Monday, January 18, 2016

The Oaks - Part 2

This is the continuation of The Oaks - Part 1

Oak, Macedonian ( Quercus trojana )
A fast growing, dense, broadly-pyramidal, medium-sized, deciduous to semi-evergreen tree, that is native from Italy & southeast Europe to Turkey. Some records include: 13 years - 17 feet ( average ); 20 years - 33 feet ( average ); largest on record - 82 x 70 ( rarely over 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest in Ireland - 72 feet at Cork.
The leathery, sharply-toothed, oblong leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, are very glossy green. This tree often keeps its foliage until January, sometimes longer.
The acorns are large for an Oak.
The rough back is dark gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it is very well adapted to mediterranean climates.

Oak, Maple Leaf ( Quercus acerifolia )
This endangered native of limestone ridges in Arkansas is hardy far outside its native range to zone 3. On the best of sites this drought tolerant Oak can reach 60 feet in height and width with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 6.5 feet. Maple Leaf Oak is closely related to the Shumard Oak.
The leaves reach up to 6 x 7 inches and are shaped like that of a Sugar Maple. They are luxuriant green in summer turning to bright red in autumn.
The twigs are red-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Though it prefers hot summers, it grows surprisingly well in the British Isles, with 20 feet in 21 years being recorded.

Oak, Mexican Blue ( Quercus oblongifolia )
A rare, long-lived, evergreen Oak native to mountains from Arizona to western Texas; south to northwest Mexico. On good sites it can become a moderate growing, medium-sized tree to 50 feet with the largest ever recorded being 90 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. One nearly that size is known to grow in Hidalgo County New Mexico.
The oblong leaves have curled margins that are either smooth or with small teeth. The leaves, up to 4 x 1 inches in size, are blue-green. The acorns are small to only 0.5 inches. The bark is ash-gray in scaly plates.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( reports of 6 ), it is both heat and drought tolerant.

* historic archive photo


Oak, Mexican Chinkapin ( Quercus polymorpha )
Also called Monterrey Oak. An attractive, very fast growing, upright, large, evergreen tree that is native to mountains around Monterrey, Mexico as well as a few places in western Texas where it is threatened with extinction. Some records include: 5 years - 25 feet; largest on record - 80 x 60 feet. It is highly recommended as a street tree in central and southern Texas.
The thick, leathery, entire, oblong leaves, up to 7 x 3.7 inches, are bright shrimp pink at first, turning blue-green above, gray-green beneath. During autumn they turn glowing red. This Oak looks alot like the native Chinkapin Oak.
Hardy from zone 6b to 9 ( tolerating as low as -8 F ) in full sun to partial shade on deep fertile soil. It grows well in North Carolina, far outside its native range. Very heat and drought tolerant, it is also resistant to Oak Wilt.
The Mexican Chinkapin Oak requires hot summers to thrive.

Oak, Mexican Royal ( Quercus germana )
A fast growing, large tree, reaching up to 100 ( rarely over 82 ) feet, that is native to northeast Mexico where it is threatened with extinction. Some records include: 4 years - 15 feet.
The oblanceolate to oblong leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, are glossy deep green above, blue-green beneath.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 ( tolerates as low as 4 F ) but requires hot summers. Should be tested more in the U.S., it is known to thrive especially well in parts of Texas and Louisiana

Oak, Mohr ( Quercus mohriana )
An attractive, moderate growing, rhizomatous, domed, evergreen to semi-evergreen, small tree, reaching up to 20 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.9 feet. It is native from far southeast Colorado to central Oklahoma; south to northeast Mexico.
The smooth-edged or toothed, elliptic or oblong leaves are up to 3.2 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive, leathery foliage is glossy blue-green above, silvery-gray below.
The flower catkins are reddish.
The very rough, furrowed bark is light brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it is extremely heat, drought and alkaline tolerant.

Oak, Mongolian ( Quercus mongolica )
A huge Oak native to e. Siberia, southern Sakhalin, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea and northern & central Japan. Mongolian Oak as tested extremely well in climates as diverse as Maryland and Manitoba. Very dense with a full crown and also very fast growing where summers are hot ( not a maritime tree ). 3 feet of growth in per year is common, 6 feet is possible with a whole lot of pampering. At maturity the stately thick-branched Mongolian Oak can reach up to 130 feet tall and wide and with a trunk up to 10 feet across. Very long-lived, this tree can persist as long 800 years.
The strongly-lobed, oblong leaves are somewhat like that of the native White Oak but larger ( 12 x 7 inches ). They are borne in dense clusters at the ends of the branches. The glossy foliage is deep to very deep green. An extremely beautiful tree that is also early leafing out in spring.
The fissured bark is gray.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. It thrives in much of central and eastern North America, including the Canadian Prairies.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on Apr 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photo taken by Nick Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Oak, Moru ( Quercus dilatata )
Similar to Quercus prinus in appearance; this massive Oak reaches up to 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter up to 10 feet. It is native to the Himalayan Mountains ( from Afghanistan to Pakistan; south to northern India to Nepal ). Some records include: 15 years - 10 feet.
The smooth-edged to spine-toothed, elliptical leaves, up to 9 x 2.5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size, are mid-green.
The flower catkins, up to 2 inches in length, appear during late spring.
The bark is dark reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -4 ) on moist, fertile, deep, well drained soil. Moru Oak is best with cool summers and can be grown in the mildest parts of England. It does not grow well where temperatures exceed 90F.

Oak, Myrtle ( Quercus myrtifolia )
Native from Louisiana to South Carolina and south; this small to medium size Oak makes for an excellent patio tree. The largest on record is only 60 feet tall; 50 feet wide and 2 feet in diameter. The evergreen, leathery obovate foliage has smooth somewhat turned over margins and reaches up to 3 x 1.5 inches. The bark is light gray and the acorns are small to 0.5 inches.
The twigs are dark red-brown.
The Myrtle Oak is not tolerant of waterlogging and needs very well drained soil. Has very deep drought tolerant roots and is salt spray tolerant. Hardy north to zone 6 but is evergreen only zones 7 to 10

Oak, Netleaf ( Quercus rugosa )
A fast growing, evergreen Oak, reaching around 80 feet, that is native to the mountains of Arizona and sw NM south to Central America; often mixed into pine forest. Some records include: 4 years - 8 feet; 5 years - 12 feet; 30 years - 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - 120 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. It is moderately long-lived, persisting up to 150 years or possibly more.
The deeply-veined, shallowly-lobed, obovate to rounded leaves are up to 8 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is red at first, turning to glossy deep green above, whitish beneath. The hard and leathery leaves somewhat resemble that of the Swamp White Oak.
The acorns are small.
The pale gray bark is flaking and somewhat corky; the acorns are small.
Hardy from zone 6 to 11 ( tolerating as low as -15 F ). It is very rare in cultivation despite being a very attractive tree. The Netleaf Oak thrives especially well in coastal California and can also grow well in parts of Virginia & the Carolinas in the east.

Oak, Northern Pin ( Quercus ellipsoides )
Native to North America ( from eastern North Dakota to International Falls to Kitchener, Ontario, south to northern Missouri to northern Ohio ); this is a large deciduous tree with a typically short trunk and a spreading canopy. Considered rare to endangered in Canada and in Missouri.
Averaging around 70 feet, some records include: 18 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 130 x 122 feet with a trunk diameter to 5 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 76 x 86 x 3.6 feet at Morris Arboretum.
The Northern Pin Oak can live up to 300 years. Some very large trees are recorded near Waterloo, Ontario.
The leaves are very deeply lobed and bristle tipped, up to 7 x 6 inches in size. They are glossy deep green above and shiny light green with rust colored hairs beneath. The fall color is usually deep red and the leaves tend to last late and may remain on the trees dried for quite some time.
Unlike the related Pin Oak this Oak has ellipsoidal shape acorns.
The twigs are reddish-brown and the bark is dark brown and shallowly furrowed.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun and tolerates even the extreme winters on the Great Plains. Among the most cold hardy of Oaks, it even grows in Winnipeg, Manitoba and Calgary, Alberta. Also unlike the Pin Oak; this Oak is both drought and very alkaline soil tolerant; it prefers drier well drained soil ( clay tolorant if well drained ) and is intolerant of flooding. It is transplant and trees should be sown on site or moved while small.

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on July 17 2016 in Grand Bend, ON


'Majestic Skies'
A much improved form with a straighter trunk and larger, darker green foliage that turns intensely red during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Oak, Nuttall ( Quercus nuttallii )
A very fast growing, very large tree reaching around 100 feet that is native to the south central U.S. from central Texas to Missouri & southern Illinois to central Tennessee, south to the Gulf Coast. The Nuttall Oak grows with a strong central leader in a shape similar to that of the White Pine. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 8 feet; 5 years - 24 x 13 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.3 inches; 9 years - 27 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; largest on record - 160 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet across; largest on Colorado - 24 x 23 feet in Denver ( will eventually grow larger but shows it is adapted to drier climates ); largest in Ireland - 57 feet in Dublin. One of the largest known Nuttall Oaks grows in Meridan, Louisiana. A large tree grows in Philadelphia at the Morris Arboretum northwest of the Pennock Garden.
The Nuttall Oak is among the worlds fastest growing Oaks.
The deeply lobed leaves, up to 9 x 5 inches, are purplish-red at first, turning to deep green. The foliage turns to intense orange and scarlet-red during autumn.
The foliage is among the latest deciduous hardwood trees to color during fall in the east, even later than Scarlet Oak. The leaves to not remain dried on the trees during the winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( possibly 4 ), it is far hardier than its natural range would suggest. Though similar in appearance to Scarlet Oak, the Nuttall Oak tolerates drought but also tolerates extreme heat, flooding and alkaline soil unlike the previous. This Oak grows vigorously with healthy clean foliage throughout most of the midwest and eastern U.S. and makes an excellent tree for shading streets and parks.
Unlike many Oaks, the Nuttall Oak is easy to transplant.

* photo taken on July 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Burtonsville, MD

* photos taken on Nov 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


'New Madrid'
Produces colorful deep reddish-purple spring foliage from mid April to mid May. Tolerant to wet and dry soil. Vigorous and hardy!

'Sangria' ( Redleaf Nuttall Oak )
Foliage is deep red at first during spring and persisting for a few weeks. The foliage eventually turns to deep green, however deep red foliage often continues to be produced during summer.
It has a strong central leader and pyramidal habit.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Oak, Oglethorpe ( Quercus oglethorpensis )
A rare, deeply-rooted tree, reaching a maximum size of 82 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest in England - 30 feet at Hillier Gardens. It is native to the southeastern U.S. from Louisiana to South Carolina where it is endangered with extinction.
The oblanceolate to elliptical leaves resemble that of Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak and are up to 6 x 1.5 inches. They are glossy deep green above, velvety yellow-green below and turn red very late in the fall.
The bark is white and flaking and the roots are deep.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 It is flood and very clay tolorant but does not like transplanting. It can be grown far outside its native range and is reported to be vigorous in Chicago. Unfortunately, it can be killed by Chestnut Blight and not recommended for landscapes for that reason.

Oak, Oriental White ( Quercus aliena )
A large deciduous tree native to Japan and growing to as large as 100 feet tall; 80 feet wide with trunk diameters are large as 7 feet being recorded. Averaging 27 feet in 20 years; one good site it can become very fast growing with the record single year increase being 6 feet. The large thick, oval, foliage is regularly lobed and coarsely toothed, dark green above and paler downy beneath. The leaves look alot like the Chestnut oak and are up to 12 x 7 inches in size. Tolorant of hot sites and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic and Midwest. Hardy from zone 4 to 8 ( tolerates -25 F possibly colder )

Oak, Overcup ( Quercus lyrata )
From the mid Atlantic & southeast U.S. ( Oklahoma to Iowa to New Jersey and south ) this very fast growing Oak can grow huge; to 160 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 8.3 feet being known. The canopy is open and spreading with large massive branches. This is truly an "Oak on steroids!", some records including: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 8.5 years - 24 x 16 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.8 inches; 20 years - 45 x 35 feet.
Trees over 75 feet grow outside its native range in Cincinnati as well as 75 feet tall and wide in drought prone Pueblo, Colorado. One of the largest in Pennsylvania grows along the nature trail near the Pinetum at Haverford College near Philly, PA
Very long-lived, the Overcup Oak can persist up to 400 years.
The deeply-lobed oblong leaves, up to 10 x 7 inches, are reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green above; paler and smooth white-hairy beneath. They turn an excellent yellow-orange in the fall.
The bark is similar to Quercus alba White Oak.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 tolerating as low as -23 F or colder ( it is surprisingly fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario reaching 20+ feet ). Grows well on poor soils, urban conditions and wet sites. It requires hot humid summers to thrives and thus grows slowly in the British Isles.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historical archive photos


'Highbeam'
THIS OAK IS AWESOME!!! Forms a pyramid shape with a strong central leader with upswept branches, is heat, drought, clay and SWAMP tolerant!!! It is very ornamental and had no pests! Also very rapid growing and grows to 50 feet tall and 40 feet wide in 20 years and in fact will likely not exceed 40 feet in width due to its upright habit making it an excellent street and allee tree. The very shiny leathery dark green leaves turn bronze & red in fall.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Oak, Palmer ( Quercus palmeri )
An large evergreen shrub reaching around 12 feet that is native from central California ( rare ) to mountains of Arizona ( uncommon ), locally in southwest New Mexico and the Baja Peninsula. Very rarely it can become a small tree to 15 feet. Often in the wild, it forms inpenetrable dense thickets.
The leathery, thick, very spiny, rounded, Holly-like leaves are up to 1.5 inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green above and waxy yellowish below.

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Persian ( Quercus macranthera )
Native to the Caucasus and the mountains of Iran; this is a fast growing, large tree forming a tall dome shaped crown with ascending upper branches.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 13 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 120 x 80 feet and up to 4.5 feet in diameter.
The large, broadly-ovate leaves are 6 to 11 strongly lobed. They are up to 10.5 x 7 inches in size, deep green above, gray and velvety below. The foliage persists into December.
The bark is gray brown, thick and flakes coarsely.
Hardy from zone 5 to 8 and is extremely drought tolerant. It can tolerate very frosty 2 month growing seasons and hates summer heat. Not for the mid Atlantic and southern U.S. but thrives in the British Isles and western Europe. An extremely beautiful tree.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario





Oak, Pin ( Quercus palustris )
Native to North America ( from far southeast Nebraska to Iowa to southern Wisconsin to Saginaw, Michigan to the north shore of Lake Erie to Mass.; south to eastern Oklahoma to North Carolina ); this Oak forms a large dense deciduous tree. It is near endangered in the wild in Ontario where it now no longer occurs in the wild except in Essex and Niagara Counties on the opposite ends of Lake Erie. It likely previously occurred along the St Clair River and the middle Lake Erie shoreline. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region it was common in the southern and western parts of the county to as far east as Kingsville during the 1800s. It was also common on the Ohio shore and at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is also fast growing with some records including: fastest recorded growth rate - 1.5 inch diameter increase; 5 years - 25 feet; 12 years - 30 feet; 19 years - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 18.5 inches; 30 years - 70 x 40 feet, and eventually to over 100 feet on good sites. Trees as massive as 210 feet in height ( Ohio Valley ); 115 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 8 feet are known to have existed in the old growth hardwood forests that originally covered the eastern U.S.
The record growth increase recorded in a single year is 6 feet.
It also grows large in Europe and is known to reach 100 feet in England. Has even reached 75 feet in Colorado far outside its native range. The Pin Oak can live up to 300 years.
Pyramidal when young; the crown eventually becomes narrowly domed with slender lower branches that droop near the tips. These are called the "Pins". The leaves are elliptic deeply bristle-tipped lobed and up to 8 x 8 inches ( averaging around 5 inches ). They are shiny dark green above and shiny light green below sometimes with tufts of brown hairs. They turn very attractive scarlet in the fall then persist dried on the trees into winter. The bark is silver gray and smooth on young trees and becomes darker, purplish-gray and scaly with vertical streaks as the tree ages. Hardy from zone 3 to 8 and also flood tolerant. In the south it is replaced by the Nuttall Oak.
Pin oak is often found wild on sites that flood heavily during the dormant season but do not ordinarily flood during the growing season. It does not grow on the lowest, most poorly drained sites that may be covered with standing water through much of the growing season. However, it does grow extensively on poorly drained upland soil on the glacial till plains of Ohio, Illinois and Indiana, and n Missouri and Essex / Kent County, Ontario. The level landscape and presence of a claypan in the soil of these areas cause these sites to be poorly drained and excessively wet in winter and spring. Due to its shallow fibrous roots rather than the deep taproot of many Oaks; the Pin Oak is easy to transplant. This is one of the main factors of its abundant use in landscaping for its ornamental features do not exceed that of many less common Oaks. It is also somewhat tolorant of drought and very tolorant of clay and salt. In alkaline areas it is best to use seed of local trees since seed from acid soil clones will often turn yellow from chlorosis and stunt out on such sites. A good percentage of Pin Oak in the nursery trade come from southern seed source and thus grow poorly in places such as northwest Ohio and Ontario, Canada.
'Crownright' lacks the pendulous lower branches

* photos taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010












* photo taken on April 28 2010 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on Oct 30 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 2 2013 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photos taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA-NRCS-NPDT

* photos taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* natural grove on floodplain taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photo taken on Oct 26 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photos


Oak, Portugese ( Quercus faginea )
A moderate growing, dense, medium-sized, heavy set, semi-evergreen tree, rarely over 70 x 60 feet, with spreading branches forming an irregular crown. The Portugese Oak is native to Spain and Portugal. Some records include: 5 years - 10 feet; 20 years - 42 feet; 150 years - 95 x 98 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest on record - 95 x 98 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.9 feet. It is long-lived, persisting up to 1014 years. Among the most outstanding trees in the British Isles grows at the National Botanic Gardens in Dublin.
The sharply-toothed, oblong leaves reach up to 6.5 x 3.5 inches ( usually half that ). The foliage is a highly ornamental copper color at first during spring turning to glossy deep green above; gray felted beneath. In the fall the leaves turn glossy red in color and often persist until mid winter.
The acorns are broad ovoid.
The very thick bark is brown or gray. The timber is valued for construction.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating as low as -10 F ), it grows in all soils except chalk and is both drought and very heat tolerant. This Oak is highly recommended for Mediterranean climates only. It also grows in milder parts of the British Isles however does not tolerate the humid summers of the eastern U.S.

Oak, Post ( Quercus stellata )
Native to central and eastern U.S.; this is a large dense broad crowned deciduous tree to 60 feet however sometimes much larger. The largest Post Oaks recorded have reached as large as 140 feet tall; 100 feet wide with trunk diameters as much as 6.7 feet. It is moderate growing with 3 feet growth increase in a year being the record.
The Post oak is very long lived up to 450 years. It is often smaller than some of the other White Oaks but often this is due to its tendency to grow in the worst possible soils imaginable where many trees wont grow at all.
The deeply 4 to 6 lobed, obovate leaves, are up to 10 x 6 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size.
The rough-textured leaves are glossy blackish-green above, densely downy gray beneath. The foliage turns to bronze during autumn.
The drooping yellow flower catkins, up to 5 inches in length, are borne during spring.
They are followed in fall by acorns around an inch in size.
The red-brown bark is ridged and flaky.
Hardy zones 3b to 9 ( tolerating -40 F ). Very heat and very drought tolorant; the Post Oak can make an excellent urban street tree however care must be taken not to disturb the roots. Compaction and root damage from construction kills mature trees. The subspecies 'similis' can tolorate some flooding and survive on floodplains where most Post Oak wont ( it is also the hardiest to extreme cold and originates from the Mississippi Valley ). Tolerant of soil PH from 4.8 to 7.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Oct 12 2016 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on Nov 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Oak, Pyrenees ( Quercus pyrenaica )
A slow growing, very long-lived, rounded-crown, medium sized tree that is native to Portugal, Spain, southern France and northern Italy. It has naturalized in Belgium and is planted in the British Isles where it thrives. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 26 years - 43 feet; largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.2 feet; longest lived - 600 years.
The elliptic, leathery leaves, up to 9 x 5 inches, are deeply lobed though the lobes are often untoothed. There are usually 4 to 7 lobes on each side. They are covered in white hairs at first, turning to deep green and smooth above, gray-green hairy beneath.
The spring flowers are yellow drooping catkins.
They are followed by acorns, up to 1.5 inches in length, ripening during autumn.
The light gray bark is deeply fissured. The shoots are densely tomentose.
Generally hardy only north to zone 7 ( tolerating -4F ) it can be grown much further north with careful selection. There is a clone sold by Oikos Tree Crops that is hardy to -20F. The Pyrenees Oak has however been largely untested in the U.S. where our hot summers make many trees tolerate more winter cold than they would do in Europe.

'Pendula'
Is very attractive large tree with strong weeping side shoots.

Oak, Red ( Quercus rubra )
The Northern Red Oak is a fast growing, large tree, often exceeding 100 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 4 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from Lake of the Woods to Batchewana Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to most of southern Quebec to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, south to eastern Oklahoma to central Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very common on the Ohio shore, the Lake Erie island and all Essex County except Windsor during the 1800s. It occurred abundantly on the Ohio shore but was uncommon at Detroit during that time. It can live up to 700 years and some in the now mostly gone original Eastern Hardwood Forest grew to 200 x 130 feet in size and 11.4 feet in trunk diameter. Large trees exist today both in its native range ( 110 ft. height, 6.6 ft. trunk diameter in Harwich Township, Kent Co., Ontario ) and far outside its native range ( 90 feet in Colorado, 110 feet in Crowsley Park, Oxfordshire, England ). Red Oak us frequently planted for timber in central & eastern Europe. Some records: fastest growth rate - 8 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 0.4 inches; first year - 3 feet; 5 years - 20 feet; 20 years - trunk diameter of 13 inches; 25 years - 70 x 70 feet; 45 years - trunk diameter of 2 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
Its papery leaves, up to 10 x 8 inches, are matte green above, light green beneath. They are reddish in spring and turn scarlet and crimson in the fall sometimes persisting dried into the winter.
The bark is light grey and smooth when young becomming widely furrowed with age.
Hardy from zone 3 to 8 the Red Oak is drought, urban, salt and pollution tolorant but its deep wide roots hate compaction. They grow best on well drained deep acid soil in areas exceeding 30 inches of rainfall per year.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on April 23 2010 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photo of 19 year old trees taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on June 26 2011 in Bel Air, MD

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Aug 25 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA




* photos taken on Oct 30 2011 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on Sep 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Lino Della Bianca @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photos taken on Nov 4 2014 in Columbia, MD



* historical archive photos

* photo taken on May 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD





'Aurea'
Somewhat slower growing ( up to 45 feet in 20 years ) with foliage that is bright yellow during spring, turning to bright green during summer.

Oak, Rex ( Quercus rex )
A rare medium size Oak from se Tibet & Leos. The leaves looks like that of the Loquat and are up to 12 x 5 inches.

Quercus, Sand Live ( Quercus geminata )
Similar to the regular Live Oak but smaller. It makes an excellent patio tree with white christmas lights. Very fast growing to 20 feet tall and wide. Some records include: largest on record - 75 x 104 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.2 feet.
The foliage is similar to that of Q. virginiana but persists 3 weeks later into winter.
The Sand Live Oak is native from Louisiana to North Carolina; south to most of Florida.
It is hardy from zone 6 to 9 and evergreen from zone 7 and south.

Oak, Sandpaper ( Quercus pungens )
An attractive, deep-rooted, semi-evergreen, small tree, that is native from south-central Arizona to far north-central New Mexico to western Texas; south into northern Mexico. It makes an excellent shade tree for arid climates. Trees from the mountains of Sierra Madre, Mexico are much like regular Vasey Oak but much larger and much happier in the heat and humidity of southeastern Texas. Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 20 x 20 feet at The Henry Foundation, 801 Stony Lane, Gladwyne.
The spined, holly like, sandpapery, oval leaves, up to 4 x 0.8 inches in size, are deep green.
The scaly bark is silvery.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( northern New Mexico seed source likely to 4 & 5 ), it is very heat, alkaline, clay and extremely drought tolerant.

* historic archive photo


var. vaseyana ( Vasey Oak )
Also called Quercus vaseyana. A subspecies forming a moderate growing, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree, up to 40 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet. It is native to central Texas; south into northeastern Mexico. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The furrowed, dark brown bark peels in long strips.
Hardy zones 5 to 10, it is extremely heat tolerant.

Oak, Santa Cruz Island Oak ( Quercus parvula )
Typically a large evergreen shrub or small tree reaching around 20 feet that is native to the central coast of California. It is closely related to the Interior Live Oak but is much shorter - the largest on record is to 60 x 40 feet
The oval leaves up to 2.5 inches in length are deep glossy green above and dull olive green below. Hardy zones 9 to 10 growing in sun or partial shade. Requires a mediterranean type climate.

Oak, Sawtooth ( Quercus acutissima )
A very fast growing, large tree that is native from the Himalayas to eastern China, Korea & Japan. Some records include: first year - 2 feet; 6 years - 35 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; 10 years - 37 feet; 18 years - 70 feet; largest on record - 115 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. It is considered at risk of becoming invasive in forests in parts of the eastern U.S. Though not native to the U.S. huge trees already exist both in Baltimore City ( 100 x 80 feet ) and at Morton Arboretum. The largest in Pennsylvania grows at Tayler Arboretum in Wallingford.
Long-lived, the Sawtooth Oak can live up to 600 years.
The narrow oblong, chestnut-like leaves, up to 9 x 3 inches, are smooth glossy deep green above, smooth & paler beneath. The leaves are margined with bristle-tipped teeth. The foliage appears early during spring and turns yellow very late in autumn with the leaves persist dried into the winter. The spring flowers are yellow-green drooping catkins up to 4 inches long and the acorns are up to 1 inch long. These trees can produce acorns in as little as 4 years.
The gray-brown bark has deep fissures.
The Sawtooth Oak makes an excellent urban street tree and tolorates heat, drought and salt. It prefers acid well drained soil but can tolorate flooding.
Hardy from zone 4 to 10. Korean seed sources are the hardiest and can tolerate both -30F and late spring frosts with no dieback.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD





* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario




* photos taken on Nov 13 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


Oak, Scarlet ( Quercus coccinea )
Native to the eastern U.S. ( from Missouri to Illinois to Ontario to Maine, south to Louisiana to northern Georgia ), this is a fast growing, large deciduous tree with wide spreading branches on an ascending canopy ( young trees are more conical ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred on dry sand around Windsor as well as abundantly on the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s, it is now extinct in Canada. Often over 100 feet at maturity; some trees in the original hardwood forest that covered the eastern U.S. a few hundred years ago reached truly gigantic proportions.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 ( rarely over 3 ) feet; 7 years - 25 feet; 10 years - 30 feet; 20 years - 60 x 40 ( rarely over 40 ) feet; 38 years - 70 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; largest on record - 204 x 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. In England it has already reached 100 feet.
It is long-lived, lasting up to 300 years. The Scarlet Oak makes a great tree for street plantings and parks.
The oblong leaves, up to 9 x 5 inches, usually have 3 lobes on each side.
The foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green above, paler green beneath. During October the occasional leaf turns red on an otherwise green tree then the Scarlet Oak foliage begins to fire up when the Maple foliage drops, is rich maroon-red by early November and lasts all month, then turns brown and hangs on the tree through December or January ( in Maryland, earlier in New England ).
Fall color is among the most vibrant red of all trees.
The red-brown branches lack the "Pins" ( Pin like twigs ) and dropping lower branches of the Pin Oak.
The bark is light brown and smooth becoming shallowly ridged with age.
Hardy from zone 2 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very heat, pollution and drought tolerant. Can be prone to chlorosis leaf yellowing and stunting on alkaline soils ( though less than the Pin Oak ) in the Midwest and southern Canada.
This deeply taprooted tree can be difficult to transplant and is best sown on site or planted while small. Care should be taken with transplanting as root damage can impair growth for years to come.

'Splendens'
Large leaf form with very deep red fall color

* photos taken 2008 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 22 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co, MD


* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA


* photo taken on Oct 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD


Oak, Scrub ( Quercus dumosa )
A moderate growing, dense, upright, rounded, evergreen shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 20 ( rarely over 10 x 15 ) feet, that is native to much of coastal California; south to the Baja Peninsula. It is endangered in the wild as most native stands have been destroyed in the development of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles. Some records include: 11 years - 6.5 feet.
It makes a great garden bonsai with the right pruning.
The leathery, toothed or spiny, Holly-like leaves, up to 1 x 0.8 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, dull green beneath.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil. Extremely drought tolerant and deer resistant.

* photo taken by A.E. Wieslander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by N.H. French and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander & Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Shingle ( Quercus imbricaria )
A fast growing, long-lived, massive, domed, large, decidous tree that is native to the Eastern U.S. ( from easern Kansas to southwest Iowa to northern Illinois to southern Michigan to Pennsylvania to central New Jersey; south to far northeast Texas to central Alabama to central North Carolina ). It is endangered in New Jersey, Maryland, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia and North Carolina. Information on growth rates are inconsistant and depend heavily on growing conditions. It was considered very abundant at Cedar Point and elsewhere on the Ohio shore during the 1800s but was either absent or not observed on Ontario side of Lake Erie. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet; 8 years - 18 feet; largest on record - 140 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter up to 6.1 feet. It is known to grow 60 feet in Colorado, 100 feet in Oregon and 90 feet in England far outside its native range. The largest tree in Pennsylvania grows at Longwood Gardens.
The smooth-edged, oblong leaves, up to 10 x 3 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, are reddish at first, turning very glossy deep green above, grayish beneath.
The leaves often turn attractive shades of orange and red during autumn, often persisting dried through the winter. The foliage of the Shingle Oak droops gracefully unlike that of the similar Willow Oak.
The bark is gray-brown with wide shallow fissures.
Hardy zones 4 to 8; it grows best north of zone 7 b making it the northern counterpart to the Willow Oak. It has proven surprisingly fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario where it has exceeded 35 feet. The Shingle Oak is very drought, salt and urban tolorant. Very beautiful and makes an excellent street tree. It grows better than the Pin Oak on alkaline soils.

* photo taken July 2003 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos of unknown internet source

* photos taken on May 1 2010 in Ellicott City, MD










* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 @ University of Western Ontario, London, ON

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historical archive photo


Oak, Shumard ( Quercus shumardii )
Native to central and eastern North America ( from Nebraska to southern Michigan to Grand Bend, Ontario to Hamilton, Ontario to Pennsylvania, south to central Texas to northern Florida ); this Oak can be cultivated from Ottawa to Miami. It is critically endangered in the wild in New York State where it was once more widespread on Long Island. Shumard Oak is also endangered in Ontario where is occurs as far north as Grand Bend but not east of Strathroy. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was likely common in northern Essex County and the Canard River Valley during the 1800s. It was also locally abundant in Detroit and the Ohio shore during that time. It is a large deciduous tree often reaching to 120 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 4 feet or more. It can also be among the tallest of all Oaks and some of the largest ever recorded in old growth river valley forests reach up to 230 feet in height and 80 feet in canopy width with trunk diameters up to 11 feet! Some extremely large Shumards still exists in places such as in Overton Park Forest in Memphis, Tennessee. The largest tree in Pennsylvania grows at Longwood Gardens.
The Shumard oak makes a great shade tree and has a wide spreading canopy.
It is even known to grow 90 x 77 feet in drought prone Colorado far outside its native range. Fast growing with rates up to 6 feet with a trunk diameter increase of an inch per year being recorded. The Shumard Oak averages around 23 feet in height in 10 years, though may be much more on good sites.
This Oak is long-lived, up to 480 years.
It is endangered in Pennsylvania and in Ontario, Canada.
The 5 to 7 deeply bristle-tip lobed leaves, up to 10 x 6 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, are shiny dark green above and paler below. The foliage turns to orange and red during autumn. In spring it leafs out 2 weeks earlier than most other Red Oaks.
The bark is thick and furrowed with scaly gray ridges.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 ( surprisingly fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario ), the Shumard Oak thrives best on moist soil. It is very drought, flood, alkaline and clay tolerant as well as being tolerant of pollution and compaction making it an excellent urban street tree.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on Oct 7 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 26 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 15 2016 in Goderich, ON

* photo taken on Aug 23 2016 in Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Nov 28 2016 in Columbia, MD

* Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora

* historical archive photo


Oak, Silverleaf ( Quercus hypoleucoides )
Native to mountains of Arizona and New Mexico into northwest Mexico; this is a fast growing, dense, medium-size evergreen Oak on good sites reaching about 60 feet. The largest trees on record approach 100 x 50 feet with trunk diameters of 52 inches. On ideal sites it typically grows with a strong central leader.
The lance shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size and last up to 13 months. The very attractive, very thick, leathery foliage is glossy deep green above and striking silvery white beneath.
The acorns are small to only 0.5 inches.
The dark gray to black bark is deeply ridged and furrowed. This very rare tree prefers acid soil but is both very heat and drought tolerant and should be used more in arid climate landscapes.
It is hardy zones 7 to 10 ( reports of -22 F hardiness from Denver Co ). It grows surprisingly well in the humid east, at least as far north as Raleigh, North Carolina and also in cooler mediterranean climates such as Portland, Oregon.

* historical archive photos


Oak, Skinner's ( Quercus skinneri )
A close relative that is very similar in appearance to the Chinkapin Oak but is native to the high mountains of Chiapas state in Mexico as well as parts of Central America. It can become a very large tree.
The foliage very closely resembles that of Quercus muehlenbergii ( Chinkapin Oak ) except that it is intensely scarlet-red at first before turning to glossy mid-green.
It has among the most attractive foliage of all Oaks.
Hardy zones 9 ( possibly 8b - tolerates 17 F with no damage ). Outside it's native range it thrives best in consistently moist regions with cool summers and mild winters such as Cornwall in England as well as much of New Zealand and parts of coastal Chile.

Oak, 'Southern Cross'
An extremely fast growing ( avg. growth rate - 3 feet ), very large Oak with a strong central leader. Some records include: 16 years - 48 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches. It is the hybrid between Quercus michauxii and Q. alba.
The oblong leaves, up to 10 x 5.5 inches, are glossy bright green.
This tree is very pest and disease resistant.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( estimate ). Flood tolerant.

Oak, Southern Red ( Quercus falcata )
A moderate growing, large tree, reaching around 100 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( Oklahoma, Missouri to New York City and anywhere south ).
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; first year - 1.5 feet; 20 years - 60 ( rarely over 30 ) feet; largest on record - 210 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. Some old giants still exist such as 10 x 130 x 8.3' in Thomaston, GA; 140 x 130' in Harwood, MD and Colonial Beach, VA. Seedlings can grow 18 inches in the first year. In cooler climates it is slower growing however it still grows large ( 75 feet in 75 years in Boston as well as 70 feet at Kew Gardens in England ). This strong sturdy tree makes an excellent shade and street tree. It is long-lived, persisting up to 300 years.
The very attractive deeply cut leaves leaves are smooth, glossy deep green above and covered with brown hairs beneath. They stay green late during autumn but eventually turn orange before finally falling.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, requiring hot humid summers. It is deeply-rooted and extremely drought tolerant. Difficult to transplant, it is best grown from seed on its permanent site or planted when very young. Unlike the Northern Red Oak, this Oak simply will not grow in most of Europe and the Pacific Northwest where the summers are too cool for it's liking. The foliage is rarely bothered by diseases and thus remains lush all summer long.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Oct 8 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 17 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historical archive photos



Oak, Swamp Chestnut ( Quercus michauxii )
A very fast growing, long-lived, very large tree, reaching 100 feet or more, that is native to the southeast U.S. ( from southeast Oklahoma to southeast Missouri to central Illinois to northern New Jersey; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is absent from Ohio, West Virginia and Pennsylvania and endangered in Jew Jersey. Some records include: 1st year - 4 feet; 3 years - 18 feet; largest on record - 200 x 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.8 feet ( Marshall Co. TN - among the worlds largest Oaks in total mass ). Unlike many fast growing trees, this one is very sturdy and its strong branches often survive even hurricanes.
The coarsely-toothed, obovate leaves, up to 11 x 7 inches, are glossy green above, silver white beneath. The foliage usually turns red during autumn, its fall color is often as good as the Red Maple..
The attractive bark is light grey.
Hardy zone 5 to 10 ( -23 F ), it requires hot humid summers to thrive.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.




* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 16 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken by W.W. Ashe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Daniel O. Todd @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Sterrett @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Oak, Swamp White ( Quercus bicolor )
Native eastern North America ( from central Minnesota to northeast Wisconsin to Grand Bend, Ontario to Clinton, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to southeast Quebec, south to eastern Kansas to central North Carolina ); this tree grows with a massive dome-shape crown with large crooked branches. It is endangered in Quebec, Maine and North Carolina. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley and the Great Swamp, sporadic in remainder of county as well as Lake Erie islands and Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. A fast growing tree, some records include: 3 years - 18 feet ( from 4 foot transplant ); 30 years - 60 x 60 feet; 110 years - trunk diameter of 3.4 feet. Often over 100 feet; truly gigantic trees often grew in the original old growth forest that blanketed the continent a few hundred years ago. Sizes up to 160 feet tall; 135 feet wide with diameters up to 9 feet were recorded. One such tree with a 9 foot trunk diameter was recorded in Geneseo County, NY in 1880. The Swamp White Oak is a long-lived tree, surviving up to 400 years. Swamp White Oaks have already exceeded 60 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario.
The shallowly-lobed, oval leaves, up to 10 x 7 inches, are glossy deep green above; white felted beneath. The foliage turns yellowish-orange during autumn and sometimes persist on the trees well into the winter.
The bark is similar to that of Quercus alba White Oak.
Hardy zone 3 to 8, pest free and wind tolerant; this makes an excellent tree for planting on the prairies. Being compaction, clay, salt, heat, drought and pollution tolerant; this make an excellent urban street tree. It also tolerates flooding and swampy sites though prefers a deep acidic loam soil in sun or part shade.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.




* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co, MD

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken by J.F. Clark @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Louis Miller @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. Wetland flora

* historical archive photos


Oak, Sweet Acorn ( Quercus x deamii )

An extremely fast growing hybrid Oak of Quercus macrocarpa x muehlenbergii.
Has potential to grow to 200 feet tall; 80 feet across with trunk diameter of 9 feet
with extreme age. The foliage looks like that of Quercus prinus ( except somewhat downy below ); is up to 8 inches long and oblong with 7 to 9 lobes per side.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9.

Oak, Texas Red ( Quercus buckleyi )
A deep-rooted, long-lived, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 50 feet or rarely 80 feet, that is native to central Texas and most of Oklahoma. Some records include: largest on record - 106 x 82 feet with trunk diameter of 5.6 feet; fastest growth rate - 4 feet. It is very close to the Shumard Oak but smaller in all its parts. It is highly regarded as an ornamental and shade tree!
The leaves, up to 4 x 5 inches in size, have up to 9 bristle tipped lobes. The foliage is deep green above; smooth and green beneath, The leaves turn to vivid orange and red during late December before falling.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it is very drought and alkaline tolerant.

Oak, Toumey ( Quercus toumeyi )
A deciduous to semi-evergreen, small tree, native to mountain Oak forest from southern Arizona to far western Texas; south to northwest Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.8 feet.
The elliptical or oblong leaves, up to 1.2 x 0.6 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, gray beneath.
The acorns are up to 0.6 x 0.3 inches in size.
The scaly bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant.

* historic archive photo


Oak, Turbinella ( Quercus turbinella )
A very deep-rooted, rounded, evergreen Oak native to the southwest ( from southern Nevada to central Colorado; south to southern California to northern Mexico ). It is a medium-size tree reaching a maximum size of 66 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter up to 4.5 feet. It is often much smaller on the harsh sites that it grows. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet.
The leathery, holly-like leaves are up to 2 x 1.2 ( rarely over 1.2 x 0.6 ) inches in size. The foliage is silvery-green above, yellowish-green beneath.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 ( depending on seed source ) in full sun on very well drained soil. Extremely drought tolerant growing in climate with an average yearly rainfall of 16 and 32 inches.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Oak, Turkey ( Quercus cerris )
A very fast growing, domed, large deciduous Oak, it is native from central & southern Europe to the Middle East ( also planted often in much of western and central Europe ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 5 years - 13 feet; 20 years - 55 feet; 70 years - trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest on record - 150 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.6 feet. It is long-lived, persisting up to 614 years. The largest known trees in Pennsylvania grow at Haverford College near Philly and at the Charles Evens Cemetary in Reading. Another large tree grows at Fernhill Park in Philly. Having an open narrow crown when young; it becomes widely dome shaped as it ages. The Turkey Oak is very strong wooded and storm resistant.
The leaves grow to 8 x 3 inches, are oblong and shallowly lobed and coarsely toothed. They are rough in texture and remain on the trees late into the fall turning from glossy dark green to orange. It is among the last of all deciduous trees to turn colors in the fall.
The bark is light gray to dark gray-brown, thick, rough and deeply ridged.
Normally hardy north to zone 5 or 6 - one strain observed growing in Pennsylvania has been reported fully hardy in zone 5 and even tolerating - 30 F. The Turkey Oak loves hot summers and is lime, drought and very clay tolerant. Rarely seen in the nursery trade due to its deep taproot making it difficult to transplant, this high quality tree should be much more widely used even if grown from acorn on site.


* historical archive photo


'Laciniata'
Has foliage with narrow spreading lobes.

'Variegata'
Has very striking deep green foliage with conspicuous yellow margins turning creamy white in summer.

Oak, Turkey ( Quercus laevis )
A fast growing, medium-sized tree, that is native to the southeast U.S. ( from central Mississippi to southeast Virginia, south to the Gulf Coast and central Florida ). The Turkey Oak has an open rounded irregular crown and can live up to 160 years. Some records include: 90 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
A tree of 74 x 42 feet grows in Cockeysville, MD far outside its native range.
The leaves, up to 14 x 10 ( rarely over 8 x 6 ) inches, are very glossy deep green above, paler to orange fuzzy beneath. They are deeply 3 to 7 bristle-tip lobed.
The leaves are held stifly upright and turn very intense scarlet late in the fall. The leaves on some trees resemble that of a turkey foot in shape.
The thick bark is dark gray and deeply-furrowed with rough scaly edges. Hardy from zone 6 to 9 ( tolerates - 3 F or possible colder ). Extremely drought tolerant and grows best in sandy, very acid ( PH 5 to 6 ), very well drained soil. It requires hot summers to thrive, it will grow in parts of the British Isles however very slowly.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


Oak, Turner ( Quercus turneri )
A hybrid between Quercus ilex & Quercus robur Oaks; this Oak is semi-evergreen to evergreen depending on climate. It can grow to 130 feet in height; 100 feet across with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet with a massive spreading dome shaped crown. Fast growing; the most yearly growth increase recorded is 5 feet.
The leaves are leathery with 3 to 5 triangular teeth on either side. They reach up to 5 x 2.5 inches and are dark green above, paler below. Yellow green drooping late spring catkins later become acorns that are few and small, less than an inch in size. The bark is dark gray and cracked into plates.
A very handsome tree; hardy from zone 6 to 9.

* historic archive photo


Oak, Ubame ( Quercus phillyroides )
With the cultivar 'Emerald' being superior as a landscape tree, this rare moderate growing, dense, rounded medium-sized, evergreen tree is native to China and Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 20 years - 27 x 10 feet; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. Very long lived, there are reports of trees as old as 2000 years.
The leathery, oval leaves, are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage is bronze-red at first, turning glossy deep green on both sides during the remainder of the year.
The bark is dark gray with shallow vertical fissures.
It is hardy from zone 6 to 10, it thrives in the hot humid southeastern U.S. as well as mediterranean climates. Very drought and pollution tolerant. Tolerates shearing.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Oak, Valley ( Quercus lobata )

Also called California White Oak; this is a fast growing, massive domed, heavy set, large tree living up to 600 years and reaching up to 100 feet or more. It is native to the central Valley of California where unfortunately the draining of groundwater to below 70 feet has killed thousands of mature trees. Otherwise it is very hardy and is NOT prone to Sudden Oak Death. Some records include: 5 years - 20 feet; 10 years - 40 feet; 20 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 180 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 feet. It has been reported to grow to 90 feet in England but does not grow in the central and Eastern U.S due to its dislike of humid summers.
The leaves, up to 7 x 3.3 inches, are glossy deep green above and downy, pale green beneath, with broad rounded lobes. The fall color is yellow to orange fading to brown late in the fall.
The acorns are long ( up to 3 inches ) and pointed.
The acorns are of excellent quality and up to a ton of acorns have been reported in a single year on a large tree. It was among the most important of all Oak to the Native Indians.
The thick bark ( up to 6 inches thick )is light gray and broken into square plates. Prefers soil PH from 4.5 to 8. This tree grows far better on sites where there is no lawn and has total weed control beneath. It should not be watered in the summer once established and fungicides or insecticides should not be used near it. This is truly a Mediterranean climate tree typified by wet winters and dry summers. It is hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( 6 possible on very sheltered site ).

* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken by G.B. Sudworth @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by L.C. Miller @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by T.P. Lukens @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photo taken by C. Ray Clar and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Oak, Vallonea ( Quercus macrolepis )
A dense, broad-spreading, heavy-set, deciduous to semi-evergreen, medium-sized tree, that is native to southeast Italy, the Balkans, Greece & southeast Turkey. It reaches a maximum size of 85 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Some records include: 17 years - 20 feet.
The 6 to 14 lobed leaves are deeply cut and often fiddle-shaped, up to 6 x 2 inches in size.
The rugged bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, it is drought tolerant and grows best in Meditteranean climates. Hot summers are a necessity.


* historical archive photo

* link to photo on external website of one of largest on record
http://www.monumentaltrees.com/nl/fotos/11691/

'Hemelrijk Silver'
Very large, silvery-green leaves.

Oak, Water ( Quercus nigra )
A fast growing, broad, dome-shaped, large tree that is native to the southern & Mid Atlantic U.S.A. ( from Oklahoma to Delaware & New Jersey; south to Texas and central Florida ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 5 years - 25 feet, largest on record - 150 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 feet. One of the largest Water Oaks ever known grows at Roseland Plantation, Concordia Parish, Louisiana.
The record growth rate is 6 feet.
The thick, leathery leaves have a distinct trident shape or also can be oval and variously lobed. They are up to 10 x 6 inches in size ( averaging half that ) and are glossy deep green above, glossy light green below. They remain green late in the fall and do not fall until well into December even in Ohio. Semi-evergreen in the Deep South.
The acorns are an important food for waterfowl.
The bark is dark gray-black and develops scaly ridges.
Grows best in deep, fertile moist soil; this Oak is very tolorant of flooding and often grows in swamps in the wild.
Easy to transplant and drought tolerant. Hardy from zone 5 to 10 possibly even zone 4. Known to tolorate -23 F in Michigan. A handsome extremely graceful shade tree that is very heat and clay tolerant.

* photos taken on October 9 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ Univesity of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by R.K. Winters @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Louis C. Maisenhelder @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

* historic archive photos


Oak, White ( Quercus alba )
A moderate growing, large deciduous tree that often exceeds 100 feet. It also grows large outside its native range and one in Colorado is over 70 feet. A huge White Oak with a trunk width well over 6 feet across grows as far north as near Peterborough, Ontario. The largest trees in the original old growth forest that blanketed eastern North America ( from central Minnesota to far northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Parry Sound, Ontario to Petawawa, Ontario to southeast Quebec and southern Maine; south to eastern Texas to far northern Florida ) during the times of the Native Indians reached up to 240 feet in height, 160 feet in width and 11 feet in trunk diameter. This rivals the largest trees in the Amazon Valley of South America. A mature White Oak usually has a straight and massive trunk supporting spreading branches and a massive broad canopy of foliage. The White Oak lives up to 1000 years. Some records include: first year - 9 inches; 10 years - 27 x 12 ( usually much less ) feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches; 20 years - trunk diameter of 12 inches; 70 years - 100 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 3 feet. A tree cut in Tucker County, West Viginia in 1913 had a trunk 13 feet in diameter at 16 feet in height, 10 feet in diameter at 31 feet from the base. Another tree in Mingo County, WV known as the Mingo Oak had exceeded 200 feet in height. It died possibly from pollution caused by coal burning in 1938. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant on the Lake Erie islands, the Ohio shore and throughout Essex County except Point Pelee during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The deeply and irregularly lobed, oval leaves are pinkish-red to soft green when young turning in summer to deep green above and whitish below. In late fall the leaves turn purple-crimson and often remain very late on the trees. The leaves can reach up to 11 x 8 inches in size but are more often half that. The stiff foliage does not sway in breezes or droop.
The White Oak produces acorns in 20 years. A 70 foot tall and 2 feet in diameter tree at 70 years old in Virginia was known to have produce 60 000 acorns. A grove of such can produce 200 000 acorns per acre. This tree is extremely valuable as winter food for wildlife and if the Oak ever disappeared many of our birds and animals would disappear with it. The sweet tasting acorns can be eaten fresh after shelling.
The bark is light gray with lifting plates between deep parallel fissures.
The wood is hard heavy and strong and is excellent for furniture. The White Oak is hardy on most well drained soils in eastern North America from zone 3 to 9. It grows best with hot summers so it is not recommended in maritime western Europe where its growth is slow.
A one year old seedling may only be 4 inches tall yet have a taproot over 12 inches deep. The White Oak is best planted in its permanent location with protection from animals for it's first few years ( a screen cage is good ). Its deep taproot makes it difficult to transplant but also makes it extremely drought tolorant and tolerant of high winds. The White Oak is salt and pollution tolerant but does not like disturbance and compaction of its roots.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* August 2009 Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania




* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010







* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.













* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on Oct 9 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken by William R. Barbour @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* offspring of record size Wye Oak photo taken on Apr 8 2015 in Towson, MD

* photo taken by C.R. Lockard @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by R.R. Reynolds @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Apr 2011 in Ellicott City, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photos

* photos taken on Oct 6 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Nov 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


'Regal Prince'
Fast growing, columnar and exceptionally hardy, reaching up to 9.5 x 2.5 feet in 5 years. The foliage is deep green above, silvery beneath.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, thriving even in Alberta, Canada.

Oak, Willow ( Quercus phellos )
A very fast growing, massive, stately, large, deciduous tree, often exceeding 100 feet, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( Oklahoma and southern Missouri to Philadelphia and New York City; south to the Gulf Coast ). It is endangered in New York State. A young tree is pyramidal and shaped similarily to the Pin Oak, and an older tree is spreading and truly massive. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - trunk diameter increase of 1.25 inches; 2 years - 5 feet; 5 years - 25 feet; 9 years - 28 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches; 12 years - 29 x 18 feet; 17 years - 50 feet; 38 years - 90 x 70 feet with a diameter of 3 feet ( Columbia, MD ); 60 years - 145 feet; largest on record - 160 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.7 feet. Record size trees with trunk diameters of 8.5 feet are known from both Nuxubee Co., GA and Memphis, TN. One of 126 X 106 X 8 feet grew in Easton, MD. Another tree of 7.2 foot diameter was recorded from Bryn Mawr, PA. In PA the Willow Oak was originally found wild from Philadelphia to the Delaware border; it is now endangered there. The Willow Oak is long-lived, persisting up to 300 years. It is among the best street trees for the southeast and Mid Atlantic regions of the U.S. This majestic tree was the favorite of U.S. president Thomas Jefferson, and he planted alot - and it is still commonly planted in the Washington, D.C region.
The long, narrow leaves, up to 7 x 1 inches, are glossy luxuriant mid-green.
They stay green very late into the fall when they turn yellow, orange and sometimes red and often stay on the tree long into December.
The bark is light brown and ridged.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( reported to tolerate as low as -25 F ), healthy trees grow at Ohio State University and it successfully grows even in Minnesota. The Willow Oak is very heat and moderate salt tolerant and deep rooted on drier sites yet adaptable to wetter sites where it can tolerate up to 2 months submersion. It is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease. While it prefers hot humid summers, it is known to reach over 70 feet at Kew Gardens in England.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum







* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Apr 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC








* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.





* photo taken on October 24 2010 in Arlington, VA


* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 north of Laurel, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Oct 26 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 9 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* historic archive photo


Additional Oaks:

Quercus berberidifolia - 10 x 5 feet and bonsai like in appearance. Extremely drought tolerant

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