Monday, January 18, 2016

The Oaks - part 1

The most important forest tree in the U.S. and also my favorite tree; the Oaks are also incredibly useful in the landscape and come in many forms and sizes. There is an Oak for the landscape for every part of the U.S. except Alaska.
I tried to include all the Oaks growing in temperate climates...there are also a massive number of Oaks native to mountain forests of Mexico. Some of these also thrive in cool maritime climates with mild winters such as warmer parts of the British Isles which actually mimic cloud forest habitats. I highly recommend checking out this external website about the Oaks which grow in the largest collection of these trees in the world ( http://www.oaksofchevithornebarton.com ).

* photo of unknown internet source


* Oaks in central Texas


Many Oaks are both fast growing and an investment that will last for many centuries. The wood is also extremely valuable for furniture and paneling. Never use insecticides, fungicides or bactericides near an Oak. Root disturbance such as regrading or ditch digging can kill. 1 inch of fill during regrading can kill an Oak by suffocating the roots. Drip irrigation is not recommended. Water more than once a week can cause chlorosis or kill. Roundup on weeds surrounding an Oak is ok. The fact that Oaks like to be left alone may also be one of the highest qualities. They withstand drought and bad soil better than almost any other tree and on good sites can be very fast growing and extremely long lived. They add permanence to the landscape.
Prune while dormant. Some early pruning may be needed to establish a strong trunk.
Do NOT throw away old Oak leaves, they make excellent soil amendments and mulch ( only slightly acidifies soil contrary to what many believe ). You can easily shred them by letting them dry on the lawn then repeatedly running them over with the lawn mower.
Here are a few of the many types of Oaks that make awesome landscape plants.

Oak, Affinis ( Quercus affinis )
A moderate growing, dense, rounded, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is native to mountains of northeast Mexico. Some records include: 8 years - 37 feet.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 x 1.2 inches in size. The foliage is pinkish to bronze at first, turning to very glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, it thrives in milder parts of Texas and the southeastern U.S.

Oak, Aleppo ( Quercus infectoria )
Native to Greece and Turkey; this is a semi-evergreen small tree, reaching up to 33 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The spiny-toothed, oblong leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are smooth and glossy deep blue-green.
The bark is gray, scaly and deeply fissured.
Hardy from zone 6 to 10. Extremely heat tolerant, it grows much slower in the cooler summers of the British Isles.

subsp. veneris
Basically the same "on steroids". From Asia Minor; it has larger leaves to 5 x 3 inches. Reaching up to 50 feet; the largest trees known reach up to
66 x 120 feet with trunk diameters of 7 feet! Not native to England but adaptable and is known to reach 60 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter. Not much known on growth rate and it should be tested in the U.S.

Oak, Algerian ( Quercus canariensis )
A huge deciduous tree native to southern Portugal, Spain and northern Africa. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 13 feet; 6 years - 18 feet; 9 years - 22 feet; 20 years - 50 x 27 feet; 30 years- 75 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; 110 years - 120 x 120 feet; 119 years - trunk diameter of 6.6 feet; largest on record - 135 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. It is long-lived, persisting up to 300 years.
The shallowly-toothed, oval large leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches in size, are deep green above, whitish beneath. The leaves are often green until Christmas then turn yellow-brown and often last even until February.
The flowers borne during late spring are drooping yellow-green catkins.
The dark gray bark is deeply-fissured into square rough plates.
It is hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolerates to -4 F ) eliminating its use in the north east and Midwestern U.S. Great in the South! It is both heat and drought tolerant and succeeds equally well on both heavy clay and shallow limey or chalk soil.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


Oak, Arizona ( Quercus arizonica )
Native to the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico south into central Mexico; this tough Oak becomes a large tree on good sites reaching up to 50 feet though a few much larger trees occur such as in Tonto National Forest in Arizona. The largest trees ever recorded reach up to 100 x 80 feet and 7 feet in trunk diameter. The canopy is rounded and the bark is plated.
The semi-evergreen foliage is broadly oval to 4 x 2 inches with smooth or spiny tipped margins. The leaves are glossy deep blue-green above and fuzzy, pale yellow-gray below.
The acorns are medium size up to an inch and mature in one season.
Hardy north to zone 6

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Oak, Arkansas ( Quercus arkansana )
A moderate growing, large tree, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from Arkansas, n Alabama and into central Georgia; south to the Gulf Coast ) where it is rare. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 100 x 110 ( rarely over 82 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 4.2 feet. It is a beautiful shade tree that should be much more widely used.
The leaves, up to 6 x 4 inches, are shaped like the Blackjack or Water Oak being smooth-edged to shallowly lobed. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep green above, red-brown and covered with fine hairs beneath.
The fissured bark is very dark.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -22 F ) and is clay, heat tolerant and exceptionally drought tolerant. It is hardy north into the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest and has already reached sizes over 55 feet in England.

Oak, Armenian ( Quercus pontica )
A handsome, slow growing, small tree, that is native to Armenia and the Caucasus where it is rare. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 1.5 feet; 9 years - 8 feet; 20 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 40 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is a great Oak for the smaller garden.
The large, leathery, oval to obovate, semi-evergreen leaves are strikingly beautiful and are strongly ribbed and toothed. They reach up to 14 x 6 ( rarely over 10 x 5 ) inches and are bright green during spring, turning to glossy deep green above, blue-green beneath, with a yellow leafstalk and midrib. During autumn the foliage turns intense rich yellow to deep red.
The purple-brown thin scaly bark becomes rugged with age.
Hardy from zone 5 to 9; it is hardy even in the Ukraine. Recommended for use in eastern U.S. and Canada.

* photo of unknown internet source


Oak, Armenian ( Quercus hartwessiana )
A very fast growing, large tree, reaching a maximum height of 120 feet, that is native to from eastern Bulgaria to Turkey; east to the Caucasus.
It is closely related to Quercus petraea but the foliage more closely resembles that of Quercus bicolor ( Swamp White Oak ) of North America with up to 12 shallow lobes on each side. The obovate leaves, up to 8 x 4 inches, are glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is very flood tolerant and also tolerant of shade.

Oak, Aucheri( Quercus aucheri )
A small, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 33 feet, that is native to Greece and southwest Turkey. It is an excellent patio tree where adapted.
The oblong leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are deep green above, white beneath.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 preferring warm dry climates.

Oak, Banj ( Quercus leucotrichophora )
A moderate growing, massive evergreen Oak native to the Himalayas ( from Afghanistan to northeast Pakistan and Nepal...not found in China ). It is endangered in the wild due to severe deforestation and climate change. It can reach a maximum size of 120 x 80 feet with trunk diameters of 10 feet having been recorded, though averaging 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet when mature. Some records include: 32 years - 57 feet; 80 years- 104 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Very rare in the U.S., it holds excellent potential as a street and shade tree.
The leathery, toothed, oblong leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are shaped like that of the native Chinkapin Oak. The very attractive foliage is mid-green above, bright silvery-white beneath. Quercus lanata is similar and closely related except with foliage that is rusty-brown beneath.
The bark is smooth and light tan brown becoming lightly furrowed.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It requires a moist climate with average yearly rainfall exceeding 40 inches and where summers aren't excessively hot.

Oak, Bartram's ( Quercus x heterophylla )
A huge tree which is a vigorous hybrid between Quercus phellos & Q. rubra.
It is fast growing, averaging about 30 feet in 15 years, and reaching over 100 feet.
The leaves are up to 6 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it thrives where summers are hot and humid but is also tolerant of cooler summers and has reached 72 feet in Dublin, Ireland.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA



Oak, Bear ( Quercus ilicifolia )
A moderate growing, spreading, rounded, deciduous small tree to 20 feet, that is native to the northeast U.S. ( from Niagara region to Belleville, Ontario to far northern New York State to northern Vermont / New Hampshire & Maine, south to North Carolina mountains to northern Delaware ). It is endangered in Ontario, New Hampshire, Delaware and North Carolina. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 21 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 50 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet. One of the largest grows in Romney, West Virginia. It is found in the wild in most of Pennsylvania and occupies all of New Jersey, CT, RI & Mass. often on sand dunes and rock outcrops. Bear Oak is known to regrow after fire and is often scrubby in rocky mountainous areas. The Bear Oak unlike most Oaks can sucker and form thickets. A 200 year old clone in France planted from an acorn now covers several acres.
The oval leaves, up to 6 x 3.5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are oval, deeply 3 - 7 ( usually 5 ) wide-lobed. The foliage is pinkish at first, turning to glossy deep green above and felted white beneath. The leaves turn to red during autumn and persist until early winter.
The branches are slender and the bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on fertile well drained soil.

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Quercus × bebbiana ( Bebb Oak )
A hybrid between Quercus alba and Q. macrocarpa.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Oak, Black ( Quercus velutina )
A moderate to fast growing, large deciduous tree, often exceeding 100 feet, with a massive domed crown with slightly ascending branches. It is native to eastern North America ( from Iowa & southeast Minnesota to central Michigan to Grand Bend, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario to southern Maine, south to eastern Texas to central Georgia ). It was abundant in southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 8 ( rarely over 3 ) feet; largest on record - 200 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet.
Some extremely large trees grow in Algonac, Michigan and E. Granby, Connecticut.
Some additional records include: 23 years - 37 feet; 80 years - 75 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest in England - 90 feet. Long-lived, it can live up to 300 years.
The large leaves are hard, deeply but irregularly bristle-tip lobed, drooping, glossy deep green above and paler downy beneath. The leaves can be up to 12 x 6 inches in size but usually around 8 x 5 inches. They turn to orange and often red during autumn. The young shoots and buds are downy. The flowers grow in yellow-green catkins up to 6 inches in spring and are followed in fall by small acorns up to 1 inch.
The twigs are drab brown with large, pointed, silvery buds.
The dark gray bark is smooth when young becoming deeply fissured into small squares.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( tolerating -45 F ) growing best on deep, acid, well drained sandy soil. The Black Oak is salt, high heat and drought tolorant but is difficult to transplant due to its deep taproot. If it can be established on site; it is an excellent large shade and street tree. It hates compaction and alkaline soil where the foliage will turn yellow from chlorosis.


* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on July 1 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photo taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by E.R. Jackson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Databasebr />
* photos taken on Nov 10 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD





* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Sep 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on July 18 2016 in Grand Bend, ON

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Dec 3 2016 in Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on Feb 7 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historic archive photos


'Albertii'
Very large leaves, up to 16 x 10 inches. It is otherwise similar.

* photo taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD


Oak, Blackjack ( Quercus marilandica )
A moderate growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree, averaging 50 feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from southeast Nebraska to central Illinois to far southeast Michigan to Pennsylvania and New Jersey; south to central Texas to northern Florida ). It is known to have occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore at Cedar Point during the 1800s. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 80 ( reports of 120 ) feet with a trunk diameter up to 4.5 feet. It is long-lived, persisting up to 430 years. It is known to have reach as much as 60 feet in the British Isles. Blackjack Oak is endangered in Nebraska and Ohio. In Maryland; it is most common on the serpentine rock formation at Soldiers Delight Environmental Area in Owings Mills near Baltimore. There is forms near pure stands. Most of those trees are somewhat stunted, however the dry, shallow rocky soil eliminated most other trees that would compete with it.
The upside down triangular broad leaves are with 3 lobes near the tips. The leaves, up to 12 x 12 ( usually half that ) inches in size, are glossy deep green above, rusty hairy below. The thick foliage turns drab to bright-red during late autumn.
The acorns are oval and up to 0.7 inches.
The bark is thick and dark gray cracking into small square plates.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9 preferring sandy, acidic, well drained soils. It is very drought, heat and salt tolerant. Difficult to transplant due to deep taproot. Its extreme heat tolerance makes it ideal for use in commercial areas and parking lot islands.

* photos taken on June 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Oak, Blue ( Quercus douglasii )
A large California native that is not prone to Sudden Oak Death ( however there are conflicting reports saying it is prone though less than Tanoak and other "Red Oaks" ). On ideal sites this Oak grows large with a rounded crown to 80 feet. Some records include: 22 years - 20 feet; largest on record is 120 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. One huge tree grows in southern Alemeda County in California.
Both very drought tolerant and long lived ( up to 500 years ); this Oak makes an excellent urban street tree in the West. It should be planted more especially because unfortunately destruction of its natural habitat has made it endangered in the wild.
The oblong foliage is deciduous and up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The leaves have either smooth margins or 4 to 5 somewhat shallow lobes. They are blue-green ( pale blue below ) in summer and turn an unusual pinkish color in the fall. It is the waxy coating that gives the leaves its bluish cast that also blocks evaporation and helps these trees withstand the long dry summers of Californias Mediterranean climate.
Also with Oaks of the southwest U.S.; vessels that conduct water in stems and roots much be able to withstand unusually great internal tensions
As summer drought progresses, newly formed oak vessels become progressively thicker, harder and more compact, decreasing the likelihood of collapse as
roots withdraw the last droplets of soil-bound moisture.
If water finally becomes too scarce, blue oaks simply drop their leaves, a condition
known as drought deciduous. They will then leaf out the following spring after soaking up winter rains.
Unlike most Red Oaks; the acorns of this tree are tasty and sweet and mature in one season.
The bark is gray-brown and scaly.
Hardy north to zone 6 though there are unverified reports of 5. It is not known to grow in humid summer climates of the eastern U.S. and as far as I know I'm not even sure it has been tried. It is very drought tolerant growing without irrigation once established in regions with 12 to 32 inches of rainfall per year and with soil PH from 4.5 to 7.5.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by Leland J. Prater @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library

* photos taken by Herbert A. Jensen and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Bluejack ( Quercus incana )
A fast growing, small to medium-sized tree, similar to Quercus imbricaria ( Shingle Oak ) in appearance but smaller, and is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from Oklahoma to Virginia and south ). Some records include: 26 years - 41 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; largest on record - 80 x 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Very old trees can somewhat resemble the true Olive in its gnarled appearance. It grows wild though is often stunded in dry pine barrens.
The elliptical leaves, up to 6 x 2 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are very glossy blue-green above, woolly white beneath. They turn a brilliant flaming orange-red during late fall lasting into December. The new foliage in spring is pinkish in color. In mild climates this tree is semi-evergreen.
The small yellow flower catkins in spring become small acorns to 0.5 inches in the fall.
The bark is red-brown and broken into small blocks.
A real cool patio tree; it is hardy zones 6 to 9 ( reports of 5 & 10 ), requiring acidic soil but is very drought and heat tolerant. Surprisingly, it will grow in southern England which lacks the hot humid summers of its native range.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Oak, Bluff ( Quercus austrina )
Native to the Deep South U.S. though rare from central Texas to North Carolina; it is a large Oak growing to 130 feet tall and 100 feet wide with a trunk diameter to 5.3 feet with a straight habit and a spreading canopy. It is a fast growing Oak, up to 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet per year. A large tree grows in Pennsylvania at Henry Foundation in Gladwyne ( near Philly ).
Its irregular lobed leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches in size, are reddish in spring turning to dark green during summer. The foliage turns orange to bronze during late fall and early winter.
It is related to the White Oak and has whitish bark.
A rare native to the southern U.S. - it makes an excellent very drought and urban tolerant shade tree. Also flood and salt tolerant. Hardy zones 4 to 9.

* photos taken on June 19 2010 in Howard County, MD



* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


Oak, Boynton's Post ( Quercus boyntonii )
A miniature Post Oak which forms a rhizomatous shrub to small tree, that is native to sandy pine woods from eastern Texas into northern Alabama where it is highly endangered to extinct. It can reach a maximum size of 20 feet but rarely exceeds 7 feet. Some records include: 2 years - 1 foot...little info on growth rates or trials of this rare tree is known.
The deciduous to semi-evergreen, obovate leaves, up to 5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 4 x 2.5 ) inches, are glossy deep green above, gray to golden densely-hairy beneath.
The twigs are light brown.
The bark is scaly and brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is extremely drought tolerant and thrives on both acidic and alkaline soil. It enjoys calcium. It is sold by Nearly Native Nursery in Fayetteville, Ga.

Oak, Brant's ( Quercus brantii )
A moderate, round-crowned, medium-sized, deciduous to semi-evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.7 feet. It is mostly native to the Zagross Mountains from Kurdistan to southwest Iran. It was once abundant forming vast pure stand forests in the Zagross Mountains which are now seriously degraded.
The lance-shaped to oblong leaves, up to 6 x 4 inches in size, are margined with sharp forward pointing teeth. The glossy foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep gray-green.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in continental climates ( very slow growing in the maritime British Isles ). It requires full sun on very well drained soil. It is very heat and drought tolerant.

Oak, Bur ( Quercus macrocarpa )

A slow to moderate growing, heavy-set, spreading, large, deciduous tree, that is native to central and eastern North America ( from southeast Saskatchewan to Lake Winnipegosis in central Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Timmins, Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia & south to Texas to Virginia ). It was abundant throughout Windsor, Essex County, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Some records include: 6 years - 17 x 11 feet; 23 years - 32 feet; 40 years - 50 x 60 feet; 85 years - 67 x 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet. The canopy casts dense shade. It can easily reach 100 feet on good sites and some have reached as large as 170 feet tall and 80 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 9 feet. The Bur Oak can live up to 600 years and there are even unconfirmed reports of trees as large as 240 feet in height and trunk diameters reaching 17 feet in the original old growth hardwood forests that covered the Ohio Valley before 1800. Some extremely large Ontario, Canada trees include 100 feet tall and 7 foot trunk diameter at Burford, Ontario; and 107 feet tall and 6.3 feet in diameter at Wallaceburg. Considering its native range, it grows surprisingly well in maritime climates and a large tree is found in Holland Park in London, England. Very deep rooted, an 8 year old tree may have a taproot up to 14 feet deep.
The conspicuously lobed, oval leaves, up to 12 x 7 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are smooth glossy deep green above, pale blue-green and hairy beneath. The foliage usually turns yellow in fall. The leaves when young in addition to young shoots are covered in pale down.
The acorns are large and some Bur Oak have been known to produce 500 pounds of them.
The light brown to gray brown bark is deeply furrowed.
Hardy from zone 2 to 8; this is among the hardiest of all hardwood trees and has been planted successfully as far north as Anchorage, Alaska. There is a 40 foot healthy tree on Muskrat Street in Banff, Alberta where the growing season is only 70 days. Grows well in other parts of Alberta where chinook winds are common also. It is tolerant of salt, urban conditions, extreme heat/drought, fire and storms. The Bur Oak however needs room to grow; its deep wide roots need deeper soil or it will be stunted. Its long taproot that also makes it difficult to transplant. New trees may, after 2 to 3 years of growth, possess a taproot 3 to 6.5 feet deep.

* photo from family photo album - April 1973

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.






* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on August 5 2010 near Wallaceburg, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photos taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Jul 17 2017 in Gatineau, Quebec

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON

* photos of unknown internet source


'Bebb'
A hybrid between the Bur Oak & Quercus alba White Oak that grows equally huge. It is both vigorous ( average 2 feet per year ) and very soil tolorant and hardy north to zone 4 ( - 30 F ). The leaves look like Quercus alba but are larger to 12 inches with 5 lobes on each side and downy below.

'Boomer'
Fast growing.

'Kreider'
Originating in Illinois; it has huge acorns that are often produced in only 8 years. The acorns are double the average size of most Bur Oak in Michigan.
Fast growing; averaging 18 feet in 8 years.

'Maximus' BUR OAK ON STEROIDS!!!
Hardy at least to -20 F with no damage ( lower temperatures are not known to have occured on any testing plots ) and has huge acorns ( 4 acorns to a pound ). The leaves are HUGE from 12 to 18 inches in length and stay green late in the fall!
FAST GROWING! Trees reported to reach 6 feet in 2 years!!! Sold by Oikos Tree Crops. Highly recommended!!! Trees have thick corky branches that are attractive in winter in a rugged kinda way

Oak, Bur-English ( Quercus macrocarpa x robur )
Also called Macdaniel Oak or Quercus x macdanielii. Another fast growing and cold hardy hybrid Oak EXCELLENT FOR MIDWEST and GREAT PLAINS!!!
The Bur-English Oak forms a very large domed tree, exceeding 100 feet.
It is very soil ( including clay ) tolerant and fast growing; up to 4 feet per year can be expected.
Some records include: 10 years - 17 feet ( average ).
The foliage is bright green at first, turning to glossy, deep green and does not get powdery mildew. The foliage turns to yellowish-brown during autumn.
It is easy to transplant and can reach up to 50 + x 50 feet in width in 20 years; pyramidal when young, later developing into an open large crown. It maintains its central leader.
The Bur-English Oak bears acorns in 6 years and has a heavy annual acorn crop. Great for wildlife!
Hardy zones 3 to 7 and is great in the Midwest and Plains tolerating as cold as -35F. Also known as the McDaniels Oak. Appearently can breed true from seed.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA



Oak, Burgambel ( Quercus macrocarpa x gambelii )
A hybrid between the Bur Oak and an extremely drought tolorant Oak from the Rocky Mountains - this is a very cold tolorant, vigorous fast growing Oak. It grows around 2 feet a year and to 20 x 14 feet in 10 years. hardy north to zone 5a and retains its leaves very late in the fall. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED FOR MIDWEST & GREAT PLAINS!!!

Oak, Burlive — Quercus macrocarpa x turbinella
Tolorant of extreme heat, drought and cold!
This strain has been used in parts of Nebraska were few trees can grow. Burlive oak can tolerate both heat and drought and grow in unforgiving soils. Ecos Burlive was selected from the Marquez crosses which tend to be closer to bur oak however with the extremely deep root system of Quercus turbinella. Parent tree is highly productive. Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan also has a large planting of Burlive from the Cottam Hybrids as well and those tend to be more like shrub live oak. Each is a single trunk trees.

Oak, Burr-Valley ( Quercus macrocarpa x Q. lobata )
A very fast growing hybrid Oak, reaching up to 60 feet in 20 years, eventually well over 100 feet! Additional info on this external link ( http://www.oaktopia.net/oaktopia/Quercus_macrocarpa_x_lobata_long.html ).

Oak, California Black ( Quercus kelloggii )
A very beautiful, stately, fast growing, large deciduous tree, reaching around 100 feet or more, that is native from central Oregon to southern California. Some records include: 6 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 130 x 115 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. One almost that large currently grows in Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon. The California Black Oak can be very long lived up to 500 years.
While preferring hotter drier summers, it is still known to reach up to 70 feet in the British Isles.
The thick leaves, up to 12 x 7 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are 7 to 9 deeply lobed and bristle toothed. The foliage is pinkish to deep red at first, turning to glossy deep green above, paler hairy beneath. The leaves turn to yellow and orange during autumn.
The inch long acorns were once a staple food of the California native Indians.
The thick bark is deeply furrowed and divided into wide ridges.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( reports of 5 ), very summer drought tolerant and grows in climates with between 28 & 65 inches of rain in a normal year ( not naturally found in desert zones of the west ). This Oak thrives in sun or part shade but does not like alkaline soils above 7.5.

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* photo taken by R.T. Fisher @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photos taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Cambridge ( Quercus warburgii )
A rare large tree to 80 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 3 feet in 80 years.
70 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet has been recorded in 50 years. Mature size is unknown but ubviously large. The Cambridge Oak is a hybrid between Quercus robur and Q rugosa. The original tree of this hybrid grows at the University Botanic Gardens in Cambridge, England.
The shallowly-lobed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. They are similar to Quercus robur English Oak in appearance but are longer stalked and semi-evergreen. The Cambridge Oak leafs out early in spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 9, it is very heat tolerant.

Oak, Canby's Red ( Quercus canbyi )
A very tough, fast growing, upright pyramidal to spreading, medium-sized, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree, that is native to Texas and northeastern Mexico. It makes a great urban street tree in Texas. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 6 years - 22 feet; 15 years - 32 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; 32 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 60 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet ( est ).
The long narrow leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green. The very attractive foliage has bristle-tipped lobes.
The foliage turns to red during late autumn or early winter
Hardy zones 7 to 9, it is very heat and drought tolerant as well as tolerating poor clay and alkaline soil. Resistant to Oak Wilt.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Canyon Live ( Quercus chrysolepis )
Native to areas with 32 to 80 inches of yearly rainfall from Oregon to Mexico; this tree is very variable depending on growing conditions. On good sites it becomes moderately fast growing reaching up to 100 feet or more. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3.5 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; 20 years - 35 feet; largest on record - 200 feet x 150 feet with a trunk diameter up to 13.3 feet. The Canyon Live Oak is very long-lived, up to 700 years. When mature the large horizontal branches form a massive spreading crown.
The spine-toothed, pointed, oval to oblong leaves reach up to 4 x 2.5 inches. They are leathery and glossy mid-green, lasting up to 4 years. At first in spring, the foliage is downy and yellowish below but later turns to pale bluish and smooth below.
The acorns, up to 1.2 inches in length, rarely occur unless multiple trees are grown.
The thick bark is gray-brown tinged with red.
Though not thoroughly tested; it appearently grows well in the eastern U.S. and Europe, possibly even to zone 5. For now it is considered to be reliably hardy from zone 6b to 10 tolerating to -11 F. The Canyon Live Oak makes an excellent dense canopy urban street tree. Tolerant of sun or part shade.

* photo taken by R.H. May @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Fred E. Dunham @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Carmen ( Quercus carmenensis )
A shrub or small tree to 20 feet. It is native to Mexico and the Chiso Mountains in Texas where it is endangered with extinction being limited to one known tree.
The deciduous foliage is small, to 1.5 inches, oval, deeo green and coarsely toothed.
The leafstalks and twigs are brilliant red in color.

Oak, Chapman ( Quercus chapmanii )
A small to medium size Oak growing to 25 feet though sometimes much larger with 100 x 50 feet with trunk diameters of 4 feet having been recorded. It has oblong leathery leaves, that are glossy deep green above and silvery below; the margins are smooth to undulating. The leaves reach up to 5 x 2 inches though usually half that; and semi-evergreen to evergreen south of zone 7b. The bark is dark gray and platey and the acorns are small to 0.8 inches. It is native to sandy areas of s Alabama, Georgia, SC & Florida and is hardy from zone 6 to 10. It is alkaline tolerant and surprisingly hardy far outside its native range. The Chapman Oak makes an excellent hedge. Rare in cultivation.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Oak, Chestnut ( Quercus prinus )
Also called Quercus montana. A very large, deciduous tree, that is native to Eastern North America ( from southern Illinois to southeast Michigan to western New York State to southern Maine, south to northern Mississippi to southern Alabama to central North Carolina ). It occurred sporadically at Detroit, in western Essex County as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: largest on record - 150 x 95 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet. Extremely large trees almost no longer exist as nearly its entire natural range has been logged over at least once since European settlement. In much of its native range, they barely even reach 50 feet, as they often grow on dry, hard core rocky sites where little else will grow in the Appalachian Mountains. On better sites, the Chestnut Oak grows with a striaght trunk that splits off into a dome made of large spreading branches.
The Chestnut Oak only reaches 10 inches in its first year while establishing a deep taproot; this tree will soon speed up and is known to grow as tall as 25 feet in 7 years and 40 feet in 20 years. Long-lived, it can survive as long as 430 years. Not well known in Europe where the similar Quercus castaneifolia grows however in England it can reach up to 66 feet in height or possibly more. In Pennsylvania, a very large tree grows at Morris Arboretum though I also seen some true giants around Wilkes-Barre.
The deeply-toothed, obovate leaves, up to 12 x 5 ( rarely over 8 x 4 ) inches, are glossy deep green above, pale green to gray beneath. They often turn an attractive orange-red in fall and remain late on the trees.
The bark is gray and deeply fissured. An important source of timber and tannin. The sweet tasting acorns can be eaten fresh after shelling.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( even thrives north of it's natural range in the Ottawa Valley of Canada ) on well drained soils. It is very drought tolerant.
The Chestnut Oak is difficult to transplant due to its deep taproot, and is often sown from seed on its permanent siting with wire mesh for protection from squirrels and rodents over the first winter.

* August 2009 Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania


* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.






* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Sep 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken by Solon L. Parkes @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Paul S. Carter @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Oak, Chestnut Leaved ( Quercus castaneifolia )
A very fast growing, striking, massive, dome-shaped, deciduous large tree that is native to temperate forests in the mountains of the Caucasus and Iran. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 24 years - 66 feet; 40 years - 75 x 75 feet; 70 years - 117 x 57 feet; largest on record - 170 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet. It rapidly grow a massive trunk ( trunk diameters reported: 4 years - 5 inches; 13 years - 9 inches; 60 years - 38 inches; 100 years - 6.9 feet.
The very thick leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches, are tapered at both ends and have coarse sharply-pointed teeth. The foliage is glossy deep green above; blue-gray and downy beneath.
The drooping, yellowish-green flower catkins, up to 4 inches in length, are borne mid to late spring.
They are followed by abundant medium-sized acorns.
The smooth gray trunk that eventually becomes brown with short ridges separated by orange fissures.
This drought tolerant Oak should be much more widely used in the landscape from zone 5 to 9 ( tol -20F ).

'Greenspire'
Broadly columnar and very fast and tall growing. Some records include: 24 years - 66 feet.

'Schuettes'
May be a hybrid with Bur Oak ( Quercus macrocarpa ). Seedlings grow up to 3 times the average rate and it is hardy to - 30 F ( zone 4 ). Yearly height increase averages 4 feet on this 'steroidal hybrid' when young.

Oak, Chihuahua ( Quercus chihuahuensis )
A large deciduous shrub or small tree to 33 x 40 feet that is native to western Texas into mountains of western Mexico though rare. It is mostly found in oak-pinyon-juniper woods in the wild.
The sparsely toothed, oval leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. They are gray-green above with prominent veins; yellow or gray downy beneath.

Oak, Chinese Cork ( Quercus variabilis )
A very attractive, fast growing, massive, very large tree, that is native to c & e China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 8 years - 15 feet ( average ); largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with trunk diameter to 5.7 feet.
It thrives in the hot humid summers of the eastern U.S. and trees have already grown to 80 feet tall im Maryland & Pennsylvania and 3 feet in diameter in Hartford, CT.
As a landscape tree, I personally prefer it to the more common Sawtooth Oak however not the Chinkapin. The Chinese Cork Oak is very long-lived, up to 500 years.
The toothed, oblong leaves, up to 8.5 x 4 ( rarely over 8 x 2 ) inches, are glossy deep green, remaining green very late into the fall.
The pink grey, thick, corky, deeply fissured bark on older trees is truly spectacular.
Hardy from zone 4 to zone 9 ( tolerating -30 F ), it prefers hot humid summers.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Chinese Evergreen ( Quercus myrsinifolia )
A beautiful, fast growing, large, evergreen tree, that is native from the Himalayas to China and Japan. It forms a dense, graceful rounded crown of well spaced sturdy branches. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 ( rarely over 3 ) feet; 25 years - trunk diameter of 1 foot; largest on record - 103 x 67 feet with a trunk diameter up to 8.2 feet. Long-lived, it can persist as long as 350 years.
The leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 7 x 3 inches, are shiny deep purplish-red at first during spring turning to glossy deep green above, and blue-green below, smooth on both sides. The foliage remains luxuriant green through the winter.
The attractive bark is gray and very smooth becoming rough and fissured.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -12 F ), This tree grows best in a spot protected from wind and on deep rich acid soil. It grows well in both the Pacific Northwest and the hot humid southeast. It is very heat tolerant as well as tolerant of drought and clay.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Oak, Chinese White ( Quercus liotungensis )
Also called Liotung Oak. A moderate growing, dense, rounded-crowned tree, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet, that is native mountains at elevations up to 7500 feet, in Mongolia, Manchuria and China. It is closely related and similar to Quercus alba and Q. mongolica.
The leaves persist late into autumn and often remain dried on the trees for most of the winter.
Hardy zones 3b to 7 ( hardy to -35 F ), it is recommended for the midwest especially western Nebraska and South Dakota. It is not tolerant of poorly drained wet soil.

Oak, Chinkapin ( Quercus muehlenbergii )
A deciduous large tree native to the central North America ( from central Iowa to southern Wisconsin to Grand Bend, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario to far southwest Vermont; south to Texas to South Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common near the lake from Amherstburg to Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is fast growing ( often 3 feet per year with 6 feet being the record ) and reached truly huge sizes up to 200 feet tall, 90 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 10 feet in the old growth forest that once covered the Ohio Valley. Trees well over 100 feet tall are still somewhat common and in England where it is less vigorous due to cooler summers; one such Oak still reached 70 feet. Even in the harsh climates of the Great Plains, the Chinkapin Oak is a vigorous grower with its average size in 10 years in Iowa being 20 x 12 feet.
They are also long lived up to 430 years. Trees with trunks as much as 6.5 feet across can still be seen today in places such as Pennsylvania however rare.
The coarsely-toothed, oblong, leaves, up to 10 x 6 ( rarely over 6 x 3 ) inches, are glossy deep green above, downy pale green to white beneath. The foliage turns orange and crimson-red during autumn.
The edible acorns are small and brown up to 0.8 inches.
The gray bark is fissured vertically into irregular flattish plates.
Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan sells a Michigan strain with Selections were made based on trees with large glossy leaves, fast growth rate and attractive peeling, shaggy bark.
Hardy from zone 3 to 8 ( tolerates at least - 33 F thriving north to Ottawa, Ontario ); this Oak grows well in clay and alkaline soil with PH up to 8.5. A spectacular but unfortunately rare tree that should be used alot more in the landscape. Some Chinkapin clones have even done well in El Paso, Texas.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario







* photo taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 @ Howard Comm. College, Columbia, MD

* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'El Capitan'
An upright form with excellent fall color. Originating from New Mexico, it also has superior drought resistance.

'Texas'
Originating from a seedling found in Texas, it has superior heat and alkaline soil tolerance. Purplish-red fall color. The thick glossy foliage turns to purplish-red during autumn. It is a prolific producer of acorns.
Hardy to as low as -30 F.

Oak, Chisos Red ( Quercus gravesii )
A fast growing, deep-rooted, very long-lived, medium-sized tree that is native to the Chisos Mountains in Texas and northern Mexico. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 4 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 63 x 57 feet with a trunk diameter to 4.5 feet; largest in France - 42 feet at La Bergerette.
The leaves, up to 5.5 x 5 inches, bear some resemblance to that of the Nuttall Oak however the pointed lobes are shorter. The foliage is glossy deep green above, pale green below and turn to scarlet red in autumn. The dried foliage often persists through the winter.
The twigs are red-brown.
The blackish-gray bark is blocky and roughly furrowed.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It grows in both acidic or alkaline soils and is extremely heat and drought tolerant. It has much potential as an urban street tree in the southern Plains ( Dallas included ) and the southern Rockies.

* photo taken by Bluford W. Muir @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Oak, Coast Live ( Quercus agrifolia )
A fast growing, dense, round-headed, heavy set, huge tree, reaching up to 100 feet, that is native to California & Mexico. They often have huge massive branches that sweep the ground. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 25 feet; 25 years - 75 feet; largest on record - 160 x 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. Trees have already grown as large as 55 feet in England. The Coast Live Oak is very long-lived, persisting as long as 1100 years.
The leaves, up to 4 x 1.7 inches, are oval to round, hard textured and edged with spine tipped teeth. The foliage is smooth glossy deep green above, glabrous below. The bark is black, striped brown, becoming fissured into large squares.
The acorns are among the most nutritious and best tasting of all Oak.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating -4 F ), in full sun to partial shade on deep, sandy, well drained soil preferring a mediterranean climate with
16 to 50 inches of rain per year. The Coast live Oak is tolerant of soil PH from 4.5 to 7.5. Difficult to transplant so it is best to plant from acorn on site.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken by G.B. Sudworth @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Paul Fair @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Fred E. Dunham @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Compton's ( Quercus x comptoniae )
A large, semi-evergreen tree which is the hybrid between Quercus lyrata and Q. virginiana, and has more vigor and larger acorns than either. Some records include:
5 years - 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches. It is upright in habit with excellent fall color.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it is tolerant of flooding. The Compton's Oak enjoys hot humid summers and thrives in much of the midwest, southern and Mid Atlantic U.S.

Additional info on external site ( http://www.oaktopia.net/oaktopia/Quercus_x_comptoniae_long.html ).

Oak, Cork ( Quercus suber )
A moderate to fast growing, stocky, dense, wide spreading dome shaped, large evergreen tree, that is native to southwestern Europe and north Africa. It is a dominent tree in much of the Meditteranean Region of Europe. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 3 years - 8 feet; 5 years - 13 feet; 20 years - 50 x 36 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.1 feet.
A 74 foot tree grows in Wallingford, PA and one is known to grow in Baltimore; however much more planted in California where one reaches 74 x 100 x 6 feet in Napa. The Cork Oak is very long lived up to 714 years of age.
This tree is widely grown in plantations in Spain and Portugal. The bark harvested from these trees becomes the cork used in wine bottles. Unlike the vast majority of trees; the Cork Oak is not damaged - the bark just grows back.
The toothed ( often holly-like & spine-tipped ), broadly-oblong leaves are up to 6 x 4 ( rarely over 3 x 2 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above and felted gray-brown beneath.
The yellow-green drooping flower catkins become acorns up to 1.5 inches in the fall.
The bark is tan, thick and corky with prominent ridges.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10 through careful clone selection and wind protection it's range may be extendable to zone 6b with some winter leaf drop. It is drought tolorant but grows best on deep fertile soil. It is prone to chlorosis on alkaline soil. The Cork Oak is planted in southern England.
It is susceptible to Sudden Oak Death ( Phytophthora ramorum ) which has unfortunatelly reached Europe and is causing forest havoc.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* historic archive photos


'Purple Leaved'
Extremely rare with purplish foliage. It is found at the Oaks of Chavithorne Barton in England which is one of the worlds largest collections of Oaks.

Oak, Crassifolia( Quercus crassifolia )
A large deciduous Oak that is native in mountains from central Mexico to Guatemala but is hardy much further north to the Carolinas in the U.S. In fact it is very fast growing in North Carolina ( up to 18 feet in 5 years ) and can eventually reach 100 feet with a trunk diameter up to 3.5 feet.
The very thick, leathery, elliptic to obovate leaves, up to 7 x 4.5 inches, are thick, glossy blackish-green above, pale brown hairy beneath.
The foliage persists dried into spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( possible in 7 with further testing ).

Oak, Crimson Spire ( Quercus alba 'Crimson Spire' )
An upright narrow columnar Oak like the Fastigiate English Oak but this one has blue-green mildew resistant leaves that turn purple-red in the fall ( English Oak hybrids do not turn red in fall ). It is shaped like the Lombardy Poplar growing up to 13 feet tall and 4 feet wide in 5 years and 45 x 15 feet or more at maturity.
Some additional records include: 5 years- 13 x 4 feet; 32 years - 54 x 16 feet.
Another very vigorous but non-columnar hybrid between Quercus alba and Q. robus has been reported to reach 54 x 48 feet in just 32 years.
Hardy at least north to zone 4 b ( tolerating -28 F with no damage ).


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


Oak, Daimyo ( Quercus dentata )
Also called Japanese Emperor Oak. A fast growing, medium-sized to large tree, that is a widespread native to China, far southeast Russia, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 6 years - 20 feet; 23 years - 47 feet; largest on record - 82 x 76 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.7 feet. Large trees in the Philadelphia area grow at Longwood Gardens and St Aloysius Acadamy in Bryn Mawr. Long-lived, it can persist as long as 700 years.
The foliage looks like that of the English Oak but is HUGE and with forward pointed lobes!!! The foliage reaches dinner-plate sizes of up to 20 x 12 inches! The foliage is purplish-pink at first, turning to deep green above; bluish-white beneath. During autumn, most of the leaves turn brown and hang on the trees throughout the winter.
During the winter, the thick branches give it a rather gaunt but attractive habit in a Kentucky Coffee Tree kinda way.
The blackish-brownbark is deeply furrowed.
Its typical label of hardiness from zone 4 to 9 may be wrong since trees have grown very well in regions as diverse as hot humid Maryland as well as Saskatoon, Canada ( zone 3...seed source from Jilin & Liaoning ). While they absolutely can't stand maritime climates, they grow fast anywhere summers are hot.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photos

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Dalechampii ( Quercus dalechampii )
A medium-sized, deciduous tree, that is native to southeastern Europe ( from Austria to Slovakia to Hungary to Romania; south to Greece ). Some records include: 5 years - 12 feet; 11 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 feet. It is rare and little known in the U.S.
The leaves, up to 5 inches in length, have 5 to 7 lobes on each side. The deep green foliage resembles that of the White Oak Quercus alba. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 requiring hot summers. It is very drought tolerant.

Oak, Deer ( Quercus sadleriana )
A thicket-forming, small shrubby, semi-evergreen to evergreen Oak, reaching up to 10 feet, that is native to the Siskiyou Region from southwest Oregon to northern California. It is thought to be a relic of a much larger range before the last Ice Age. It is a very attractive, small Oak that is highly recommended for small gardens in the interior Pacific Northwest. The Deer Oak looks like a miniature Quercus pontica.
The thick, short-toothed, obovate leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep green above, white beneath.
The acorns are up to 0.5 inches long.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on very well drained soil. It is very drought and dry heat tolerant and it is recommended to either give it only an occasional deep watering or to leave it alone during the summer.

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Oak, Downy ( Quercus pubescens )
A vigorous, large semi-evergreen tree that is native to central and southern Europe. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 11 years - 23 feet; 110 years - 100 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 40 inches; largest on record - 165 x 100 feet and with trunk diameter of 8 feet. It is long-lived with trees as old as 514 years being known.
The wavy-margined, deeply-lobed leaves, up to 8 x 4 ( rarely over 5 x 2.5 ) inches in size are glossy deep gray-green above, downy white beneath.
The bark is dark gray and deeply furrowed into small rough plates.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( unknown in 5 ) and grows best in Meditteranean Regions with hot dry summers. Very drought and lime tolerant. Very rare in the U.S.; one such tree reportedly grows at the Library of Congress in DC

* photos of unknown source on internet




* historic archive photo


Oak, Dunn ( Quercus dunnii )
Growing to 40 feet tall and wide with trunk diameter of 2 feet on the best of sites; this Oklahoma and Texas native is very drought tolorant. The Dunn Oak survives without irrigation in regions with between 12 and 36 inches of yearly rainfall. New trees should be soaked once a week in summer for first few years transitioning to once a month. Evergreen and hardy from zone 7 and south. Prefers soil PH from 7 to 8.

Oak, Durand ( Quercus durandii )
Also called Quercus sinuata or Bigelow Oak. A tough urban tolerant Oak that can grow huge to 160 feet tall and 120 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 10 feet possible put usually half that or less.
Its leaves, up to 10 x 4 inches in size, are like the Shingle Oak in shape. The foliage is glossy very dark green above; silvery below ). The leaves turn to red during very late fall.
The bark is shaggy and light gray. This tree is pyramidal in shape when young becoming rounded and massive. It is flood, very lime and very drought tolorant. Very fast growing, long lived and hardy from zone 3 to 8. This Oak is rare however should be much more common in the landscape. Easy to transplant.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Durmast ( Quercus petraea )
A moderate growing, massive spreading deciduous tree, reaching around 100 feet, that is similar to Quercus robur but with sessile acorns and more upright branches. It is native to Europe ( from the British Isles to Norway to southwest Russia; south to northern Spain to Greece ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 5 years - 12 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; 50 years - 70 x 42 feet ( Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA ); largest on record - 170 x 100 feet with trunk diameter of 14 feet. Though not native; trees over 80 feet already grow in the U.S. including 90 x 70 feet in Baltimore City. It can live up to 1200 years
The 10 to 18 lobed, large, long-stalked leaves, up to 7 x 5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above and downy below. This Oak continues growing in the summer and the leaves stay green late in the fall.
The flowers are yellow-green drooping spring catkins that are replaced in fall by acorns to an inch long.
The bark is gray and smooth for the first 20 years becomming deeply-fissured and vertically-ridged. This tree is an excellent choice for coastal areas.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9. It has a deep taproot and is very drought and wind resistant.
The National tree of Wales. Unlike English Oak the Durmast Oak
should not be planted in flood prone areas!

* historical archive photos


'laciniata'
Deeply cut leaves to 6 inches long.

'Longifolia'
Has very long 8 inch leaves.

'Purpurea'
Dark purple leaves.

Oak, Dwarf Chinkapin ( Quercus prinoides )
A small Oak native to to central North America ( from southeast Iowa to southern Ontario to Massachusetts; south to Oklahoma to northern Alabama to northern Georgia to Maryland ). It is endangered in Canada but remains at Grand Bend, Long Point and Brantford. It was also known to occur at Point Pelee during the 1800s. It makes a great patio tree. It usually grows to 20 feet in height; the largest on record is 60 feet in height, 22 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 1.1 foot. It is extremely drought and clay tolerant and is often found in wild on sand dunes, dry ridges and oak savanna. It is moderate growing on good sites and can reach 12 feet in height in 5 years.
The obovate leaves resemble the regular Chinkapin Oak but are smaller to only 6 x 1.5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size. They are glossy deep green above, whitish-green to tawny-brown beneath; turning to red and bronze during autumn.
The scaly bark is light brown.
Hardy from zone 4 to 8 ( tolerating -30 F ). A rare tree that should be used alot more in the landscape. Unlike most Oaks; this one produces runners. Even grows well in open windswept prairie in Nebraska.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historical archive photos


Oak, Emory ( Quercus emoryi )
A handsome, moderate growing, very long-lived, evergreen Live Oak that can reach 50 feet or sometimes much more on ideal sites. It is a rare native to mountains of Western Texas into central Arizona south to central Mexico. Some records include: 5 years - 11 feet; largest on record - 105 x 100 feet with trunk diameter of 7 feet.
A most beautiful tree, it should be planted much more, especially in west Texas.
The oblong leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, can have either smooth or spiny tipped margins. The foliage is glossy deep green above, paler green beneath.
The oblong acorns are small up to 0.8 inches and mature in one season.
The bark is dark brown in rectangular blocks like alligator hide.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( does not grow in tropical climates such as Florida ) and surviving as low as -10 F. It is extremely tough and easy to grow in the western U.S., however does not like very alkaline soil. It requires occasional deep watering during summer if planted in mediterranean regions.

* photo taken by W.A. Jackson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by F. Lee Kirby @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Oak, Engelmann ( Quercus engelmannii )
An evergreen Oak with a wide spreading crown that is native to southern California and the northern Baja Peninsula. It is moderate growing up to 2 feet in a year and usually reaches around 30 feet in its parched native habitat. However; on good sites it can become a large tree with some known to reach 120 feet in height; 100 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 6 feet. It forms a very stately attractive tree with alot of character. Endangered in the wild, it should be much more widely used in landscaping.
The leathery, smooth-edged, oval to oblong leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 ( rarely over 2.5 x 1 ) inches, are blue-green on both sides.
The light gray-brown bark is thick and furrowed.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ), preferring well drained, sandy loam soil in sun or part shade. It grows without irrigation in regions with 20 to 30 inches of yearly rainfall. The Engelmann Oak is very long lived and grows well on the coast. In mediterranean climates, it prefers a monthly deep watering during summer.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Engler ( Quercus engleriana )
A medium-sized, semi-evergreen tree, reaching around 40 feet, that is native to wet evergreen forests in much of southern and eastern China. Some records include: largest on record - 82 feet.
The toothed, ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 7 x 2.5 ( rarely over 5.5 x 1.5 ) inches in size. The very attractive, leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath. The leaves fall during early spring as the new foliage emerges.
The bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 9.

Oak, English ( Quercus robur )
A fast growing, long lived, broad-crowned, deciduous large tree, reaching over 100 feet that is native to most of Europe, western Asia and extreme northern Africa. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 6 years - 20 feet; 20 years - 70 x 50 ( usually half that ) feet; 110 years - trunk diameter of 6.3 feet; longest lived - 1664 years. Trunk diameter can increase up to 1.6 inches in a year but more often a 50 year old tree will only be 2 feet in diameter. One tree 100 x 105 feet with trunk diameter of 5 feet in Victoria, B.C. is only 74 years old and another tree has already reached 96 x 87 x 4 feet in dry Denver, Colorado. Trees already 90 feet or more also grow in Ohio & in Washington, D.C. Some truly massive trees do exist it native range and they have been known to reach up to 240 feet in height; 130 feet in diameter with extreme trunk diameters up to 23 feet.
The leaves are shallow round-tip lobed and to 6 x 3 inches; there are 3 to 6 lobes on each side. The foliage is yellow-green during spring turning smooth and deep green above & blue-green beneath. The leaves ususllay fall green during late autumn.
The late spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins that are later replaced by acorns up to 1.5 inches.
The bark is light gray, fissured into short narrow vertical plates.
Best in light, well drained soil; it can tolerate alkaline soils and some flooding. Hardy zones 2 to 8, it thrives at least as far north as the Ottawa Valley in Ontario.

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario


* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co, MD


* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photos


supsp. 'pedunculiflora'
From Greece, Turkey and the Caucasus; it has leaves with fewer lobed that are bluish below. It is fast growing, reaching up to 13 feet in 5 years; 40 feet in 22 years.

'Bimundorum'
A hybrid with Quercus alba White Oak that becomes a massive wide spreading tree. Easy to transplant; it is also fast growing to 40 feet tall in 25 years. Foliage looks like English Oak but is mildew resistant and turns red in fall. Hardy north to zone 3. Seedlings can produce acorns in only 6 years and a 16 year old tree can produce over 50 pounds of acorns ( Oikos Tree Crops ). Easy to transplant with fibrous roots.

'Brutia'
From Yugoslavia has larger leaves up to 12 x 4 inches.

'Concordia' ( Golden Oak )
Reaches up to 90 x 97 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.2 feet at most, with yellowish foliage.

'ECOS'
From Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan; this strain is not prone to mildew.
It should be planted instead of regular English Oak is humid parts of eastern U.S. where powdery mildew can be a big problem with English Oak. Mildew makes the tree less vigorous and more susceptible to insects and other more devastating diseases. This is why most English oaks have a limited life span of 20-40 years.

'Fastigiata'
Columnar habit up to 100 feet tall and with great age widening to 30 feet in width. 90% come true from seed. Fast growing on ideal sites.

* photo taken on Aug 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 2012 @ University of Western Ontario, London, ON

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park
* historic archive photos

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Nigra'
Deep purple foliage.

'Pendula'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 92 feet tall with drooping branches. Trunk diameter up to 6 feet. Very early leafing out in spring.

'Procera'
Very fast growing, often 3 times as fast as the English Oak. Pyramidal with strong central leader and upright branches. The leaves are lush and mildew resistant though they do not color well in the fall. This Oak grows extremely tall and can easily scale 100 feet with potential of 200 with extreme age. It grows true from seed and can tolorate as low as -30F.

'Skymaster'
Rapid growing with strong upright branching habit but not as narrow as Fastigiate English Oak. It tolorates drought, pollution and restricted root space making it an excellent urban tree.

'Variegata'
Leaves with creamy white margins.

Oak, Englishlive ( Quercus robur x turbinella )
Description from Oikos Tree Crops, Michigan
Drought-tolerant compact oak
Another Cottam hybrid for tough sites, especially drought soils. Dwarfish, somewhat pyramid shaped, ornamental hybrid with good acorn crops. Medium growth rate (12-18" per year) and develops a lot of branches on young seedlings. Best hybrid for cut-leaf foliage. Another good hedge oak or a small single tree. Height to 30 feet. Hardiness -30 °F.

Oak, Fabri ( Quercus fabri )
A medium-size, deciduous tree that is native to Korea and eastern China. Some records include: 8 years - 6.5 feet; largest on record - 82 feet in height with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet.
The triangular-toothed, obovate leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches, are glossy deep green above, hairy gray beneath. The leathery foliage turns to red in fall.
The foliage remembles that of Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak.
The acorns are up to 0.8 x 0.5 inches.
The twigs are grayish-brown and densely tomentose.
The bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, requires hot summers.

Oak, Gambel ( Quercus gambelii )
Among the hardiest of deciduous hardwood trees; this Oak is native to the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. from Idaho to sc Wyoming to western Oklahoma; south to the Mexican border. It is endangered in Oklahoma. Unfortunately this deep-rooted, long-lived tree is slow growing with 15 feet in 20 years at most. The record yearly growth increase is only 2 feet. Often small and stunted in its drought prone native range; with the best of conditions this tree is capable of 110 x 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. Gambel Oak is known to live as long as 406 years.
The leaves have 3 to 6 lobes on each side and are finely hairy below.
They are up to 7 x 4 inches in size, smooth deep green above; hairy, pale green below. The foliage is often reddish at first during spring and also turns to red and purple during autumn.
The bark is light gray.
The acorns are small and ovoid up to 0.5 inches. The sweet tasting acorns can be eaten fresh after shelling.
Hardy from zone 3 to 6 it can tolerate as cold as -43 F. It is both alkaline soil, clay and very drought tolerant but also grows well in the moister climate of eastern North America. It absolutely thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada, reaching 35+ feet and due to its deep rooting and light shade-cast, makes a great lawn tree in that region.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by F. Lee Kirby @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database
* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Oak, Garry ( Quercus garryana )
From drier valleys of the Pacific Northwest ( from Vancouver Island to Lytton, British Columbia; south to central California ); this Oak is of variable growth rate depending on conditions but can grow very large and stately. Some records include: 3 years - 9 feet; 20 years - 50 feet; 50 years - trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 150 x 130 ( rarely over 80 ) feet and 9 feet in trunk diameter. This Oak develops a spreading crown of large branches. Very long-lived, it can live up to 500 years. Currently endangered in Canada. Before the last ice age, Garry oaks were part of an extensive hardwood forest in British Columbia. Their range was wider during a warm, dry period after glaciation, but it has diminished in the current wet and cool climate. Its range has significantly declined even more since 1800 due to human related environmental destruction.
The leathery, deeply-cut, oval leaves, up to 7 x 5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are glossy deep green above, paler beneath.
The bark is similar to Quercus alba White Oak.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in somewhat Meditteranean climates; it can tolerate extremes from -33 F to + 116 F! It is very drought and wind tolerant. It is best not to water this tree during summer, trees on frequently irrigated lawns may succumb to root rot.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* historical archive photo


var 'Breweri' ( Brewer's Oak )
A miniature, shrubby form, reaching only 6 feet, that is native to the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon and northern California. The stems are usually twisted.
The foliage is similar to that of the species.
Hardy zones 5 to 6.

Oak, Gemelliflora ( Quercus gemelliflora )
Also called Quercus merkusii. A huge tree resembling the Chinkapin Oak reaching up to 170 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. It is native to wet tropical forests in mountains of western Malaysia, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
The lance-shaped to elliptical leaves up to 7 x 3 inches in size, are smooth-edged to very lightly toothed. The foliage is blue-green above, whitish beneath.
The lightly-fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 10 to 11.

Oak, Georgia ( Quercus georgiana )
A moderate growing, small to medium-sized tree, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from central Alabama to South Carolina ) where it is threatened. It is very closely related to the Bear Oak which grows further north. Some records include: 21 years - 27 feet; largest on record - 75 x 65 ( rarely over 35 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 2.1 feet.
It is one of the best Oaks for the smaller garden or patio in the eastern U.S..
The 3 or 5 broad-lobed leaves, up to 5 x 4 inches, are glossy deep green above, lighter green beneath. The foliage turns to an excellent dark red in November often remaining dried on the tree through the winter.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is far hardier than its natural range would suggest.
It is very drought and heat tolerant, is also considered easy to transplant.

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo of unknown internet source


Oak, Gilva ( Quercus gilva )

A fast growing, large evergreen Oak, that is native to southern China, southern Japan and Taiwan. Some records include: 5 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 12.5 feet. Very long-lived, it can persist as long as 1000 years. It is among the most beautiful of all hardwood trees.
The leathery, toothed, oblanceolate to elliptical leaves, up to 7 x 1.5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches, are very glossy, deep green.
The gray bark is very shaggy.
Hardy zone 9 & 10, thriving in hot humid climates on just about any soil including wet and alkaline.

Oak, Golden ( Quercus alnifolia )
A native of Cyprus; this is a small and slow growing Oak; rarely to 33 feet tall and 30 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 1 foot ( record being 3 feet ). It has erect branches and a shrubby crown. The most it can grow in a year is 1 foot. The rounded evergreen leaves are up to 2.5 x 2 inches ( rarely 4 x 3 inches ) and are smooth shiny dark green above, golden felted below. The acorns are long up to 1.5 inches. The bark is gray with pale orange-brown lenticels becoming very rough with age. Hardy from zone 6 to 10. It is very drought tolerant. Unlike many Oaks; this one can resprout from stumps and does so rapidly. It is among the most important native trees in Cyprus anchoring mountain slopes.

Oak, Gray ( Quercus grisea )
An attractive, deep-rooted, long-lived, medium-sized, evergreen tree native to the mountains of the southwest U.S. ( from Arizona to central Colorado to central Texas and south into Mexico ). It reaches about 30 feet though sometimes much larger. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 4 feet; largest on record - 75 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
The leathery, oval to elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 1.3 inches. They can either be Holly-like & toothed or non-toothed. The attractive foliage is deep blue-green above, hairy blue-gray beneath. The foliage remains on the trees late into the fall.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( trees originating from Colorado seed source are hardiest ). It is very heat tolerant.

* historical archive photo


Oak, Hispanic ( Quercus x hispanica )
A natural hybrid between Quercus suber & Q. cerris; they are variable but always make excellent trees. The Hispanic Oak forms a fast growing, very large tree up to 100 feet or sometimes more. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 13 x 10 feet; 20 years - 55 feet; 75 years - 100 x 116 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest on record - 140 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.2 feet.
The toothed, oblong leaves, up to 5 x 3 inches, are glossy deep green above, downy gray beneath. The foliage ranges from late deciduous to nearly evergreen.
The yellowish-green flower catkins, up to 2 inches in length, are borne during spring.
The thick bark has deep fissured but is never corky like Quercus suber.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9. It is sometimes found in wild in southern Europe and is a popular estate tree in England. It is very tolorant of lime soils.

'Ambrose'
Has evergreen very dark green leaves that are white below.

'Fulham'
Has drooping branches.

'Lucombeana' ( Lucombe Oak )
A tall tree resembling Quercus cerris. The leaves are long and the bark is light gray and shallowly fissured.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9.

Oak, Holm ( Quercus ilex )
Also called Holly Oak. A moderate growing, large evergreen tree, that is native to southern Europe and northern Africa, though frequently planted and sometimes naturalized in western France & the British Isles.. It has a very dense, massive domed crown with sharply ascending upper branches. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 23 feet; 25 years - 65 feet; 80 years - trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest on record - 130 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.4 feet. Long-lived, it can persist longer than 550 years. Holm Oaks cast dense shade that lawns do not thrive under. This spectacular tree is so commonly planted in England that many people actually believe it is native.
The very leathery leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. They can either be smooth edged or toothed like Ilex aquifolium. The very glossy foliage is downy white at first, turning to very deep green above; white and downy beneath.
The late spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins and are followed in the fall with small acorns to 0.7 inches.
The light gray bark is rough and shallowly cracked into small squares.
Hardy zones 6 to 10; it is not injured at -10 F but is killed to ground at -20 F however it may still resprout. The Holm Oak thrives on all soils and tolerates shade.
It is not bothered by pests, diseases or storms and also is salt air and very lime tolerant.

* photo taken by A. Henry @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Laurifolia'
only difference is narrower leaves to 6 x 2 inches

Oak, Huckleberry ( Quercus vaccinifolia )
A slow growing, dense, spreading, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 feet, that is native to southwest Oregon, northern California and western Nevada. Some records include: 5 years - 20 inches. It is useful for stabilizing slopes and erosion control.
The very small, smooth-edged, elliptical or oblong leaves are up to 1.5 x 0.6 inches in size. The leathery foliage is downy whitish-green above, gray-green beneath.
The oval acorns are up to 0.7 inches long. They are a valuable food source for wildlife.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is very drought and wind tolerant.

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Oak, Hungarian ( Quercus frainetto )
A truly spectacular, very fast growing, very large, tree with a massive broad dome of widespreading branches that often droop along the outer edges. It is native to southeastern Europe ( from Hungary to the Black Sea coast of Romania; south to Italy to the Balkans ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; 6 inches height growth in a single week! 5 years - 13 x 10 feet; 10 years - 24 x 18 feet; largest on record - 133 x 100 feet in width with trunk diameter of 7 feet.
Known to already have reached 80 feet in Maryland in the U.S.
The deeply-toothed, oblong leaves, up to 13 x 6 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are deep green above and gray green below. They remain green late into the fall and often last late into December though rarely coloring much. The foliage is very disease resistant.
The yellow-green drooping catkins appear during mid-spring.
They are followed in fall by small acorns, up to 0.7 inches long.
The bark is light gray to brown and closely fissured into small short ridge. Bark is smooth for the first 10 years.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9; this Oak grows well in all soils except alkaline. Tolerant of urban conditions, clay and drought. It is surprising this tree is not planted more in the U.S.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


'Forest Green'

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD


'Hungarian Crown'
Erect habit

'Schmidt'
Growing with a strong central leader and very glossy dark green leaves.
It is very drought tolerant and hardy to zone 5 ( tolorating -25 F ). Much more resistant to leafspot.

subsp Vulcanica'
A form originating in Turkey and Syria is even more tolerant of drought. It is threatened with extinction in the wild. It is generally similar in appearance. Hardy north to zone 6.

Oak, Interior Live ( Quercus wislezenii )
A moderate growing, large, broad, rounded, massive, heavy-set, large, evergreen tree, reaching up to 100 feet or sometimes much larger, that is native to California and Mexico. It is very similar and closely related to Quercus agrifolia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 21 years - 30 feet ( average ); largest on record - 200 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet.
The holly-like, oblong leaves, up to 4.7 x 2 ( rarely over 3 x 2 ) inches, are edged with slender spiny teeth. The foliage is mid-green above; glossy yellow-green beneath.
The leaves persist for about 2 years.
The thick bark is nearly black and deeply furrowed with scaly ridges.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in sun or part shade. While it prefers a mediterranean style climate, it does grow in milder parts of England though with less vigor, rarely exceeding 50 feet.

* historic archive photo


Oak, Island ( Quercus tomentella )
A stately, open, spreading, large evergreen tree native to the Channel Islands off the coast of California. It is extremely endangered in the wild though grows well on the mainland if planted and irrigated. It is rapid growing up to 3 feet or more per year and can reach up to 85 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet. Some records include: 14 years - 23 feet ( average ).
It makes an excellent street tree for milder parts of the west.
The toothed, ovate to oblong leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The rigid, leathery foliage is downy when young, turning to glossy mid-green above, white beneath.
The acorns are large and only abundant in some years.
The bark is red-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating 10 F ) requiring 24 + inches of rainfall per year.
It is reported to have froze to ground and resprouted rapidly.

Oak, Japanese Evergreen ( Quercus acuta )
A fast growing, large, evergreen tree that is native to southeast China, Taiwan, South Korea and southern Japan. It makes an excellent landscape tree in the southeast and parts of the Mid Atlantic U.S. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3.5 feet; 3 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. Long-lived, it can persist as long as 700 years. It is endangered in the wild in much of its range.
The leathery, smooth-edged, elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are very glossy, luxuriant mid-green through the entire year.
The bark is smooth and gray-brown with raised yellowish lenticels.
It is hardy zones 7 to 6 ( though some clones may be hardy even in zone 6 and should be tested ), thriving where summers are hot and humid. Drought tolerant but requires an average yearly rainfall exceeding 36 inches.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on Apr 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Oak, Japanese White ( Quercus aliena )
A fast growing, large tree native to Japan that looks like the native Chestnut Oak ( Quercus prinus ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 17 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 100 x 80 x 7 feet.
The large, coarsely-toothed, regularly-lobed, oval leaves are up to 12 x 7 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, paler and downy grayish-brown beneath.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario reaching 25 feet. It grows well in the Mid Atlantic and tolorates hot sunny sites.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA



* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Kermes ( Quercus coccifera )
A stocky, small ( rarely medium-sized ), evergreeen tree that is native to the western Mediterranean. It is extremely long-lived, up to 800 years. Some records include: 18 years - 8 feet; largest on record - 66 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet.
The thick, waxy, oblong leaves may be prickly or flat and smooth. The glossy green leaves can be up to 6 x 2 inches though usually much smaller.
The finely scaly bark is mid-gray. The foliage is evergreen and no freeze injury typically occurs down to 4 F and the tree may be hardy anywhere from sheltered sites in zone 6 to zone 10. Can survive in regions with as little as 12 inches of rain in a year.

* photo of unknown internet source


var 'Calliprinos' ( Palestine Oak )
Reported to be a large tree with larger leaves. It is faster growing than the species, reaching up to 6.5 feet in 10 years on average. A mature Palestine Oak averages around 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet and can live for 1000 years.
The very spiny acorns are also large.
It is hardy in milder parts of England. Making an attractive tree with correct pruning practices, it may prove useful for replacing Oaks killed by "Sudden Oak Death" in southern California where it thrives.

var 'rivasmartinezii'
A faster growing subspecies, forming a tree up to 50 feet or more, that is native to a tiny area along the coast in southern Portugal. Some records include: 3 years - 5 feet.
The foliage is coppery colored when young.

Oak, Kharshu ( Quercus semicarpifolia )
A moderate growing, large semi-evergreen Oak native to high elevations ( 6000 to 12 000 feet ) in the Himalayas ( Afghanistan & Pakistan; south to northern India and Nepal ). It prefers cool summers and thrives in England though not well known. The Kharshu Oak grows large, up to 120 feet in height with a trunk diameter of up to 6 feet. Some records include: 3 years - 6.5 feet; 8 years - 12 feet; 11 years - 17 feet.
The holly-like, oblong or elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, rusty brown beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 6 inches in length. .
The furrowed roughened bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 9; it requires a moist temperate climate and an average yearly rainfall exceeding 40 inches. It may survive in milder parts of Europe such as western Ireland.

Oak, Kindred Spirit'
A strongly columnar hybrid between Quercus robur 'Fastigiata' and Quercus bicolor. It reaches up to 50 x 15 feet in 30 years, eventually more.
The glossy foliage is strongly mildew resistant.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Oak, Konara ( Quercus glandulifera )
Also called Quercus serrata. A moderate growing, large deciduous tree, that is native to mountain forests of the Kurile Islands, China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2.5 feet; 5 years - 10 feet; 10 years - 20 feet; 20 years - 35 feet; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet. Not quite as large and fast growing as some of the native oaks, it may make an excellent urban shade and street tree.
The sharply-toothed, ovate leaves, up to 8 x 4 inches, are bright green above, whitish beneath. The leaves remain on the trees until very late into the fall when they often turn golden-yellow or scarlet before falling. The leaves resemble that of Quercus prinus in shape. The young foliage is often an attractive silky pinkish to silvery-green in color.
The acorns are up to 1 inch in length.
The bark is smooth and dark gray, fissured on very old trees.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario reaching 20 feet ) on deep fertile well drained soil including clay. It requires hot summers and grows poorly in the British Isles. Despite being extremely rare, is an excellent tree for much of eastern North America. It is recommended to plant this tree from acorn on its permanent site since it quickly forms a deep taproot and does not like root disturbance.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA




* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Oak, Lacey ( Quercus glaucoides )

Also called Q. laceyi. An extellent Oak for the hot, dry and alkaline Southern Plains yet little known in horticulture. This Oak loves extreme heat and tolerates drought and should be planted more. Does well on alkaline soil and is wilt resistant. It is a moderate growing, dense, spreading, medium-sized tree. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 100 x 60 ( rarely over 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 3.1 feet.
The leaves are very handsome, to 9 x 5 ( rarely over 6 x 4 ) inches,
The very handsome foliage is orange-pink at first, turning deep blue-green above, whitish beneath. The leaves turn to golden-yellow during late autumn.
Native from central Texas to northeast Mexico and hardy much further North ( from zone 6b to 9...even reported to 5b on protected sites ). It requires very hot summers and grows in sun or part shade.
It is similar to the Blue Oak of California and is very drought tolerant but also tolerates summer irrigation.






Oak, Lamellosa ( Quercus lamellosa )
Also called Bull Oak. Native to the Himalayas to the Orient; this huge evergreen Oak is known to grow to 200 ( rarely over 120 ) feet in height with a trunk diameter reaching 10 feet across. Practically unknown in the U.S. but holding massive potential as an evergreen shade tree. Trees planted in Cornwall, England and warmer parts of Ireland have thrived and already reached 66 feet tall. Some records include: 4 years - 10 feet; 20 years - 41 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
An imposing tree; this is the noblest of all Oaks!
The very large, deeply-veined, leathery, toothed, elliptic leaves, up to 18 x 9 ( rarely over 12 x 6 ) inches in size. The attractive foliage, which resembles that of Quercus prinus in shape, is deep green above, white beneath.
Bark is rough and grey brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 10, it thrives where summers are hot and humid.

Oak, Lateleaf ( Quercus tardifolia )
A small to medium-sized, evergreen tree that is native to Big Bend in Texas and neighboring Coahuila province in Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 48 x 23 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.4 feet.
The broad-elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 2.8 inches, have margins with 3 to 4 lobes.
The twigs are deep reddish-brown and the bark is furrowed and gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( est ). Very drought tolerant.

Oak, Laurel ( Quercus laurifolia )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, large tree, averaging 100 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Texas and Arkansas to Virginia and south to the Gulf of Mexico ).
Some records include: first year - 1.5 feet; fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 8 years - 30 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; 50 years - 150 feet; largest on record - 150 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.8 feet across. Laurel Oak is known to live as much as 823 years. It is semi-evergreen from zone 7 south becoming almost evergreen around zone 7b.
One of the most beautiful of all Oaks; the Laurel Oak makes great street trees. Sand Laurel Oak ( Quercus hemispherica ) is almost identical but is now considered a separate species due to it requiring dry sandy sites rather than the low swampy sites that Quercus laurifolia prefers. The 2 occupy the same range but are almost never found together on the same site due to habitat differences.
The smooth edged or very shallow lobed, oval leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to smooth, very glossy green above, bright green beneath. The leaves usually fall in early spring just before the new leaves appear.
The bark is dark brown and smooth when young turning thick, scaly and deeply furrowed into wide flat ridges.
Hardy zones 6 to 10. Trees growing in Cincinnati indicate the Laurel Oak may be hardy even further north that previously thought tolorating temperatures lower than - 20 F and surviving into zone 5. In Cincinnati trees have been observed staying green well into December. Salt tolorant; it grows best on deep rich sandy soil with a PH from 4 to 6. Hot summers are required for this Southern Oak to thrive.


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken by W.D. Sterrett @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historical archive photos

* photo of subspecies hemisphaearica @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash., DC


Oak, Lanata ( Quercus lanata )
Also called Quercus incana & Q. leucotrichophora. A large, evergreen tree, that is native to the Himalayas ( from India to China; south into tropical southeast Asia ). Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The major limbs are often twisted.
The oblong leaves, up to 9 x 4 inches, are shaped like that of the native Chestnut Oak ( Quercus prinus ). The foliage is glossy deep green and rough above, downy white beneath.
The thick, brownish-gray back peels into thin plates.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 on just about any well drained soil. It thrives in parts of western and southern France as well as the Mediterranean ( if watered during summer ) but not in the British Isles.

Oak, Leather ( Quercus durata )
A handsome, slow growing, dense, rounded evergreen shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 10 ( rarely over 6.5 ) feet, that is native from northern California to the Baja Peninsula.
The thick, leathery rigid, spiny, small leaves, up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in length, are gray-green and hairy on both sides. The leaf margins are often rolled under.
The scaly bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil ( PH under 7.3 ), it thrives where annual precipitation ranges from 12 to 33 inches. It prefers a stone mulch and to be dry during summer. The Leather Oak is great to mix with Manzanitas. Tolerant of heat and clay and is very drought tolerant. It requires hot dry summers and grows poorly in the British Isles. The Leathery Oak is deer resistant.

Oak, Lebanon ( Quercus libani )
A moderate growing, elegant medium-sized, deciduous tree, that is native to Syria & Lebanon. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2.5 feet; 3 years - 5 feet; 9 years - 17 feet; 22 years - 27 feet; 45 years - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet; largest on record - 71 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.7 feet.
The bristly-tip toothed, oblong leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are glossy deep green.
The leaves persist well into winter.
The twigs are slender.
The slightly corky bark is dark gray with orange fissures.
Hardy from zone 5 to 10 in sun or partial shade and does well in the piedmont of the southeastern U.S. The Lebanon oak can grow in loam to heavy clay soils of variable soil PH. The tree can endure strong winds but not maritime exposure. It does not tolerate root disturbance and trees should not be moved once planted, in fact acorns sown on site will produce the best trees.

'Regia'
Has larger leaves up to 9 x 5 inches.

Oak, Live ( Quercus virginiana )
Native from southeast Oklahoma to North Carolina and south; the famous massive Oak with moss hanging from the branches, can grow to a truly huge 200 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of a massive 13 feet and live up to 1500 years. It is very rapid growing ( up to 4 feet per year ) when young and a tree 70 years old may already have a trunk 5 feet in width. A Live Oak can become a reasonable large tree in just 10 years and 9 x 6 feet has been reached in only 4 years. Some other records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4.5 feet; 5 years - 17.7 x 10 feet with a diameter of 5 inches; 90 years - trunk diameter of 8.3 feet. Its very often evergreen leaves are oblong to 6 x 3 inches at most and are leathery, glossy dark green above and whitish below.
The bark is charcoal gray with shallow fissures making a coarse checkered pattern.
The wood is very heavy up to 55 pounds per square foot.
Usually considered only hardy north to zone 7; some trees are known to tolerate as cold as -14 F and be winter hardy in zone 6 and be evergreen to 0F. Live Oaks growing in Dayton, Ohio stayed evergreen during the winter of 2002. It can tolerate high winds, high heat and alot of salt, drought, urban conditions and is not bothered by deer. They are very soil tolerant. Evergreen Oaks should be fertilized heavily in March and June.
Oak Wilt is uncommon on Live Oak.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken in South Carolina on March 1994




* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida


* photos of unknown internet source






* photo taken by C.R. Lockard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Robert W. Neelands @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


var 'fusiliformis' ( Escarpment Live Oak )
Widespread from Oklahoma; south through central Texas to the Rio Grande; it is more drought tolerant, actually very heat and drought tolerant thus making it an excellent shade tree for use in parking lot islands. It is evergreen only to zone 7 but grows well also in zone 5b & 6 dropping its leaves late in the fall with no injury. It forms a dense, domed, large tree, reaching a maximum size of 82 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.6 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet.
The thick leaves, up to 6 x 3.5 ( usually half that ) inches in size, are very glossy, luxuriant mid-green.

* historic archive photos


'Highrise'
very fast growing to 80 x 40 feet in 25 years with trunk width increases up to 1.3 inches in a year. Possibly up to 200 x 60 feet at maturity with an upright pyramidal shape.

'Southern Shade'
rapid growing to 18 feet tall and 5 inches in trunk diameter when only 5 years old. It has a strong leader when young and can reach 65 feet in 35 years and eventually much larger.

Oak, Loquat ( Quercus rhysophylla )
A fast growing, medium-sized, evergreen tree, that is native to northeastern Mexico where it is threatened. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 29 years - 57 feet; largest on record - 82 x 60 feet; largest in Virginia - 50 x 31 feet with trunk diameter of 1.4 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 10 x 3 inches, are reddish to rich purple at first, turning to glossy deep green. The foliage is extremely beautiful.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -5 F ), it thrives in milder parts of the Mid Atlantic, the humid southeast as well as cooler maritime climates such as southern England. It leafs out early during spring and is prone to late freezes.

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