Saturday, January 23, 2016

Prunus - Cherries & Plums ( part 1 )

Prunus

A massive highly variable genus of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs.
Many fruit trees die suddenly from graft incompatibility after 10 years.
A number of pests can infect the Prunus genus including tent caterpillers which among other means, can be controlled by torching the nest.

Prunus 'Accolade'
The hybrid between Prunus sargentii and Prunus subhirtella, forming a wide spreading, round canopied tree reaching around 30 feet.
Some records include: 20 years- 20 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 40 x 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The sharply-toothed, pointed, elliptic leaves, up to 5.5 inches in length, are deep green turning brilliant orange-red in autumn.
It is smothered in semi-double flowers up to 1.5 inches wide, that are deep pink in bud opening to vivid mid pink in early spring before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zone 4 to 8 in full sun on most well drained soils. Alkaline soil tolerant.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken in summer.

Prunus africanus ( African Cherry )
A moderate growing, large, evergreen tree reaching up to 100 feet that is native to mountainous areas over a large part of Africa but is now endangered in the wild due to over exploitation. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; largest on record - 130 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The glossy dark green foliage is up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. The seed only germinates if sown fresh.

Prunus allegheniensis ( Alleghany Plum )
A fast growing, small tree native to the Appalation Mountain range from Tennessee, northeast into Pennsylvania and Massachussetts. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The deep green, lance shaped, minutely serrate margined leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches at most and are hairy beneath.
The small, white flowers up to 0.5 inches across are borne in small umbels of up to 4 in early spring, appearing with the foliage.
They are followed by small, yellow fleshed, purplish-blue fruit up to 0.8 inches wide. The fruits are great eaten fresh or dried.
The bark is dark brown and scaly.
Hardy zones 3 to 7

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


subsp 'Davisii'
Only native to Michigan where it is endangered. It is straggling and shrubby in habit, only reaching 10 feet in height.

Prunus americana ( American Plum )
A rapid growing, dense round canopied tree native to eastern North America ( from central Saskatchewan to central Minnesota to central Wisconsin to Wiarton, Ontario to Trenton, Ontario to southern New Hampshire; south to Oklahoma to Arkansas to Georgia ) reaching up to 25 feet on average. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region it was very abundant near Amherstburg, the north shore of Lake Erie, the Lake Erie Islands as well as nearby Detroit, Michigan before 1900 leading to European settlers referring to the regions forest as being rich in "bush food". Some records include: 2nd year - 5 feet; 20 years - 27 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 70 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.4 feet; oldest tree of record - 70 years. Often in the wild it is found as a massive suckering thicket.
The double-toothed, taper-pointed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. They are deep green above, green beneath; turning to red or yellow in autumn.
The inch wide, unattractively fragrant white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne in umbels of 2 to 5 during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by small, yellow fleshed, red to purplish-blue fruit up to an inch wide, that is generally not eaten. This Plum is often used however to breed hardiness into newer hybrid Plum cultivars.
The rounded fruit are typically an inch wide but can be larger in cultivars.
The fruits are sweet tasting and good eaten fresh or dried.
The branches often have thorns that tip the spurs.
Younger trees have red-brown bark that is smooth and thin, while older trees have bark that is dark brown, scaly and peeling.
Hardy zones 2 to 9; tolerating as low as -40 F. Preferring moist, well drained, sandy soil, the American Plum is flood tolerant but hates soil compaction and is prone to canker diseases.

* photos taken on Mar 29 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Oct 3 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


'ECOS'
single trunked with no suckers and is extremely vigorous.
Some of the more interesting Japanese-American Plum hybrids include:

'Pipestone'
Large, sweet, red fruit. Hardy zones 3 to 8

'Underwood'
Large sweet red fruit. Hardy north to zone 3

Prunus andersonii ( Desert Peach )
A rhizomatous, stiff, spreading, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 x 6 feet, that is native from the Sierra Nevada Mountains over much of inland California to Nevada.
The small, oval leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are luxuriant bright green at first, later turning to gray-green.
The very showy, abundant, rosy-pink flowers are borne during early spring.
They are followed by abundant, hairy, small, rounded, orange-red fruits. The Desert Plum is very valuable for attracting wildlife.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 ( possibly 4 on protected sites ) on dry, sandy, well drained soil. It thrives where yearly rainfall is from 20 to 32 inches per year and is very drought tolerant once established.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Prunus angustifolia ( Chickaswa Plum )
Typically a fast growing, strong-branched, deciduous tree reaching up to 30 feet and is native to the southern U.S ( from Nebraska to eastern Pennsylvania, south to central Texas to northern Florida ). Some records inlude: largest on record - 86 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. This tree can also often be found as a wide suckering overgrown shrub or thicket in the wild.
The narrow, lance-shaped, pointed leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns yellow during autumn.
The leafstalks are usually red.
The small, white flowers are 0.3 inches wide and are borne in small clusters in very early spring before the foliage emerges.
Bright orange-red, yellow fleshed small fruits up to 0.7 inches wide follow.
The edible fruits are sour to humans but loved by wildlife. They are also useful in the making of jellies or dried for healthy snacks.
The branches have many spur twigs which often end in a thorn. The twigs are reddish and shiny.
The bark is reddish-brown and smooth.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. Drought tolerant.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


'Guthrie'
Extremely pest and disease resistant. Does not sucker and form colonies. Larger sized fruits.

Prunus arabica
A zerophytic shrub native to parts of the Middle East that reaches a maximum height of 5 feet. The stems are green and leafless along with white flowers. This extremely rare plant grows in arid climates only and is hardy only in zone 9 and warmer.

Prunus armeniaca ( Apricot )
A fast growing, flat topped, dense, small tree to about 30 feet on average, that is native from central Asia to northern China. It has naturalized in much of southern Europe. Some records include: 2nd year - 4 feet; 20 years - 24 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 55 x 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. The Apricot can live for 35 or more years and can be prone to borers. Seedlings tend to live much longer than grafted trees.
The finely-toothed, heart-shaped to rounded leaves are up to 5 x 4.5 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green. The leaves often turn to orange during autumn.
The 5 petalled, very light pink flowers, up to 2 inches across are borne in very early spring before the foliage.
They are followed by rounded, golden-orange fruits up to 3 inches in length. Sweet, edible orange flesh surrounds a single large stone which encloses an edible white seed. The Apricot can produce up to 4 bushels per year. Some plants self pollinate.
The glossy indian-red bark is smooth to lightly fissured.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on just about about any near neutral PH well drained soil. The Apricot prefers climates with hot summers and cold winters, similar to what is found in its native range. It is heat tolerant, salt tolerant and very drought tolerant due to its deep root system. The flowers can be prone to damage from late spring frosts. Planting in a south facing exposure may cause earlier than usual blooming that may end up getting frost damaged. Apricot trees should be pruned to a single leader and feathered when young. Bare root trees should be planted during early spring north of zone 6b, otherwise fall planting is also ideal. Turf grass over roots seriously reduces vigor and fruit production. Younger trees with thin back should be lightly wrapped during winter to prevent sunscald and rodent damage. The plastic tree wrap should be removed during spring once temperatures are consistently above freezing. Pruning should be done during early spring and trees should not be fertilized agter mid-summer.

* photo taken on Sep 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 22 2015 in Windsor, ON

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historic archive photos

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39538/

'Goldcot'
A rounded tree, reaching up to 30 feet.
The white flowers are followed by yellow fruits. It is self-pollinating.
Hardy north to zone 5, it was originally developed in Michigan for above average cold hardiness.

'Harglow'
A semi-dwarf, reaching only up to 18 feet in height. The medium-sized fruits ripen early. It originated at the Agricultural Research Station in Harrow, Ontario.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Highly canker resistant and also resistant to bacterial spot.

'Harcot'
Large fruits that ripen early. The flowers are more frost tolerant than many Apricots. It originated at the Agricultural Research Station in Harrow, Ontario.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 and is frost, humidity, canker, brown rot and leafspot resistant!

'Kreiger'
A large, fast growing tree clone.
Hardy north to zone 3.

'Moorpark'
Reaches up to 10 feet with large fruit. Is self pollinating and hardy north to zone 4

subsp. 'Mandshurica
Reaches up to 40 feet in height with the largest on record being 50 x 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet; largest in North Dakota - 32 feet. It is native to Manchuria and Korea.
The leaves are larger, up to 6 inches in length. It is hardy north to zone 3 ( can tolerate as low as -40 F ), surviving even in south-central Alaska. It should be grown on its own roots and hates hot humid regions where it gets rots and blights.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, Ontario



'Manchurian Bush'
A dwarf form, only reaching 10 feet in height and is hardy zones 2 to 7!

'Moongold'
Reaches up to 20 feet in height and is disease free. It has sweet golden fruit but is not self pollinating. Hardy north to zone 4.

'Scout'
Reaches up to 12 feet and is self pollinating and disease free. Hardy north to zone 3

subsp. sibirica'
Only reaches up to 8 x 5 feet but is hardy to as low as -50 F. The leaves are much longer and narrower.

Prunus avium ( Sweet Cherry )
A large tree to 70 feet or more that is a widespread native of most of Europe and southwest Asia and is the main parent of commercially grown Cherries. It is conical in shape when young and eventually becomes more rounded. Some records include: 20 years - 60 x 33 feet; largest on record - 120 x 64 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.7 feet. Very large trees are known to grow at Port Lambton, Ontario and West Chester, Pennsylvania. The Sweet Cherry can live up to a maximum life span of 200 years.
The sharply-toothed, taper-pointed, elliptic leaves are up to 7 x 3 inches in size. They are bronze when young turning to matte deep green then becoming reddish in autumn. While it looks similar to Prunus cerasus, only this one has more than 8 pairs of veins on the leaf.
The 5 petalled, white flowers up to 1.2 inches in width are massed in small clusters of up to 6, usually in April just before the new foliage appears.
They are followed by an edible, round, red berry up to an inch across that can be either sweet or somewhat bitter. A single tree can produce up to 100 pounds of Cherries per year. Cherries are rich in Vitamin A and C, Calcium, Copper and Potassium. The fruits are excellent eaten fresh ( remove the pits ) but can also be made into desserts, cakes, pies, sauces, preserves, drinks or dried fruit.
To get a good fruit crop, it is usually necessary to plant male and female clones to cross pollinate.
Despite being a healthy part of the diet, some parts of all Prunus trees should not be eaten. The leaves, bark and even the seeds are poisonous containing Cyanide.
Drying and cooking the seed destroys the cyanide in the seeds, the Native Indians used to crush the entire fruits including the pits, dried them and used them in cakes. Prepared in this way, the pits are nutritious, containing about 40% oil and 30% protein. An excellent drink can be made from boiling dried fruit in water. Sweet Cherry is often also used to flavor rum and brandy. Cherry syrup is also used to hide the taste of bad tasting medicines.
People have claimed relief from arthritis and rheumatism from eating up to 1/2 pounds of cherries daily. Cherries are highly valued as food by birds and netting may be necessary to protect crops from getting taking by them and other wild critters.
The reddish-gray twigs have burgundy buds in winter.
The glossy, reddish-brown bark peels in horizontal bands.
Hardy zones 2 to 8. Tolerant of heavy clay but sensitive to weed competition and animal browsing. Propagation is from seed that is stratified at 40 F for 3 months. Cultivars can also be reproduced from budding and grafting.

* photo taken on April 7 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Nov 30 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photo taken on Apr 28 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on May 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 13 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Apr 11 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39516/

'Asplenifolia'
deeply cut foliage

'Cavalier'
early to mid season, large, black, very sweet Cherries.

'Decumaria' ( Tobacco Leaf Cherry )
Foliage is huge, up to 12 inches in length. Flowers up to an inch across.

'Lappins'
Very large, dark purple, self fertile fruit.

'Macrophylla'
Leaves up to 9 inches in length, otherwise similar.

'Pendula'
Semi weeping growth habit

'Plena'
Very attractive with orange-red autumn foliage, double white foliage and peeling bark.

'Rpyal Ann'

* historic archive photo


'Rubrifolia'
reddish-purple foliage.

'Stella'
Self pollinates. Has large black Cherries.

* photos taken on June 8 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

Prunus besseyi ( Rocky Mountain Cherry )
Often considered to be a subspecies of Prunus pumila. Typically a medium size, deciduous shrub averaging 3 to 5 feet, that is native to the western North America ( from Saskatchewan to Kenora and Rainy River, Ontario; south to Utah to Kansas...also locally further east from Toronto to Newmarket ). It is endangered in the wild in Ontario. It is critically endangered in Saskatchewan. Some records include; fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet. It has reached 3.3 x 5 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario. It is often found on oak savanna and sandy prairies in the wild.
The toothed, elliptic to obobovate leaves are up to 3 x 1.2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. They are glossy silvery-green during summer and turn to crimson during autumn.
The abundant, fragrant, small white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in clusters during late spring. The flowers attract butterflies.
The purple-black, rounded fruits or cherries are up to 0.7 inches wide. They are sweet, juicy and edible.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun, it enjoys hot summers and is drought tolerant. It is valuable as a landscape plant and fruit producer in harsh climates such as the northern Great Plains and even interior Alaska.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996


'Pawnee Buttes'
A very attractive, low, groundcover shrub, reaching up to 1.5 x 6 feet.
The very glossy, mid-green foliage turns intense deep red during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

'Select Spreader'
An attractive groundcover shrub of horizontal habit, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet.
The mid-green foliage turns stunning scarlet-red during autumn.
The abundant, white flowers are followed by abundant black berries.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Prunus x blireana ( Double Pink Flowering Plum )
A small, dense, vigorous tree that is the hybrid between a double flowering form of Prunus mume and P. cerasifera. It typically grows with a rounded crown and drooping branch tips. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; 8 years - 15 x 20 feet; largest on record - 30 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet.
The leaves are up to 3 inches in length and are reddish at first turning to bronze-green in summer then to purple in autumn.
The large, double flowers up to an inch in width are bright pink in color.
They appear just before or with the emerging foliage.
The fruits are purplish red.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it has thrived at zone 4b Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada despite occasional winter damage during hard winters.

Prunus brachypoda
A small tree, native to western Hubei Province in central China that is similar to Prunus padus in appearance. Largest on record - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves are mid-green.
The white flowers are borne on showy, narrow racemes during late spring after the foliage has emerged.
Hardy zones 5b to 7 ( est ).

Prunus brigantina ( Briancon Apricot )
A small, deciduous tree native to a few alpine valleys in southern France & far northwest Italy, that can reach a maximum height of 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches. It is endangered in the wild.
The sharply-toothed, broadly-ovate leaves are up to 4 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in clusters of 2 to 5 during early or mid spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by sweet, tasty, small yellow Apricots that are much smaller than the Prunus armeniaca regular Apricots.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Prunus buergeriana
A deciduous, medium-size tree to 82 ( rarely over 50 ) feet that is native to central & eastern China, Korea & Japan.
The toothed, oblong or elliptic leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in panicles, up to 4 inches in length, during late spring. The flowers resemble that of Prunus padus.
They are followed by black "cherries" up to 0.2 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Prunus campanulata ( Taiwan Cherry )
A small, deciduous tree native to southern Japan and Taiwan that can reach up to 25 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 2 years - 6.5 feet; largest on record - 33 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches.
The double-toothed, oval leaves, up to 5 inches long, appear early during spring. The mid-green foliage turns to brilliant red during autumn.
The pendulous, deep red flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne in clusters in early spring before the foliage appears. In mild climates, the flowers appear in the winter. The are followed by small, purple-black "cherries".
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Prunus canescens ( Hoary Cherry )
A Chinese native that is typically a shrub to 10 feet though sometimes larger on ideal sites. Some records include: largest on record - 40 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The downy leaves are serrate edged and up to 2.5 inches in length.
The small, pink flushed white flowers up to 0.5 inches wide are borne in clusters of 2 to 5 in spring.
They are followed by red "cherries" up to 0.5 inches wide.
The bark peels revealing a very shiny, red brown layer below.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Prunus 'Carmine Jewel'
A shrub Cherry with potential as a crop in Alberta where few tree crops will grow.
It can reach up to 5.5 x 6 feet in 4 years, likely maturing at about 12 x 13 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green. The fruits are red.
Hardy zones 3 to 6

Prunus cerasifera ( Cherry Plum )
Typically a fast growing, dense, rounded, small tree to 40 feet that is native from eastern Europe to central Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 with reports of 9 feet; 20 years - 40 x 33 feet; largest on record - 60 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet. Moderately long-lived, trees up to 164 years of age are known.
The thin, toothed, oval or oblong leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bronzy-green during spring, turning to glossy deep green during summer.
The 5 petalled, white flowers up to 1.5 x 1.2 inches in size, are borne in dense clusters during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by edible, small "Plums" up to 1.2 inches across that are either yellow or red. The fruits are good for making tarts.
The bark is gray and smooth, with horizontal lenticals, becoming rougher and lightly-fissured in very old trees.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Heat tolerant. Pruning is often needed when young, especially training to a single leader and feathering since this tree is prone to suckering from both the trunk and the roots. May be used for hedging if trimmed after flowering though personally I prefer it as a tree.
Propagation of cultivars is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.
* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39510/

'Hollywood'
Typically a small tree to 30 feet though the largest on record is 40 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. The very dark purple foliage is up to 5.5 x 3 inches in size.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2011 in Ellicott City, MD



* photo taken on Apr 6 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 15 2014 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Lindayae'
Typically a small tree to 30 feet though the largest on record is 50 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Foliage is reddish in spring turning to green in summer. The flowers are light pink.

'Newport'
Typically a small tree to 20 feet though the largest on record is 30 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.3 feet. The purple-red leaves are up to 3.5 inches in length and the flowers are bright pink.
This is the most cold hardy of the Prunus cerasifera cultivars.

'Nigra'
Typically a small tree to 30 feet though the largest on record is 40 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 1.3 feet.
Dark purple black foliage.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo of unknown internet source


'Pissardi'
Typically a small tree to 30 feet though the largest on record is 50 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. The foliage in spring is ruby red turning to purple in summer. The flowers open from pink buds and turn to white. They are followed by small red "Plums"

'Thundercloud'
A vigorous tree with pink flowers and deep purple foliage.

* photos taken in Howard County, MD on July 2009






* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken in Columbia, MD on April 23 2010

* photos taken on Mar 17 2012 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Trailblazer'
Purple-green foliage follows the abundant white flowers. It was the most successful at trials at Dominion Arboretum ( zone 4b ) at Ottawa, Canada.

'Vesuvius'
Typically a small tree to 30 feet though the largest on record is 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.3 feet.
The very dark purple leaves are up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size.
Hardy north to zone 4 and is very heat and drought tolerant.

* photo taken on Apr 14 2013 in Howard Co., MD


Prunus cerasoides
A very attractive, fast growing, large, deciduous tree with a semi pendulous growth habit that is native to warmer parts of the Himalayas in Asia and can reach up to 70 feet. Some records include: 2.5 years - 6 feet; 4 years - 9 feet.
The bright green leaves up to 6 x 3 inches in size remain on the trees late into fall and in mild climates may even be evergreen until the following summer.
The large, bright red flowers up to 1.6 inches in width are borne in small clusters in early spring though in mild climates the flowering season tends to be earlier with autumn to early winter.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Prunus cerasus ( Sour Cherry )
Typically a rounded, deciduous, small, often suckering tree to 30 feet that is native from southeastern Europe to India. It is also naturalized in central & Europe from Norway to Poland. Some records include: largest on record - 88 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Largest tree known in U.S. is located in Calhoun Co., MI. A tree of 1864 years of age and 12.3 feet in trunk diameter is reported to grow in Japan.
The finely-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. They are smooth and glossy deep green, turning bronze in fall.
The white flowers are up to an inch across and are borne in long stemmed umbels during mid-spring.
They are followed by red "cherries" up to an inch across that resemble Prunus avium but are sour in taste.
The horizontal peeling, purple-brown bark also has horizontal, orange-brown lenticals.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( only hardiest of seed source survives north of 5 )

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39515/

'Austera'
Somewhat pendulous habit. Very large flowers up to 2.3 inches.

'Evans'
Very fast growing ( up to 5 feet per year ), reaching up to 15 feet.
It is extremely hardy, making an excellent crop plant even in the harsh climates of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

* video found on Youtube


'Montmorency'
Fast growing and disease resistant.
The abundant, large cherries are orangish-red.

* historic archive photo


'Morello'
* historic archive photo


'Northstar'
Dwarf in habit, reaching only 10 feet.
Self-fertile, it bears juicy, tart, bright red cherries.

'Rhexii'
Large, double white flowers up to 1.7 inches.

'Salicifolia'
Longer leaves up to 6 inches

Prunus x cistena ( Purpleleaf SandCherry )
A fast growing, ornamental shrub typically reaching around 7 feet that is the hybrid between Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii' & Prunus pumila. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 9 ( rarely over 4 ) feet; 10 years - 13 x 13 feet; largest on record - 14 x 23 feet. The Purpleleaf Sand Cherry is excellent for hedging and looks great around Swimming Pools with a stone mulch.
The attractive toothed, pointed, oval leaves, up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in length, are deep glossy red during spring turning to shiny bronzey-purple in summer.
The small white flowers during mid to late spring contrasts well with the foliage. They persist for up to 3 weeks.
They are followed by small, dark purple-red "cherries".
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It thrives in the northern Great Plains, even in Saskatchewan and actually prefers cool climates where they are more vigorous and far less likely to be afflicted by disease. Tolerant of wind and moderate drought.
Thin out overcrowded shoots immediately after flowering.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on August 3 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 3 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


'Big Cis'
Reaching up to 17 feet with a much heavier trunk and double the growth rate of regular Prunus x cistena. The leaves are larger and growth continues later in the season.

Prunus concinna
A pretty small shrub related to P. cerasus but much smaler, reaching a maximum height of 7 feet. The leaves are purplish at first quickly turning to green and the white flowers are abundant in early spring. Hardy north to zone 5

Prunus conradinae
An elegant, somewhat open canopied tree native to China that reaches up to 33 x 20 feet in 20 years.
The leaves are up to 4 inches in length and are medium green.
The fragrant, white to very pale pink flowers are borne in very early spring, before the foliage emerges. They are followed by small, red cherries.
Hardy north to zone 5.
'Semi-Plena'
fragrant, longer lasting, semi-double flowers.

Prunus cornuta ( Himalayan Bird Cherry )
A medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. It is native to the Himalayas to southwestern China; south to northern Burma.
The finely-toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are glossy bright green.
The white flowers are borne on drooping, narrow panicles, up to 6 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, that are red, turning to purplish-black.
The bark is smooth and purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 8b to 9 ( tolerating 14 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It requires a cool temperate climate and an average yearly rainfall exceeding 30 inches and is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.

Prunus cyclamina ( Cyclamen Cherry )
A small tree native to central China that can reach up to 25 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; largest in U.S. - 30 x 40 feet in Boston, MA. This tree can live up to 45 years.
The heavily veined leaves are coarsely serrated and abruptly pointed, up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size. They are coppery in spring turning to deep green above.
The deep rose-pink, fringed flowers up to an inch across are borne in clusters of 4 in spring. They are followed by small, red "cherries"
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Prunus davidiana ( David's Peach )
A fast growing, deciduous tree native to north-central and central China that can reach up to 35 feet or more. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 33 feet. It is rounded in habit with upright, whippy young branches.
The leaves are taper pointed and sharply serrate margined and up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green, turning to intense orange-red during autumn.
The flowers, up to 1 inch wide, range from white to light pink in color. They are borne singly during early spring before the foliage.
They are followed by edible, furry yellow fruits up to 2 inches across.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly even hardier for seed source from Inner Mongolia ). It has thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada but not borne fruit there.

* historical archive photo

subsp. 'Potanini'
The hardiest cultivar, hardy north to zone 3

Prunus dielsiana ( Taiwan Bark Cherry )
A small tree reaching a maximum height of 40 feet with mahogany bark.
The deciduous leaves are up to 7 x 3 inches. It is hardy north to zone 6

Prunus domestica ( European Plum )
Typically a broadly spreading, bushy, deciduous, small tree reaching up to 30 feet in height, it is native to the Caucasus in western Asia. It has also naturalized in much of temperate Europe. Records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 50 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The bluntly-toothed, shortly-pointed, oval to obovate leaves are up to 4 x 2.5 inches in size. They are dull deep green above and downy below; turning to golden-yellow during autumn.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 2 or 3 during early spring either before or with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by large, oval to rounded, edible and typically sweet-tasting fruits, up to 3 x 2.3 inches in size, that can vary from yellow to red to purple and blue in color.
The branches are sometimes spiny.
Domestic Plums are generally not self fertile and thus need to be fertilized by another clone to bear fruit. The fruits of Eurasian as well as North American Plums are great eaten whether raw, or cooked in pies, sauces, pudding and preserves. The can be dried ( remove the pits ) in an oven at 150 F or in the hot sun, then later used in baking, energy bars or for healthy snacks.
The seeds contain cyanide and should not be eaten ( would be a bit hard to chew anyway ).
The fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( possibly hardier as it has naturalized in parts of Newfoundland, northern New Hampshire, the Michigan Upper Peninsula and around Duluth, Minnesota ). Propagation is from seed stratified at 40 F for 3 months.

* photo taken on Mar 27 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* historic archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39511/

'Angelina'
Early season, light red fruit with yellow flesh.

'Italian Prune'
Vigorous growing with large, purple-black fruits with yellow flesh. Hardy north to zone 4.

'Mount Royal'
Exceptionally hardy north to zone 3 with purple skinned fruit.

'President'
mid to late season, large, purple-blue fruit with yellow flesh.

'Stanley'
Self fertile with large dark blue fruit. Hardy north to zone 4

Prunus 'Dreamcatcher'
A hybrid ornamental cherry that originated from an open pollinated seed of the Okame Cherry. It is rapid growing, forming an upright, vase-shaped tree reaching an average size of 25 x 15 feet. Some records: 6 years - 13 x 10 feet; 12 years - 25 x 20 feet.
The foliage is deep green, turning intense orange to reddish-purple during autumn.
The large, mid-pink, single flowers are borne in early spring but around 1 week after the similar Okame Cherry.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. This exceptionally trouble free ornamental Cherry is rarely bothered by pests or disease but still requires additional irrigation if a summer drought occurs.
Propagation is from softwood or semi-hardwood cuttings under mist ( using 1000 to 3000 ppm IBA in talc ) - rooting in 4 to 6 weeks.
A USDA introduction.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Prunus dulcis ( Almond )
A vigorous broadly-spreading, rounded, deciduous tree reaching up to 30 feet that is native to northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean region. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 8 years - 18 feet; 20 years - 22 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 40 x 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The deeply-taprooted Almond tree can live up to 80 years or more, come trees in the Middle East have been claimed to be a thousand.
The finely-toothed, oblanceolate leaves, up to 8 x 2 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The abundant flowers range from white to deep pink, are up to 2 inches across and are borne during early spring before the foliage.
They are followed by dryish, greenish fruit up to 1.5 inches in size, with edible kernals. Many Almond varieties require a pollinator because they are not self fertile. An Almond tree may bear up to 40 pounds of nuts per year. The nuts are rich in Copper, Magnesium, Vitamin E, Flavanoids, Protein and Fiber.
The bark on older trees is fissured and deep brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 10; they are best grown in dry climates to avoid diseases.
Cultivars are propagated from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39534/

'Alba Plena'
White double flowers

'Halls Hardy'
Reaches up to 20 x 30 feet and is hardy north to zone 5 if in a sheltered location where summers are hot.

'Macrocarpa'
Pale pink flowers up to 2 inches across are followed by edible fruit up to 3 inches in size.

'Roseoplena'
Large, double flowers that are deep pink in bud, opening to pink then fading to pale pink.

Prunus emarginata ( Bitter Cherry )
A small, slender, fast growing, oblong crowned tree reaching 25 feet or more, that is native to western North America ( from the Queen Charlotte Islands to Kitsault, British Columbia to Smithers, British Columbia to near Jasper National Park, Alberta to far western Wyoming; south to southern California to northwest New Mexico ). Some records include: 15 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 103 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The Bitter Cherry is often found in the wild colonizing cleared or burnt over land. It makes a very attractive landscape tree.
The leaves, up to 2 inches are similar to that of the related Pin Cherry but are on very short stalks and are more round tipped. It has been reported that smoking the leaves makes for a mild sedative. It is not known whether fire deactivates the cyanide in the foliage thus the smoke may be toxic and a health hazard.
The white flowers up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in corymbs of up to 12 during mid-spring with the foliage.
The rounded, bitter tasting fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, are red to black, ripening in mid-summer.
The branches have many short spurs. The twigs are bright red with paler lenticels.
The bark is shiny and red on very young trees, later turning to red-brown with orange lenticels that are horizontal.
Hardy zones 2 to 9. Tolerant of alkaline soils.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Prunus fremontii ( Desert Apricot )
A stiff, spiny, deciduous shrub or small tree reaching up to 13 feet that is native to Nevada and California, south into Baja. The largest on record is 17 x 10 feet.
The rounded, leathery leaves are serrate edged and up to 1.5 x 1 inch in size.
They are deep green above and pale green below.
The white flowers are up to 0.7 inches in width and are borne in early spring.
They are followed by small ( 0.5 inch ) dry, yellow, rounded, fuzzy fruits.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 and very drought tolerant. I have not come across this plant anywhere east of the Mississippi.

Prunus fruticosa ( Dwarf Ground Cherry )
Also called Mongolian Cherry. A heavily-suckering, thicket-forming shrub typically reaching around 6 feet in height that is excellent for use in erosion control. Some records include: 8 years - 9.5 x 13 feet; largest on record - 10 x 20 + feet. It is a widespread native from Poland to western Siberia; south to Italy to northern China.
The toothed, elliptical to obovate leaves are up to 2.3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The abundant, small, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne in clusters of 2 to 4 during mid to late spring either before or with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by small red tart fruits, up to 1 inch across, during late summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ), it is very drought tolerant. It is a choice plant for harsh climates such as Saskatchewan, Alberta and Fairbanks, Alaska.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39517/

'Scarlet'
Reaches up to 8 x 10.5 feet in 10 years

Prunus glandulosa ( Dwarf Flowering Almond )
A dense, medium-sized, deciduous shrub that can reach up to 6 x 5 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 8 x 6.5 feet. It is native to northern China and Japan.
The finely-toothed, narrowly-oval leaves are up to 4 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The abundant, double flowers are red to pink at first then gradually lightening to bright pink. The flowers appear during early spring before the foliage, over a period lasting up to 3 weeks.
They are followed by small, dark red "cherries" up to 0.5 inches across.
The stems are slender.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on fertile, well drained soil on a site protected from excessive wind. Pruning flowered shoots to near ground level immediately after blooming will result in vigorous growth that blooms heavily the following season. Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer. At Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada; cutting from plants have been survivers while grafted plants failed miserably over time.

* photo taken on April 10 2010 in Howard County, MD

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id217395/

'Alba Plena'
Large, double white flowers.

'Rosea Plena'
Double pink flowers.

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD


'Sinensis'
Large deep green leaves. up to 5 inches in length, and abundant, large, double, light pink flowers.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Prunus grayana ( Japanese Bird Cherry )
A deciduous, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40 feet or more, that is native to northern & central Japan. The tallest on record is 66 feet.
The short-stemmed, heavily veined, bristly-toothed, elliptical or oblong leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The smallish white flowers are borne in showy racemes during late spring shortly after the tree is in leaf.
They are followed by small, red to black "cherries" during late summer.
The smooth bark is blackish-purple.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it may be much hardier as there is a report of it testing as hardy at Indian Head, Saskatchewan.

Prunus 'Hanska' ( Plumcot )
A hybrid between Prunus americana and P. simonii that is fast growing and self fertile, reaching up to 20 x 20 feet. Hardy north to zone 4

Prunus x hillieri
A broad spreading tree that is the hybrid between Prunus incisa & P. sargentii. Some records include: 34 years - 43 feet; largest on record - 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, turn to bright scarlet red during autumn.
The very pale pink flowers appear with the emerging foliage during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, it is fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

'Spire'
A small tree that is conical when young later becoming vase shaped. Some records include: 33 x 10 feet in 10 years; largest on record - 40 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, broadly-oval leaves are up to 4 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first turning to matte deep green then to brilliant orange-red during autumn.
The abundant, single flowers up to 1.5 inches across appear with the foliage during mid-spring. They are light pink and contrast well with the darker bronze emerging foliage.
Hardy zones 4b to 7, it thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

Prunus hortulana ( Hortulan Plum )
A fast growing, dense, small deciduous tree to 20 feet that is native to the central U.S. from Nebraska to Indiana south to Oklahoma to Tennessee. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
It does NOT sucker or form thickets. The maximum longeavity is 70 years.
The oval foliage is finely hairy with a serrated edge, to 6 x 1.5 inches in size.
The leaves are luxuriant, deep-green and slightly glossy.
The white flowers, up to an inch wide are white, clusters in groups of 2 to 5 in spring after foliage emerges.
The thin fleshed, edible fruits are bright red or sometimes yellow and up to an inch wide. They ripen in late summer. The fruits are excellent eaten fresh or dried.
The bark is dark brown and peeling.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 and is often cultivated for its fruit.

Prunus incisa ( Fuji Cherry )
A fast growing, broadly-spreading, dome-shaped, small deciduous tree, reaching up to 40 feet or more, that is native to central Honshu in Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 20 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 60 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.2 feet @ NYC Botanical Gardens.
The sharply-toothed, taper-pointed, oval to obovate leaves are up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is reddish at first turning to green; then to fiery orange and red during autumn.
The large, white to pale pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are massed in a spectacular display before the foliage emerges during spring.
They are followed by small purple-black "cherries" during early to mid summer.
The fissured bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on acidic or alkaline, well drained soil. Can be used as a hedge if pruned after flowering but looks better as a tree.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id649884/

Prunus insititia ( Damson Plum )
Also called Bullace, is a thorny relative of Prunus domestica, that typically only reaches 18 feet in 20 years though the record is 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches. It is native to Europe and western Asia. It makes a great windbreak or screen.
The deeply-veined, bluntly-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is dull deep green above.
The 5 petalled, white flowers up to an inch across are borne in small clusters of up to 3 during mid spring.
The very tart tasting, edible, small, rounded, purple-blue fruit, up to 2 ( rarely over 1 ) inches wide, ripen in mid season and are green fleshed. They are used for making jam and in cooking.
The shoots are often spiny.
Hardy north to zone 5 ( possibly 4 as it has naturalized in parts of southern Quebec and central Maine ).

* photo of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39512/

'Mirabella'
Sweet, edible Plums that are range on the inside and the outside.

Prunus jacquemontii ( Afghan Bush Cherry )
A fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet, that is native to central Asia ( from Tajikistan to Afghanistan; south to Pakistan to northern India ). Some records include: 2 years - 10 feet.
The foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
The pink flowers are borne during mid-spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by edible, red cherries.
The stems are ruby-red
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, fertile, well drained soil. It is similar in appearance to Prunus triloba but thrives much better in regions with hot summers and mild winters.

Prunus japonica ( Japanese Bush Cherry )
Also called Cerasus japonica. A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6.5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet in height, that is native to Manchuria, Korea & Japan. It is rarely seen in North America however has thrived at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 3 x 1 inches in size, are deep green above, bright green beneath.
The white to pink flowers are borne during mid-spring either before or with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by red cherries, up to 0.6 ( 2 in subsp nakaii ) inches wide during mid-summer. The fruits are similar to that of Prunus cerasus and are used to make pies.
The stems are grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

* historic archive photo


Prunus kansuensis ( Kansu Cherry )
Also called Amygdalus kansuensis. A deciduous, small tree reaching a maximum height of 23 feet, that is native to mountains of northwest China.
The lightly-toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The small white flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in clusters, up to 2 inches across, during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by small, yellowish, round "cherries", up to 0.8 inches wide during late summer into early autumn.
The bark is smooth and brown. Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id491082/

Prunus kurilensis ( Kurile Cherry )
Also called Cerasus kurilensis & Prunus nipponica var. kurilensis. A deciduous, multi-stemmed, small shrub, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet, that is native to eastern Siberia, Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands and northern Japan.
The toothed, obovate leaved are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage emerges bronze during spring, turns to mid-green during summer then turns to brilliant orange and red during autumn.
The abundant, very pale pink flowers appear during mid-spring with the emerging foliage.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id1052505/

'Kursar'
Very upright in habit; it is actually a hybrid between Prunus kurilensis x P. campanulata. Trained as a small tree, it can reach up to 15 x 15 feet.
The foliage is reddish at first, turning to deep green. The leaves turn to flaming orange during autumn.
The scentless, deep pink, semi-double, flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, appear with the emerging foliage during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 4b to 7, in Ottawa, Ontario ( zone 4b ) the flower buds are often frozen during winter above snowline.

Prunus maackii ( Amur Choke Cherry )
A fast growing, dense, conical to rounded, medium-size tree reaching up to 50 feet that is native to Manchuria, Korea and surrounding parts of Russia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - ; 10 years - 37 x 37 feet; largest tree on record - 66 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. This tree can live up to 60 years.
The finely-toothed, oval, leaves are up to 4 x 2 or more rarely 6 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is purplish green at first turning to deep green then finally to yellow in autumn.
The fragrant, small, cream flowers are borne in dense racemes during mid-spring.
They are followed by small, black "cherries" up to 0.25 inches wide.
The peeling bark is shiny, orange-red.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( thriving even in central Alaska and the northern Great Plains ) in full sun on just about any well drained soil. Propagation is from seed sown during autumn. It the shiny bark becomes obscured with algae growth, use a soft brush and fresh water to remove it during summer.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario


* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook



'Goldrush'
Resistant to frost cracking

Prunus mahaleb ( Mahaleb Cherry )
A small, spreading, deciduous tree reaching around 25 feet that is native to central and southern Europe as well as central Asia. It has escaped into the wild in many parts of North America. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 24 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 50 x 52 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.2 feet. Moderately long-lived, trees up to 150 years of age are known.
The toothed, rounded leaves are up to 3.5 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is glossy, deep green above, bright green beneath; often remaining green into November.
The very fragrant, white flowers up to 0.7 inches in width, are borne in clusters of 5 to 10 during mid-spring.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.3 inches in width, during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39528/

'Aurea'
Foliage is yellow splashed
'Bommii'
Weeping in habit

Prunus maritima ( Beach Plum )
A typically medium sized, fast growing, suckering, deciduous shrub native to the east coast of North America on sand dunes ( from New Brunswick, south to Maryland and Delaware; as well as in northern Michigan ). It is endangered in Maryland where it is native to Arundel and St Mary's Counties as well as the eastern shore. It is also endangered in Delaware, Pennsylvania and Maine. Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 17 feet; largest on record - 19 x 20 feet. Gnarled old plants can be truly spectacular with the right pruning as to look like natural bonsai. The Beach Plum is a great choice for a tall hedge or shelterbelt planting.
The sharply-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 3.2 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is smooth deep green above and pale softly hairy beneath.
The abundant, fragrant, pure white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne either singly or in small clusters in late spring.
They are followed by abundant fruits, up to 1 inch wide, that are edible, purple in color and up to an inch in width. The fruits of some cultivars are tasty and used for preserves or even eaten raw. 2 or more plants are required for good fruit production. The fruits can be sun or oven dried for later use.
The bark is very dark.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. It has had mixed results in southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba in hardiness trials doing well in some years and having partial winter dieback in others. Very salt, wind and drought tolerant. Useful for exposed coastal sites on sandy soil where it thrives especially well.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id217401/

'Eastham'
Fruits ripen early.

'Grant'
large blue fruit, up to 1 inch across.

'Hancock'
Excellent tasting fruit
'Oceanview'
Originating from Cape May, New Jersey; this cultivar is exceptionally vigorous and dense, pest and disease free with excellent leaf retention. The fruits persist into October. It is hardy from zones 3 to 7.

Prunus maximowiczii ( Miyama Cherry )
A moderate growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree reaching around 30 feet that is native to northeastern Asia ( from eastern Russia to Sakhalin; south to Manchuria, Korea and central & northern Japan ). Some records include: largest on record - 55 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches. This tree can live up to 50 years or more. It has reached 25 x 30 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.
The sharply-toothed, obovate leaves, up to 4 x 1.6 inches in size, are bright green, turning to yellow and scarlet-red during autumn.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne 5 to 10 on abundant upright racemes during late spring after the foliage emerges.
They are followed by tiny, black, "cherries" up to 0.4 x 0.3 inches in size, during mid to late summer.
The bark is smooth and light reddish in color on younger trees; rough and dark gray on very old trees.
Hardy zones 2b to 6. It thrives in much of midwestern North America and is clay tolerant.

* historic archive photo


Prunus mexicana ( Mexican Plum )
A fast growing, small, deciduous tree reaching up to 25 feet that is native to the south central U.S. and nearby parts of Mexico ( Nebraska to Indiana, south to northeast Mexico to Alabama ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 46 x 38 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. This Plum does not sucker or form thickets.
The sharply-toothed, oval to elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size, are shiny, yellow-green above, hairy below in summer and turn gold to orange in autumn.
The creamy-white flowers up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in umbels of 3 or 4 in early spring before the foliage emerges. They are followed by fleshy, sweet tasting, purple fruit up to 1.5 inches long. The fruits are excellent eaten fresh or dried.
The brown bark peels off in scaly flakes.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. Moderately heat tolerant and tolerant of alkaline soil & drought. It also has superior disease resistance compared to most Plums.

Prunus mongolica
A xerophyte shrub native to desert grasslands in Mongolia & China ( Inner Mongolia & Ningxia provinces ) that reaches a maximum size of 6.5 x 10 feet.
The small, broadly-elliptic, obovate or rounded leaves are up to 0.6 x 0.3 inches in size.
The pink flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by cherries, up to 0.6 x 0.5 inches in size, during late summer.
The spine-tipped twigs are reddish-brown, later turning to gray-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 in full sun on sandy, very well drained soil. It has a very deep root system and can grow where yearly precipitation is as low as 2 inches.

Prunus mume ( Japanese Apricot )
A small, very dense, very lush, rounded, deciduous tree native to southern Japan that can reach up to 20 feet or sometimes more. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 5 years - 10 x 10 feet ( avg ); 20 years - 30 x 30 feet; largest on record - 35 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Generally short-lived, though some trees may persist for centuries.
The sharply-pointed, cordate or broadly-oval leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is very deep green.
The abundant flowers, up to an inch in width are borne single or in pairs in very early spring before the foliage appears. They vary in color from white through pink and are sometimes fragrant.
The sour tasting fruits, up to 1.5 inches across, are yellow though cultivars vary in reliability of productivity but are definately more abundant after hot summers.
The twigs are greenish in color.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 though some seed source and clones are only hardy north to zone 7.
Japanese Apricot prefers full sun on well drained soil as well as protection from excessive wind.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Alboplena'
Semi-double white flowers early in spring.

'Alphandii'
semi-double, pink flowers.

'Benishidori'
Similar except for fragrant, deep pink, double flowers.
The foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep green.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

'Bonita'

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Contorta'
Twisting branches giving it interesting winter form. It is otherwise similar to the species.

'Dawn'
A late bloomer with large, double, bright pink flowers up to 1.5 inches across.

'Geisha'
A very early bloomer with fragrant, pink, single flowers.

'Hokkai-bungo'
Double, deep red flowers borne early.

'Kobai'
* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




'Matsurabara Red'
Upright tree, reaching over 20 feet, bearing deep red, double flowers.
'Omoi-no-mama'
Similar except for fragrant, semi-double, pinkish-white flowers.
The foliage is bright green at first, later turning to deep green.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Somewhat virus susceptible.

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Peggy Clarke'
Deep rosy-pink, double flowers.

'Pendula'
A small, weeping tree, reaching up to 20 x 20 feet, with early season, pale pink, single flowers.

* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Rosemary Clarke'
Fragrant, pure white, large, double flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, otherwise similar.

Prunus munsoniana ( Wildgoose Plum )
A large shrub or thicket forming suckering, fast growing, rounded tree reaching up to 20 feet that is native to the U.S. from Nebraska to Ohio,south to Oklahoma to Tennessee to Virginia. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The narrow elliptic to ovate, curved, light green leaves are up to 6 x 1.5 inches.
The 0.5 inch white flowers appear in early spring either before or with emerging foliage. They are followed by yellow fleshed, small, sweet, bright red "Plums" up to 1 inch long that ripen in early summer. The fruits are excellent eaten fresh or dried.
The shiny reddish twigs sometimes have thorns.
The bark is usually smooth and brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Some cultivars occur and are grown for their fruit.

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