s. They are up to 3 inches in length and last up to 4 years.
The oval cones are pale yellow to glossy brown. The edible nuts can be harvested in fall after the cones have ripened and are high in protein.
Barks is silvery gray to gray-brown and scaly.
This Pine can survive in regions with as little as 15 inches of rainfall in a year and is hardy from zone 5 to 8. Tolerant of poor dry soil but requires full sun.

* photo taken by T.H. Gill @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Pinus chiapensis ( Chiapas White Pine )
A huge White Pine to high rainfall mountainous areas from southern Mexico to Guatemala. It is very fast growing to
27 x 15 feet in 10 years and is known to reach as much as 285 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 6 feet! The needles reach up to 8 inches in length, are soft, bright green and in 5s lasting 2 to 3 years. Hardy north to zone 7. Now rare in wild due to logging. Has been planted in mountainous areas of Columbia.

Pinus clausa ( Sand Pine )
A very drought and salt tolerant Pine native to very sandy areas of Georgia, Alabama and especially Florida. Often scrubby on dry sandy soils where it is most often found due to its dislike of competition from other trees. On better sites in cultivation it can grow moderately to 30 feet in 20 years and eventually to 60 feet with the largest on record being 110 x 50 feet with trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The record single year growth increase is 3 feet.
The slightly twisted needles are in bundles of 2, up to 4 ( rarely 5 ) inches, are rich dark green and last up to 3 years. The cones are up to 3 inches with short prickles and take up to 2 years to mature. They can remain on the tree for years.
The reddish to gray bark is scaly.
Hardy from zone 7 to 9 ( tolerating 0 F ) and is very drought tolerant. Prefers acid soil with PH from 4 to 5.5. It is well adapted for very difficult sites such as wind swept sand barrens.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos



Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia ( Lodgepole Pine )
A straight, tall tree that is native to the Rocky Mountains ( from Kodiak, Alaska to central Yukon to southwest Northwest Territories and northeast Alberta to far southwest Saskatchewan; southern California to central Colorado to far western South Dakota ). This Pine has also naturalized and become invasive in New Zealand. It is endangered in South Dakota. It is frequently planted for timber from northwest to central Europe. It is typically a tall straight tree with It is an important timber tree in North America though now entire regions of Lodgepole forests are dying out due to Pink Bark Beetle endangering this tree as well as causing a severe fire risk due to the dried tinder. On ideal sites; the Lodgepole Pine can become fast growing and the some records include: 3 feet single year growth increase; 50 feet in 20 years; 100 feet in 50 years and 4 feet in diameter in 80 years. Often over 100 feet in height; the largest ever recorded is 200 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. This Pine can also live up to 600 years. The Coastal form is shorter and stockier with the largest ever recorded being 101 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
It has densely arranged, stiff, dark green needles in 2s, up to 5 inches in length. They can last up to 6 years.
The cones are small and orange-brown and the scaly bark is straw colored
Tolerant of flooding and extreme cold; the Lodgepole Pine is hardy from zone 1 to 8 and tolerates as low as -76 F. The more cold hardy Rocky Mountain supspecies 'Latifolia' has proven fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada through is rarely seen in the east.

* photo of unknown internet source

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


* photo taken by Paul S. Bieler @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos






















* photo taken by Warren T. Murphy @ Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library



'Taylor's Sunburst'
Pyramidal in habit, reaching up to 15 x 10 feet in 10 years, eventually much more.
The stunning new foliage is intense bright yellow

Pinus cooperi ( Coopers Pine )
A large domed Pine, reaching up to 40 feet in 20 years, and an eventual maximum height of 120 feet with a trunk diameter up to 3 feet. It is native to northwest Mexico.
The gray-green needles are in 5s and up to 5 inches in length.
The cones are up to 3 inches in length.
The bark is dark red-brown, rough, thick plated and deeply fissured.
Hardy north to zone 7.

Pinus coulteri ( Coulter Pine )
A fast growing spectacular looking Pine native to dry mountain slopes in California.
The Coulter Pine can reach 60 feet in 20 years and eventually grow to 100 feet though the record is 210 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.7 feet. The record single year growth increase is 4 feet. This deeply rooted tree typically grows with a dense, broad rounded crown.
The needles are long, in bundles of 3, blue-green in color, stiff and up to 14 inches in length. The needles last up to 4 years.
The bark is beige, scaly and deeply furrowed.
The cones are huge, brown and spiny and weigh up to 5 pounds. The seeds are edible. The bark is dark brown. Hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolorating 0 F though there are unconfirmed reports of zone 6 hardiness ). This Pine grows without irrigation anywhere with 24 inches or more of rainfall in a year and prefers soils with PH 5.5 to 7. It thrives in southern England despite a climate very different form its native range.

* photo taken by Fred E. Dunham @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos




* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library



Pinus densata ( Sikang Pine )
Native to southwest China and growing to 100 x 50 feet with a diameter of 4.5 feet; this Pine has dark green needles in 2s ( sometimes 3s ) to 8 inches in length.
The cones are up to 2 inches in length.
It is closely related to P. tabuliformis.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Pinus densiflora ( Japanese Red Pine )
A tall straight tree with an open irregular crown which can live up to 700 years and grow fast to 80 feet with the record being 170 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet. In 20 years it can reach up to 40 x 17 feet and has reached 70 feet in 47 years in New Jersey.
The bright green needles are typically tufted towards the ends of the branches and are up to 5 inches in length. The needles are borne in pairs and persist for 3 years.
The cones are up to 2 inches in length and are brown. The cones may persist up to 3 years.
The scaly bark is attractive red-orange. Originating from Siberia, ne China, Korea & Japan and rarely seen in the U.S. despite its zone 3 - 7 hardiness. Prefers full sun on slightly acid well drained soils. It is heat tolerant despite its native range. The species is easy to grow from seed which does not need pretreatment.

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photos



'Umbraculifera' ( Tanyosho Pine )
Hardy north to zone 3 and shaped like an umbrella. The dwarf Tanyosho Pine is somewhat common in gardens, It has reddish attractive bark and is slow growing ( 8 inches a year at most ) and grows to 5 x 7 feet in 7 years, 8 x 15 feet in 10 years; 22 feet in 40 years. The largest trees known reach up to 30 x 38 feet with a trunk diameter of up to 2 feet.
The foliage is deep green.



* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* historic archive photo


Pinus discolor ( Border Pinyon )
A rare large shrub or small tree, reaching up to 15 feet that is native to southeast Arizona, soutwest New Mexico and south into forests of high elevations of the Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet.
The blue-green needles, up to 2.5 inches in length come in bundles of 3s and 4s.
The gray bark is smooth, later becoming scaly.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun on very well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Pinus douglasii ( Douglas Pine )
A timber tree from the mountains of central & western Mexico; it can reach up to 100 feet tall and 26 inches in diameter in 38 years.

Pinus durangensis ( Durango Pine )
Native from northern Chihuahua to the Michoacan Mountains; this Pine has a conical crown becoming broadly rounded with age. It is very fast growing when young reaching to 40 x 20 feet in 20 years and can reach over 100 feet. The largest ever recorded is 133 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet.
Unlike any other Pine; its needles are in bundles of 6. They are dark green and up to 9.5 inches in length.
The cones are red-brown and up to 3 inches in length.
Hardy from zone 8 to 11 and known to survive -10 F

Pinus echinata ( Shortleaf Pine )
Native to central and eastern U.S from Oklahoma and Missouri to Ohio to New York City, south to eastern Texas and northern Florida; it is a tall straight tree usually with a high rounded crown reaching up to 100 feet in height. It is endangered in New York State where it was once more widespread on Long Island. On the best of sites; this tree is very fast growing with records including: 12 years: 50 feet tall with trunk diameter of 8 inches; 20 years: 60 feet in height; 26 years: 63 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 13 inches; largest ever recorded: 150 x 50 feet with trunk diameter of 7.3 feet; longest lived - 324 years. The Shortleaf Pine is an important timber tree in its native range though old growth stands have become practically extinct.
The slightly twisted needles are deep blue-green and up to 4 ( rarely 5 ) inches in length; they can last up to 5 years. The cones are small, oval and red-brown.
The bark is very beautiful, plated and rosey-orange. The wood is important commercially for pulpwood and construction.
Growing well on dry sandy soils ( PH 4 to 6 ); this Pine is very drought tolerant and can form a very deep taproot up to 14 feet deep on an 8 foot tall tree. Because of the taproot large trees are nearly impossible to transplant so either plant from seed or small seedlings. The wait is well worth it for this extremely hardy low maintenance tree.
Sod and brush kills seedlings but if kept free of competition; the Shortleaf Pine can reach up to 4 feet in 5 years.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( possibly 5 and there is evidence that it was native to Michigan before the last Ice Age )

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 3 2012 in Odenton, MD
* photo taken by Alfred R. Liddicoet @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos




* photos taken on Nov 17 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD









Pinus edulis ( Rocky Mountain Pinyon )
Native to dry mountain slopes from the southwest U.S. and into Mexico ( from northeast Nevada to southern Wyoming to western Oklahoma south to central Arizona to El Paso, Texas ); this Pine reaches around 40 feet with a dense, rounded crown. On ideal sites it can grow much larger with the largest ever recorded being 75 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. Slow growing; this Pinyon can reach up to 10 feet in 12 years & 25 feet in 20 years. It can also live up to 1000 years. It is endangered in California, Nevada and Oklahoma. Unprecedented large scale dieoffs of Pinyon woodland has occurred during the 2010s due to global climate change induced drought and alltime record Pine Bark beetle infestation.
The foliage is short, stiff, blue-green to dark green and up to 2.5 inches in length. They persist for 4 to 6 years.
The small cones hold edible nuts that are usually dispersed by birds. The seeds or nuts within the cones of the Pinyons are edible, very nutritious and even hight in phosphorous. The seeds have around 3000 calories per pound, containing 60% fat, 17% carbs and 15% protein. Very little work has been done of produce improved selections of this tree, however in the future, it may become a food crop for dry climates. The seeds can be eaten fresh or roasted 20 minutes.
The bark is irregularly furrowed and silvery.
This extremely tough tree can survive without irrigation anywhere yearly rainfall exceeds 14 inches and is hardy from zone 4 to 9 ( tolerating extremes of -31 F and 111 F. It thrives outside its native range as far east as Chicago in the U.S.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Leland J. Prater @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Pinus eldarica ( Afghan Pine )
Moderate growing, reaching a maximum size of 80 x 30 feet. It is often considered to be a regional variant of P. brutia and is native to hillside forests in the region of the world between the Black and Caspian Seas called Transcaucasia.
The needles are up to 6 inches in length. They are borne in 2 s.
Hardy from zone 5 to 8 tolerant of both extreme heat and drought as well as cold making it an excellent windbreak for harsh climates.

Pinus elliottii ( Slash Pine )
A very fast growing Pine native to the southeast U.S. ( from eastern Texas to South Carolina & south - though now naturalized in coastal North Carolina ) that can reach up to 20 feet in 5 years and 76 feet in height and 13 inches in diameter in 15 years; 107 feet in 36 years. Often with a straight central leader free of branches much of the way up topped with a rounded crown; this Pine can easily reach 100 feet and the largest on record approach 200 feet in height; 60 feet in width and 5 feet in trunk diameter. The Slash Pine can grow 16 inches in the first year; reach lumber size in 30 years and live up to 300 ( rarely over 200 ) years in age.
The shiny deep green needles in 2s or 3s are long up to 12 inches, are dark blue-green and last up to 2 years.
The bark bark is reddish in irregular scaly plates. Often grown in subtropical plantations; this timber tree is valued for its strong, heavy wood.
The wood is important commercially for pulpwood and construction.
Hardy from zone 7 to 11; it can be grown far north of its native range. In fact a tree of 90 feet grows at Virginia Beach. Tolerates as low as -5 F. Flood and drought tolerant but needs acidic soil preferably with PH 4 to 6.4. Moderately salt tolerant.
No cultivers are known other than a form that is rust resistant.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida









* photos taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* historic archive photo



Pinus engelmannii ( Apache Pine )
A tall tree from dry mountain ranges of southern Arizona and New Mexico south into Mexico. It has an open rounded crown and on good sites grows at a moderately fast pace to 50 feet in 15 years & 80 feet in 48 years. It can easily mature over 100 feet as has trees planted far outside its native range in Portland, Oregon. The largest on record is 120 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The drooping needles are very long and dark green; up to 13 or rarely 18 inches in length. The needles are in 3s and sometimes in 5s and last 2 years.
The cones are usually either single or in clusters of 4 and are up to 6 inches in length. The bark is dark brown and deeply furrowed.
A rare, very attractive bold commanding tree that is hardy from zone 7 to 10
It has a deep taproot and prefers deep acidic soils.

* photo taken by George D. Russell @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Pinus flexilis ( Limber Pine )
Native to the Rocky Mountains from Golden, British Columbia and Jasper National Park in Alberta to western North Dakota; south to central California to southern Arizona and New Mexico. It is endangered in North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska. This Pine is usually a vigorous medium size tree that is dense and conical when young becoming open and rounded with age. Often stunted in the wild as it is often growing out of rock on wind blown upper elevations of mountain ranges; on good sites this Pine grows much faster to 60 feet or more. In cultivation it can reach 14 16 feet in 6 years; 31 x 21 feet x 13 inches in 13 years. Trees have already exceeded 60 feet in Iowa, Connecticut and Ohio. The largest Limber Pines ever recorded can reach up to 160 feet in height; 35 feet in width with a massive trunk width of 10 feet. While not as long lived as the Bristlecone Pine; the Limber Pine can still live extremely long to as much as 1700 years! This beautifully rugged tree has become threatened in its native range as large populations are getting wiped out by Blister Rust fungus.
The soft needles are in 5 s, dark green and up to 4.5 inches in length. This tree is related to Pinus strobus - White Pine; however the needles on the Limber Pine are much longer lives - lasting up to 6 years. The cones are yellow-brown.
The trees name comes from the twigs which are very flexible.
Hardy from zone 2 to 7; this tree can tolerate as cold as - 60F. Drought tolerant.
Unfortunately, Limber Pine is afflicted with White Pine Blister Rust, a fungus that was introduced accidentally from Europe. Limber Pine mortality is high in much of its range, except Arizona, where it has not yet been found. There is no known way of controlling the blister rust in existing trees. Research is under way, locating and breeding from the occasional naturally resistant Limber Pine.

* photo taken by G.S. Gorscuh @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by C.A. Kutzleb @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* historical archive photos




'Cesarini Blue'
Fast growing, it is similar to the species except for its intensely powdery-blue foliage.


'Extra Blue'
vigorous with striking blue leaves.

'Pendula'
A fast growing, strongly weeping form, it can either be staked or used as a groundcover.
The foliage is blue-green.

'Vanderwolf' ( Vanderwolf Limber Pine )
One of the most beautiful Pines around, this pine is vigorous, dense and conical when young, opening with age. It grows to 22 x 10 feet in 10 years, 48 feet in 35 years and to an eventual size of 60 feet; however it can live up to 1700 years with much larger potential ( 160 x 35 feet with trunk diameter of 10 feet! ). It is much denser than the related White Pine because its 4.5 inch soft silvery-blue needles can last up to 6 years instead of 2.
It is also equally hardy as the White Pine ( zone 2 to 7, tolorates -60F ) with the additional benefits of being drought resistant and resistant to blister rust.


* photo taken on Aug 3 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Pinus gerardiana ( Afghan Pine )
Native to valleys of the Himalayas; this is a medium-sized conifer. Growing moderately slow to 33 feet in 20 years; it can eventually reach 50 feet and the largest on record is 85 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is endangered in the wild. The Afghan Pine can live up to 300 years.
The needles are stiff, dark green, up to 5 inches in length and last up to 3 years.
The needles are borne in clusters of 3.
The cones are larges and hold up to 200 edible seeds which are up to 0.7 inches in length. The local people eat these and due to heavy collection of its cones in the wild; there is little natural re-generation of this tree.
The bark is silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it thrives in cold semi-arid to continental temperate climates.

Pinus glabra ( Spruce Pine )
Fast growing Southern Pine that is is native from Arkansas to South Carolina and south to the Gulf Coast and northern Florida. Some records include: 10 years - 30 x 15 feet with trunk diameter of 6 inches; Largest on record is 160 x 70 feet with trunk diameter of 5 feet. Conical with horizontal branches; this Pine often resembles Pinus strobus - White Pine in habit. Single year growth increase up to 4 feet has been reported. Due to its shade tolerance, the lower branches persist longer than on most pines on this very attractive conifer.
Needles are dark green and up to 3 ( rarely 4 ) inches in length. They are in pairs, are slender and flexible. They persist 2 to 3 years.
The cones are brown and up to 5 inches in length.
The bark is gray and tightly furrowed resembling that of Oak or Tulip Tree rather than Pine.
Unlike most southern U.S. Pines; the Spruce Pine is somewhat tolerant of shade and grows scattered in moist hardwood forest and bottomlands. Heavy clay tolerant, heat tolerant, temporary flood tolerant and prefers soil PH from 3.8 to 5.6. Hardy from zone 6 to 9 this tree can tolerate as low as -10 F and possibly lower.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014





* historic archive photo


Pinus gordoniana ( Gordons Pine )
With a dense rounded crown; this southwest Mexican native can reach up to 120 feet in height. The needles are in 5s. long and bright green up to 14 inches in length.
The bark is thick and exfoliating orange-red. This Pine is hardy north to zone 9.

Pinus greggii
A Pine native to the Sierra Madre of Mexico that becomes broad dome shaped with age. It is fast growing in cultivation to as much as 86 feet tall and 16 inches in diameter in only 23 years and the largest known is 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The needles are bright green, up to 6 inches in length and last up to 3 years. The cones are up to 6 inches in length and often occur in clusters of up to 8. They stay on the trees for many years until fire ( when the seeds are released - this tree thus colonizing the burnt over cleared land ). The bark is gray. This Pine is drought tolerant and hardy from zone 7 to 10. Has been grown in Italy, Nepal, Argentina, New Zealand and parts of South Africa. Due to its native range being of high elevations this tree prefers cool summers.

Pinus halepensis ( Aleppo Pine )
A spectacular, very fast growing, large twisting Pine native to the Mediterranean often with a flattened top or umbrella shape. Some records include: 6 years - 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches; 20 years - 50 x 10 feet; 41 years - 84 feet; 70 years - trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest on record - 160 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.1 feet. This tree can live up to 200 years.
The often curved and twisted needles, up to 7 inches in length, are borne in pairs. The foliage is glossy bright green.
The bark is deep purple brown with orange in the fissures.
Widely planted in dry climates and is becoming wild in parts of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Alkaline soil, seashore and extremely heat tolerant and hardy from zone 7 to 11 ( tolerating -4 F ). In dry climates it should get a deep soaker watering once monthly however it can survive in climates with as little as 10 inches of yearly rainfall but dry seasons up to 8 months once well established.

* historical archive photo


Pinus hartwegii
A tall extremely attractive Pine with a dome shaped crown that can reach truly massive sizes. It can reach up to 50 feet in 20 years and eventually over 80 feet though the largest on records are up to 150 feet in height and 4.5 feet in trunk diameter. Very long lived; it can live up to 460 years and is suprisingly hardy considering it is native to mountains from Mexico to Guatemala and El Salvador and has reached as large as 92 feet in England. In the wild it is generally found at very high elevations around 14 000 feet and prefers cool summers. It is not known to grow in the Eastern U.S. The needles are long, up to 10 inches and dark green ( in 5s ) and the cones are very dark brown. Hardy from zone 8 to 10 and is known to survive -4 F

Pinus heldreichii ( Bosnian Pine )
A rare native from Bulgaria down the Balkan Peninsula to Greece; this is a large Pine with an open irregular, pyramidal habit. It is moderate growing with up to 50 feet in 20 years being the maximum. Eventual height likely around 80 feet; this Pine also lives to 1300 years. The largest ever recorded is 133 feet in height; 40 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 8 feet!
A notable tree in Bulgaria's Pirin Mountains is 80 feet tall, 7 feet in diameter, and is estimated to be over 1300 years old.
The glossy deep green needles are stiff and sharp, up to 4.5 inches and lasting 5 to 10 years.
The cones up to 3 inches in length occur in clusters of 2 to 4.
The flaking bark is gray.
This Pine is hardier than its native range might suggest. It grows from zone 3 to 9 and is known to survive -50 F and even is somewhat hardy in Alberta's harsh climate. This Pine is an EXCELLENT replacement for disease killed Austrian Pine in the Midwest!!! Salt tolorant and resistant to blight. Grows very well in Chicago.

* photo found on internet of tree in wild

* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


subsp. leucodermis often planted as an ornamental.

'Compact Gem'
Compact, upright and rounded to pyramidal with very long, stiff, deep green needles. Slow growing and never larger than 11 x 6.5 feet and only reaching 4 x 3 feet in 10 years.

'Green Bun'
Dense broadly-upright and dwarf in habit, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet in 10 years. The deep green needles are up to 4 inches in length.

'Pygmy'
Very slow growing, rounded and dense to 1 foot tall and wide in 10 years and eventually to 3.5 x 3.5 feet.

'Satellite'
A moderate growing, narrow-columnar form, reaching up to 15 feet in 20 years. It typically grows 1 foot per year. It is great for use as a screen in tight spaces.
The dense foliage is deep green.

'Smidtii'
A compact dwarf with rich bright green needles, reaching up to 3 x 3 ( usually half that ) feet in 10 years, up to 10 x 10 feet in over 100 years. Large brown buds tip the stems.

Pinus henryi ( Henry Pine )
Similar to Pinus resinosa ( Red Pine ); this Pine is native to mountains of central China. It is fast growing ( to around 2.5 feet in a year ) and can grow to 100 feet. It has suffered severe declines due to habitat destruction over the past 100 years and is now endangered with extinction.
The needles, up to 7 inches in length, are borne in 2s. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
Hardy zones 7 to 8 ( seed source from Shaanxi likely hardy to zone 6 ), it makes a great choice for the Mid Atlantic region.

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2009

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* excellent photo link
http://www.arkive.org/pinus/pinus-henryi/

Pinus x holfordiana ( Holdford's Pine )
A large open broadly conical Pine with the potential of reaching a maximum size of 200 x 60 feet. It is the hybrid of Pinus ayachuite & P. wallichiana.
Very fast growing; it grows at a rate up to 40 inches per year and can reach up to 50 feet in 20 years.
The slender, soft drooping needles are blue-green and flexible and up to 8 inches in length. The needles are in clusters of 5. The cones are pendant to 12 inches in length.
Hardy from zones 6 to 9; the Holford's Pine needs well drained soil but is tolerant of drought and coastal conditions.

Pinus hwangshanensis ( Lutch Pine )
Native to eastern China and very similar to Pinus thunbergii ( Japanese Black Pine ).
It is fast growing ( around 2.5 feet in a year ) and can reach 20 x 12 feet in 10 years. Eventually to 80 feet; the largest on record is 170 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. The paired needles are long and bright green to 7 inches. The cones are only 2 inches long.
Grows well in northern Virginia. Hardy from zone 6 to 10.

Pinus insularis
A fast growing tropical timber Pine native from Phillipines to Vietnam. It is now endangered in the wild. Hardy to zone 10 it is only adapted to south Florida in the U.S. Known to grow as fast as 60 feet with trunk diameter of 1 foot in 14 years; 74 feet with trunk diameter of 15 inches in 20 years; 104 feet with trunk diameter of 21 inches in 30 years. The largest on record is 151 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet.

Pinus jaliscana ( Jalisca Pine )
A subtropical Mexican Pine native to the mountains around Puerto Vallarta. Endangered. Largest tree known is 120 feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter. Likely hardiness is zone 10. Little else is known about this tree.

Pinus jeffreyi ( Jeffrey Pine )
Native to mountains of Oregon and California; this Pine is a very tall relative of the Ponderosa Pine. It is fast growing and has been recorded on ideal sites at: 50 feet in 20 years; 60 feet with trunk diameter of 2.2 feet in 30 years. The record growth rate is 4 feet. At maturity it can reach 100 feet or more and also live extremely long to 670 years. The largest on record is 300 feet in height; 90 feet in width and 12 feet in trunk diameter. Such massive trees rarely still remain in the wild. Even in the East this tree can grow large and has already reached 90 feet in the New Jersey Botanic Gardens. The trunk is straight and the conical to oval crown is irregular in outline. A very important timber tree being used for housing construction, cabinets, doors and windows.
The bluish pointed needles are long up to 12 inches and last 4 to 9 years.
The large, red-orange cones reach up to 16 inches.
The plated bark is similar to that of the Ponderosa Pine but is more purplish with a vanilla small.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and is reported to survive - 50 F ( far colder than ever occurs in its native range ). It thrives at Dominion Arboretum ( zone 4b ) in Ottawa, Canada.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON



* photo taken by L.A. Barrett @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by O.M. Evans @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* historical archive photos








* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library







'Gold'
Fast growing and very large; with bright green needles that turn orange-yellow during winter.

Pinus johannis ( Dwarf Pinon )
A low, rounded, spreading, coniferous tree, reaching a maximum height of 30 feet, that is native to high mountains of western Coahuila, Nuevo León and Zacatecas in Mexico. In less than ideal conditions, it is often reduced to shrub stature. Rare in the wild and in cultivation, it can be found in California at University of California Davis Arboretum.
The very attractive foliage is blue-green. The needles are up to 2 inches in length.
The attractive bark is flaking.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( possibly 6b )

Pinus kesiya
A fast growing conifer native to southern China and northern Vietnam growing in wet to high altitude tropical areas. It is threatened in the wild but also makes an excellent tree for both landscape and forestry use. Fast growing to 70 feet tall with trunk diameter of 14 inches in 20 years and 83 feet tall with trunk diameter of 1.5 feet in 32 years; the largest trees recorded reach 180 feet in height and up to 5 feet in diameter. Older trees have ascenting branches and a somewhat open canopy.
This gigantic Pine also has long gray-green needles to 10 inches in length and light brown cones to 3 inches in length. The bark is thick, dark brown and deeple furrowed. Hardy from zone 9 to 12

Pinus koraiensis ( Korean Pine )
Growing wild from Siberia to southeast China, Korea and central Japan; this disease resistant ( not prone to Blister Rust ) relative of the White Pine is an excellent ornamental tree and very east to grow. Few nurseries carry it in the U.S. all the while often selling inferior disease prone pine such as the Austrian Pine. Growing somewhat slower than the White Pine, up to 33 x 10 feet in 20 years, however this tree can live for a very long time, however growth rates of 3 feet have been reported. Eventually with great age it can reach up to 170 x 55 x 11 feet! In North America some have already grown large and one of 80 x 35 feet grows in Chicago.It is also much denser than the related White Pine due to the up to 5 inch inch needles lasting to 5 years instead of 2.
The very attractive soft needles are dark glossy green even in winter, except for the variety 'Morton' which has extremely silvery-blue foliage.
The short stalked cones are heavy and up to 4.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. It is extremely hardy surviving temperatures down to -60 F, and is one of the best pines for the northern Midwest while also growing well in the Mid Atlantic region. This tree is very adaptable to different sites and conditions. Deer resistant.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photos



'Anna'
Reaches up to 15 x 10 feet in 10 years; eventually densely broad, upright-oval, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 15 feet.
The twisted, glossy blue-green needles are up to 6 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 4

'Morris Blue'
A fast growing, upright, pyramidal large tree, with shimmering, glossy powdery-blue foliage. This spectacular tree originated at the Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia, PA.
Hardy at least north to zone 3.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Rowe'
Dwarf, upright and narrow, reaching up to 8 x 4 feet in 10 years; eventually reaching up to 20 x 8 feet.
The foliage is bright green.

'Tabuliformis'
Fast growing and broadly-pyramidal, reaching an average of 10 x 5 feet in 10 years; eventually double that.
The long needles are bright blue-green.

Pinus krempfii
A huge Pine ( record is 190 feet in height with diameter of 6.6 feet ) that is buttressed with a broad domed crown and many large branches. The bark is silver gray. The unusual flat needles are up to 3 inches long. Unusually shade tolorant and native to the evergreen monsoon forests of the Vietnam mountains. Extremely endangered. Hardiness is unknown but it should be tested in cultivation.

Pinus kwangtungensis ( Kwangtung Pine )
Also called Pinus fenzeliana or Fenzel's White Pine. Native to mountain ridges in southeast China; this Pine is endangered. It is very long lived up to 400 years and grows very large, up to 170 feet in height; 35 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 5 feet being recorded. Average mature height is probably around 80 feet. The Guangdon Pine is very fast growing, up to 2 feet per year, averaging 14 x 6 feet in 10 years. This very attractive pine resembles the more common Vanderwolf Limber Pine in appearance.
The soft, blue-green needles are up to 5 inches in length. They are borne in 5s and very densely clothe the stems.
It bears abundant cones up to 6 inches in length.
Hardy from zone 5 to 7 in full sun. It is soil tolerant but moderately prone to Blister Rust. It has great potential as a landscape tree, thriving in the Pacific Northwest and eastern North Americ as well as much of Europe.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


var fenzeliana ( Fenzel's White Pine )
Also called Pinus fenzeliana and Hainan White Pine.
A medium-sized tree, reaching up to 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet, that is native to the island of Hainan off of southern China.
The soft needles, up to 5 inches in length, are blue-green.
The cones are up to 4.5 inches in length.
Native to subtropical rainforest, it would thrive in parts of the southeastern U.S. including Florida.
var wangii Also called Pinus wangii. A large tree, reaching up to 70 feet, that is native to limestone ridges southeast Yunnan Province of China and neighboring parts of Vietnam ( now extinct in Vietnam ). It is critically endangered with extinction.


* photo of unknown internet source


Pinus lambertiana ( Sugar Pine )
An extremely tall, stately Pine reaching up to 60 feet in 20 years; 82 feet in 40 years; 110 feet in 60 years and eventually up to 200 feet. In fact the tallest Sugar Pines rival the Douglas Fir and have reached as much as 330 feet; 70 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 20 feet! The crown is narrow and irregular. The record growth rate is 4 feet. This Pine can live up to 800 years and also grows very vigorously in England ( already reach 95 feet ). A large tree has reached nearly 100 feet on Landover Road in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. It does not grow well in the hot humid summers of the southeast U.S. It is native to mountain ranges from Oregon to the Baja Peninsula in the west and is also very valuable for its timber though now very rare.
The needles are stiff, bluish, in 5s, up to 6 inches and unlike the related Pinus strobus ( White Pine ) - they are sharp.
The cones are among the largest of all Pines and reach up to 20 inches. The seeds in the cones are edible.
The bark is pale brown. The wood is valuable for lumber but not for firewood. It gives off only around 13 million BTU per cord. The fine softwood is used for construction, paneling and cabinetmaking.
Drought tolerant but prefers 40 inches of yearly rainfall or more. Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and can tolerate as low as - 28 F. Sugar Pine thrives in much of northern Germany and surrounding region but only in a few isolated parts of the eastern U.S. where summers aren't too hot and humid. The Sugar Pine is rust resistant when hybridized with Pinus armandii. 60 feet tall in Boston, Massachussets. A large proportion of the wild trees in the western U.S. have been wiped out by the Blister Rust disease however some wild trees do appear to be resistant and are now being bred to restock the native popultations of what naturalist John Muir called "The King of the Pines".

* photo taken by Fred E. Dunham @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Ray M. Filloon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Robert Overstreet @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database



* historical archive photos












* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library





Pinus lawsonii ( Lawson Pine )
Another fast growing subtropical Pine native to southwest Mexico. Known to reach up to 115 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet in only 40 years ( which may also be its maximum height ); it has blue-green foliage in 5s, to 9 inches long. Hardy north to zone 9.

Pinus leiophylla ( Chihuahua Pine )
A native to mountains of southern Arizona and New Mexico & Mexico; often in rocky or sandy soils. On ideal sites in cultivation this Pine becomes very fast growing: 30 x 27 feet in 10 years; 74 feet with trunk diameter of 1 foot in 20 years; 90 feet with trunk diamter of 1.5 feet in 30 years; 106 feet with trunk diameter of 22 inches in 38 years. The largest recorded is 160 feet in height; 32 feet in width and 4 feet in trunk diameter. The crown is narrow and irregular.
The needles are gray-green, up to 7 inches in length, in bundles of 3 or 5 and lasting 2 to 4 years. The cones are often in pairs and up to 2.5 inches. The bark is dark red-brown, scaly and ridged with deep fissured.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. Unlike most Pines; the Chihuahua Pine will regrow from a stump if cut.

* photo taken by Robert C. Salton @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Pinus lumholtzii
A very attractive Pine native to northwest Mexico. It can reach up to 82 feet tall with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet in only 35 years.
Its needles are long and weeping, in 4s and reach up to 15 inches.
Hardy north to zone 8.

Pinus lutchuensis ( Ryukyu Island Pine )
Similar to Pinus taiwanensis and can grow to 180 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. Fast growing up to 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot in 17 years. It is moderately long-lived, surviving up to 300 years.
The needles are dark green, in 2 s, up to 8 inches in length and last up to 4 years.
Hardy north to zone 6 and native to Okinawa.

Pinus massoniana ( Chinese Red Pine )
A fast growing tall tree that is native to southeast China and Taiwan and grown in plantations in southern China. Some records include: 7 years - 23 x 17 feet; 30 years - 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; 48 years - 125 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 150 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The needles, up to 8 inches in length, are borne in 2 s or rarely 3 s. The foliage is deep green.
The cones are oblong up to 2.5 inches.
The grayish brown bark is fissured into large rectangular blocks. Hardy from zone 7 to 9 and can tolorate 0F. Not well known in the U.S. but appears to do well at Jackson, Georgia. Almost extinct in native range due to introduced Pine Wood Nematode.

* historic archive photo


Pinus maximartinezii ( Martinez Pinyon )
A very attractive ornamental Pine with attractive steel blue to deep blue-green needles in 5s and up to 5 ( rarely 9 ) inches long. Slow growing up to 8 x 7 feet in 10 years; it can eventually reach 35 feet. The largest on record is only 55 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
Native to the high mountains in Mexico and endangered in wild. It can be found in the U.S. at University of California Davis Arboretum.

Pinus merkusii ( Sumatran Pine )
Very fast growing after the first 5 years this subtropical Pine can reach up to 83 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches in 20 years and is known to even reach 235 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 5 feet with age. The needles are in 2s, dark green and up to 12 inches long. Bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base becoming scaly towards the tree top.

Heat and drought tolorant and hardy north to zone 9. This Pine is native to southeast Asia including the Phillipines & China.

Pinus michoacana
Native to Mexico; this fast growing forestry Pine can be grown alot further north. It also has attractive foliage up to 20 inches long. Can reach: 70 feet tall with 12 inch diameter in 13 years; 101 feet tall with diameter of 2 feet in 42 years and the largest recorded is 120 feet tall and 3.5 feet in trunk diameter.
This Pine is hardy to 6 F.

Pinus monophylla ( Single-Leaf Pinyon )
A medium size conifer native to semi arid country in parts of Nevada, Arizona, Utah & California; south to Mexico and into Baja. Usually multi stemmed and rounded; this Pine is moderate growing 23 feet in 20 years and eventually to 40 feet though some have grown much larger on excellent sites. The largest it is capable of reaching with extreme age is 100 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 fee; it can also live up to 1000 years.
Typical growth rates on good sites is 8 inches in a year.
The needles are single ( unusual for Pines ), stiff, gray-green, curved and up to 3 inches long. They last up to 10 years. The cones are small and hold edible nuts.
Difficult to transplant but tolerant of clay; the Singleleaf Pinyon does grow well in England. It grows best in areas with 22 inches of rain or more in a year. Hardy from zone 3 to 9

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos




* photo taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos





* photos taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library




Pinus montezumae ( Montezuma Pine )
A large tree native to southern Mexico and Guatemala. It is very fast growing and can reach up to 63 x 17 feet in 20 years; and 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 4 feet in 75 years. The largest tree recorded is 150 feet in height; 50 feet in width with trunk diameter up to 6 feet. The Montezuma Pine is dense and conical when young and becomes spreading with age. The long, blue green needles are pendulous and reach up to 18 inches. The cones are light brown and up to 6 inches in length. Hardy well north of native range from zone 6 to 11, thriving on the West Coast of North America, north into Vancouver Island. Grows well in New Zealand at low elevations. Also great for forestry at high elevations in Bolivia.

* historical archive photo




Pinus monticola ( Western White Pine )
A large tree with a conical narrow crown and a very solid striaght main trunk. This Pine is fast growing and has been known to 60 feet in 20 years; 120 feet with trunk diameter of 2 feet in 50 years and eventually to 180 feet. The largest trees recorded have been logged out of the Pacific Northwest long ago but were up to 300 feet in height; 50 feet in width with diameters up to 11 feet. This tree can live up to 500 years and has been known to already reach 100 feet in England & New York State in the east. A large tree grows in Pennsylvania at Westtown School in Westtown near Philly.
This tree is closely related to Pinus strobus except with denser foliage because the needles last longer ( up to 4 years ) and reach up to 4 or more rarely 6 inches in length.
The cones are narrow and up to 12 inches long.
West of the Cascades 90% of the Western White Pine has been wiped out in little more than a century; alot of it from the accidently introduced Blister Rust ( a fungus accidently introduced from Europe that needs both the White Pine and the host plant currents to survive on ). It is native from Vancouver Island to near Jasper National Park, Alberta, south to California and east to Montana. The wood is valuable for lumber but not for firewood. It gives off only around 13 million BTU per cord. The fine softwood is used for construction, paneling and cabinetmaking.
Hardy from zone 2 to 8 and can tolorate as low as -4o F.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Weldon Heald @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by K.D. Swan @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos







'Idaho'
A clone from Moscow Arboretum in Idaho that is resistant to Blister Rust.

Pinus morrisonicola 'fenzeliana' ( Taiwan White Pine )
A moderate growing large tree sometimes reaching as large as 170 feet in height with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. The needles are in 5s and up to 5 inches long. The bark is brown. It is an endangered native of China & Vietnam.

Pinus mugo ( Mugo Pine )
A very common shrub pine. It is native to the mountains of central Europe eastward to China. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 ( rarely over 1 ) feet; 20 years - 20 x 17 feet; 30 years - 20 x 28 feet. Regular species P. mugo outgrows many of the sites it is planted in ( shearing new growth candles in spring can keep it more dwarf if done before the needles expand ). However no worries, there are many cultivars that stay small.
The crowded, sharp-tipped, needles, up to 3.3 inches in length, are borne in 2s. The foliage is deep green.
The scaly bark is dark gray.
Hardy from zone 1 to 8 - tolerating temperatures colder than -50 F but not really liking hot summers where it can be prone to diplodia blight. Preferring sun in the north, in the Mid Atlantic it should have some shade and not be exposed to heat reflected off asphalt. It needs well drained soil however is tolerant of both limestone and acid soil. It is sometimes planted for erosion control on sand dunes. In trials at Indian Head, Saskatchewan and Brandon, Manitoba; it thrived only on sites protected from sweeping winds. The species is easy to grow from seed, which does not need pretreatment.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on Aug 3 @ University of Western Ontario, London ON

* photo taken on Apr 4 2013 in Luzerne Co., PA

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook


* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON




* historical archive photos






'Ambergold'
A dense, low, spreading shrub, reaching up to 1 x 3 feet in 10 years, eventually larger. The foliage is deep green turning to bright yellow during winter.

'Aurea'
Reaches up to 4 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 10 x 10 feet, with twisted yellow foliage that turns bright green during summer then back to yellow in fall and winter.

'Big Tuna'
A fast growing Mugo, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually much larger.
The densely-arranged, long needles are blue-green.

* photos taken on June 18 2015 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on July 12 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Corleys Mat'
Very low and mat forming, reaching up to 1 x 4 feet in 10 years and eventually to 2 x 17 feet with great age. It is slow growing, up to 3 inches per year.
The needles which are long for a Mugo, are deep green.

'Columnar'
Forms a very tight, narrow, upright column, reaching up to 3 feet x 8 inches in 10 years and reaching a height of 15 feet with great age.
The foliage is deep green.

'Gnom'
dense globular mound with black-green crowded needles and white new shoots. 32 x 32 inches in 10 years, eventually 12 x 17 feet in like 100 years.

'Jacobsen'
Dwarf, flat and spreading with somewhat contorted stems, it can reach up to 1 x 3 feet in 10 years. The blackish-green foliage thickly clothe the stems.
This cultivar looks spectacular combined with white marble stone mulch.

'Mops'
dense and globular and lush green. Only 2 x 5 feet at most in 10 years, may reach 6 x 17 feet but would probably take 100 years to do so.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Slowmound'
Similar to 'Gnom', it is dense, rounded and compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet.
The densely-arranged needles, up to 1 inch in length, are deep green even during winter.

'Pumilio'
Low growing but is not a true dwarf. It is dense and domed in habit, reaching up to 6 x 10 feet in 10 years; 8 x 14 feet in 25 years.
* photo taken on July 12 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

The foliage is deep green, turning to yellowish-green during winter.


'Tannenbaum'
A moderate growing, dense, very symmetrical, broad-conical tree that really doesn't even look like a Mugo. It can reach up to 20 feet tall in 20 years and possibly even 120 feet with great age. This is the Mugo on steroids, however still much more refined than the Red Pine or Austrian Pine
The foliage is deep green.
It is very salt tolerant.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Wash., DC


Pinus muricata ( Bishop Pine )
A rare native of coastal California and Mexico often growing stunted in less than ideal locations. In cultivation it becomes a stately and fast growing Pine, reaching up to 100 feet or more. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 7 feet; 5 years - 20 feet; 10 years - 33 x 20 feet in 10 years ( New Zealand ); 18 years - 63 feet; 29 years - 85 feet with diameter of 15 inches; 180 years - 140 feet; largest on record - 150 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. The crown is open and rounded or sometimes flat topped.
The deep green needles, up to 7 inches in length, last up to 3 years. Some more southerly clones are bluish in color. The cones stay on the trees for decades and are shiny red-brown.
The bark is also red-brown to dark purple-brown, scaly and ridged.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10 and grows well with yearly rainfall from 26 to 44 inches. An excellent shade tree that is very salt and flood tolerant and prefers a soil PH of 5.5 to 7.

* historical archive photos




* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Pinus nelsonii ( Nelson Pine )
A moderate growing Pine that is threatened in its native habitat of northeast Mexico. It only grows to 17 feet in 20 years and eventually 33 feet at most with a diameter of 8 inches. It often remains a shrub. The needles are green to 3 inches. It is hardy north to zone 9.
A very beautiful tree as an ornamental. Very drought tolerant.

Pinus nigra ( Austrian Pine )
A variable species native to southern Europe, especially near the Mediterannean & Black Seas. On ideal sites it becomes a tall straight-trunked tree with a rounded crown. The trunk is silvery gray. It can grow to 70 feet in 20 years and eventually over 100 feet. Old growth stands of gigantic trees are known to occur with trees up to 200 feet in height; 40 feet in width with diameters up to 7.5 feet. In its natural range, it is known to survive as long as 1034 years. In cultivation in North America I have seen a few large trees however it is very often short lived and ridden with disease. There are many better trees and in the Mid Atlantic and South; the similar looking native Loblolly Pine is a much better choice as is the Red Pine for the north and the Bosnian Pine in the Midwest. Austrian Pines in the U.S. often die out either rapidly or in a slow miserable death from Diplodia Blight and from Pine Wilt Disease caused by Nematodes followed by the deadly blue-stain fungus. It is not safe to plant the Austrian Pine in areas the average summer temperatures exceed 68 F ( 20 C ) in either the U.S. or southern Ontario due to the prevalence of this fungus.
The dense, dark green needles are stiff, up to 7 inches long and are borne in 2 s. They can persist anywhere from 4 to 8 years.
The cones are light brown and glossy.
The silky-white buds are up to an inch in length.
Mature trees have unique looking bark consisting of wide, pale gray-yellow ridges.
The Austrian Pine is an important timber tree in Europe.
Hardy from zone 2 to 7; this tree will thrive with an annual rainfall above 20 inches.

* photo taken on April 22 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on June 10 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario



* photo taken on August 5 2010 in Clinton, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD




* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on Nov 28 2015 in Harrisburg, PA



* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos







'Arnold Sentinel'
An upright, columnar form, reaching up to 10 x 1 feet in 10 years, eventually somewhat more.
The very long needles are luxuriant mid-green.
Tie up during winter to prevent damage from heavy snow or ice.

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Bosnia'
Improved form and more disease resistant in the U.S.

'Hornibrookiana'
A broad, conical, dwarf shrub form, reaching only 6 x 4 feet in 10 years; eventually to 20 x 17 feet. Slow growing ( up to 6 inches per year ) and spreading with lush dark green foliage.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


var laricio ( Corsican Pine )

* historic archive photos










Pinus oaxacana
Native to the mountains from southeast Mexico to the Honduras. This Pine forms a tall tree to 170 feet tall and 5 feet in trunk diameter.
The foliage is very beautiful, long, drooping, soft green, in groups of 5 and up to 12 inches long.
The cones are ovoid, dark brown and up to 6 inches long.
The bark is pale brown, thick and fissured.
Hardy from zone 8 to 11

Pinus occidentalis ( Hispanolian Pine )
A moderate growing Pine native to forests in high elevations in Hispanola and east Cuba; it is known to grow to as much as 200 feet with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. The canopy is usually narrow.
The dark green needles are long, in 3s or 5s up to 10 inches in length.
Hardy in zone 10 ( in U.S. only s Florida )

Pinus oocarpa
A fast growing Pine native to high mountains in Mexico. It can grow 50 feet in 10 years; 92 feet with trunk diameter of 14 inches in 21 years and is known to reach as large as 170 feet in height; 61 feet in width and 5 feet in trunk diameter.
The needles are medium green, in 5s and to 12 inches long.
The bark is medium gray and rough.
Hardy north to zone 8; this Pine is known to regrow from roots if cut ( unusual for Pines ). This Pine only thrives in regions with 1 meter ( 40 inches ) or more rainfall in a year. Recommended for planting for timber for the paper industry at high elevations of Bolivia, Columbia & Ecuador.

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