Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Pines - part 2

A continuation of Part 1

Pinus palustris ( Longleaf Pine )
Native to the southeast U.S. ( from eastern Texas to far southern Arkansas to northern Alabama to southeastern Virgnia; south to the Gulf Coast and central Florida ); this is a tall Pine that often forms pure stand forest
on sandy soils. It is endangered in Virginia. While slow to establish when in competition with grasses and brush; it can also become very fast growing once established. While growth rates up to 5 feet are extremely rare; it has been recorded growing to 10 feet in 3 years; 43 feet in 18 years; 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 17 inches in 36 years; trunk diameter of 2.5 feet in 50 years and eventually to 120 feet. This Pine once formed massive tracts of open forests in dry sandy areas of the south; fire cleared out the undergrowth and kept the forest open and free from competition. In such an environment these Pines protected from ground fire by their thick bark reached massive ages ( up to 500 years ) and sizes up to 200 feet tall; 80 feet in width and 9 feet in diameter. Most of these old growth Pine forest have been destroyed over the past 150 years and much of the wildlife they sustained including a few species of woodpeckers and the Diamondback Rattlesnake are now endangered. Before European settlement the Longleaf Pine pine forest dominated as much as 90,000,000 acres stretching from Virginia south to Florida and west to eastern Texas. 97% of this has disappeared since 1800.
The Longleaf Pine is very ornamental and typically has an open crown of very ornamental foliage and a straight trunk. The needles in 3s ( less often 2 to 5s )are green and very long up to 14 inches ( sometimes even as much as 26 inches ) that are clustered at the branch tips. They only persist 2 years.
The cones are large with short thorns at the tips and are brown.
The twigs are orange-brown and very thick.
The bark is orangish and rough with scaly plates.
The wood is valuable for lumber and is moderately good for using for firewood and construction. It gives off around 18 million BTU per cord.
This tree needs to be kept clear of vegetation when young; if not then quite often it will remain a tuft of grassy needles for years before finally deciding to grow. The Longleaf Pine is salt tolorant and hardy far north of its native range. It grows from zone 6 to 10. It is known to tolorate -20 F as well as temporary flooding though may be prone to breakage in ice storms. Grown as an ornamental in DC, Baltimore and Philly ( 53 x 36 feet at Morris Arboretum ).

* photo found on internet of Longleaf Pine colonizing old field

* photo taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC





* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


* photo taken by Paul S. Carter @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by E.J. Davidson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Daniel O. Todd @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.



* historical archive photos



























Pinus parviflora ( Japanese White Pine )
Usually slow to moderate growing, though Japanese White Pine is usually not seen as a very large tree in the U.S., extremely old trees can reach sizes of 125 x 90 x 8 feet. The maximum size for 17 years would be 40 x 36 feet. It is native to the Ussuri Region of southeast Russia, Korea & Japan. Long-lived, it can persist as long as 500 years.
The soft, blue green, stiff, curved needles in 5 s, reach up to 3 inches in length. They can last up to 4 years.
The cones are red-brown and up to 4 inches. This Pine is popular for bonsai.
The bark is smooth and gray, later becoming reddish and scaly with deep fissures.
It is disease resistant and is not bothered by salt spray making it a suitable tree for the seashore. The Japanese White Pine prefers cool soil ( mulching is good ) and is hardy from zones 3 to 7. It is rarely grown in the U.S. The Japanese White Pine likes deep cold winter dormancy and a mild dry summer without extreme heat or high humidity. It can be prone to fungal diseases and foliage can be scorched above 95 F. 105 F can kill. Salt tolorant.




* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Oct 30 2014 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Estate, Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA













* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photos



'Adcocks Dwarf'
Slow growing, dwarf and upright-conical, reaching up to 5 x 3 feet in 10 years usually growing at about 3 inches per year. Eventually it can reach 10 x 7 feet.
The short, twisted green needles densely clothe the stems.

'Aoba Jo'

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Awa-Kawa'
Looks like a windblown miniature tree in habit. Makes a great natural bonsai and is in fact often used for bonsai. It is slow growing, reaching up to 6 x 8 feet in 10 years. The foliage is blue-green.

'Bergmannii'
Dense and upright, reaching up to 8 x 4 feet in 10 years, eventually domed and spreading, up to 10 x 20 feet.
The twisted bluish-green needles that are longer than usual.

'Brevifolia'
Narrow upright in habit, reaching up to 10 x 5 feet in 10 years and eventually as much as 33 x 16 feet after over a century.
The short blue-green needles densely clothe the stems.

'Glauca Compacta'
A compact, narrow pyramidal form, reaching up to 8 x 4 feet in 10 years, eventually more.
The foliage is blue-green.

'Glauca Nana'
A slow growing, compact, narrow, upright dwarf, reaching up to 3 x 2 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 10 x 7 feet.
The twisted needles are silver-blue.

'Tempelhof'
Very fast growing and vigorous, reaching an average of 12 x 4 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 40 x 30 feet or more.
The straight needles are very blue.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 in Columbia, MD





* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 13 2015 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on May 14 2015 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Feb 26 2017 in Columbia, MD


Pinus patula ( Mexican Weeping Pine )
Also called Jelecote Pine. A very attractive, heavy set, wide conical tree with a horizontal branching habit that is native to the mountains of Mexico. Very fast growing with reports of 30 feet in 5 years; 12 inches in diameter in 10 years; and 50 feet in height in 8 years; 120 feet in 20 years; 2 foot diameter in 30 years; 170 feet in 50 years. The largest on record is 190 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The rich bright green foliage is soft, fine, long and weeping, in 3 s and up to 12 inches in length.
The brown cones occur in clusters from 2 to 5.
The bark is reddish.
Can tolerate light frost while growing and is also tolerant of poor soil. An excellent shade and shelter tree. Resistant to Oak Root Fungus and hardy from zone 7 to 10. Considered a weed in Hawaii. Thrives in coastal Georgia / Carolinas as well as in parts of California including University of California Davis Arboretum.
It grows well planted at high elevations in Ecuador and Bolivia ( 3300 to 3500 meters ) as well as high elevations in Hawaii. In Córdoba and San Luis provinces in Argentina it is planted for forestation purposes for creating forest in lands originally covered by bushland. It has been introduced near sea level : New South Wales, Australia, where it spreads naturally by wind and grows well because rainfall is abundant in summer. It was also introduced in New Zealand as a timber tree and is now fully naturalized. It is cultivated and thrives in England as an ornamental.
Prefers climates with 30" ( 75cm ) or more rainfall in a year.

Pinus peuce ( Macedonian Pine )
A very large tree native to mountains in the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. The Macedonian Pine grows with a slender conical crown often branched to the ground and is moderate growing. It can reach 50 feet in 20 years ( usually around 30 feet ) and 85 feet in 65 years. The largest ones recorded have reached as large as 135 feet in height; 40 feet in diameter with trunk diameters up to 6 feet.
The soft blue-green foliage is dense and attractive, in 5s and is up to 6 inches in length.
The cones are pendulous and narrow, up to 4.5 inches in length
The fissured bark is brown..
Resistant to Blister Rust and also reported to tolerate - 60 F! and alot of wind. It has even escaped into the wild in part of eastern Finland and is frequently planted at high elevations in Germany.. A highly recommended tree for colder continental climates in North America. Hardy zones 2 to 7, it does not tolerate hot humid summers in the southeastern U.S. but is more tolerant of wet soils than most pines.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


Pinus pinaster ( Maritime Pine )
Also called the Cluster Pine; it is native to the Mediterranean and grows large with a high rounded canopy. It is also frequently planted in western Francce & milder parts of the British Isles. The Maritime Pine is very fast growing. Some records include: 5 years - 14 feet; 6 years - 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 inches; 10 years - 30 feet; 15 years - 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; 20 years - 50 feet; 35 years - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; largest on record - 135 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. The Maritime Pine can live up to 150 years. Much of the worlds supply of resin comes from tapping the trunk of this tree, especially in France.
The needles are long, stiff, shiny, in pairs, gray-green and reach up to 10 inches in length.
The bark is very ornamental with red brown fissured between gray plates.
Difficult to transplant other than when very small; this Pine is highly recommended for Coastal areas where it grows well. It loves light sandy soils but dislikes drought. Hardy zones 7 to 10 and tolorates as low as -1 F. Reported to grow well in Clarke County, Virginia; otherwise it is not well known in the eastern U.S.

* historic archive photos



'Aberdoniae'
Tall with stout spreading branches and rich green leaves.

Pinus pinceana ( Weeping Pinyon )
A small tree from dry regions of Mexico with a dense rounded crown that is pendulous like the Weeping Willow. It is rapid growing and can reach up to 60 feet on good sites. The drooping needles are soft bright green and drooping; up to 8 inches. the pendulous cones up to 3 inches ripen to bright orange. The bark is smooth and gray. This tree is threatened with extinction in the wild. Hardy from zone 7 to 10

Pinus pinea ( Stone Pine )
Native to southern Europe and Turkey; this is a large flat topped conifer. Fast growing; it can reach 15 feet in 5 years; 27 x 20 feet in 10 years; 70 years - 3.7 feet in trunk diameter; 120 years - 5 feet in trunk diameter. Eventually it can reach 80 feet in height though the largest on record is a truly massive 133 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. The Stone Pine can live up to 500 years.
The needles are bright green in pairs and are up to 12 inches in length. The bark is reddish and fissured. Once established; this Pine is very drought, heat and salt tolerant. Hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolerates 0 F ) and is known to grow in North Carolina and even New Jersey with only winter foliage burn. Also popular as an ornamental tree in western Europe including England. This tree was native to much of northern Africa which is now the Sahara Desert back when it was a much more humid climate.

* photo found on internet of tree in Rome


* photos of unknown internet source


* historic archive photos





Pinus ponderosa ( Ponderosa Pine )
Native to western North America ( from Vancouver, British Columbia to near Alexis Creek, B.C. to near Banff, Alberta to southwest North Dakota; south to Mexico to central Nebraska ); the Ponderosa Pine is a dominant tree in many areas and grows very tall. While very tolerant of poor conditions, it will grow at a slower pace. Some records include: 5 years - 17 feet; 20 years - 66 feet; 100 years - 140 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. Easily reaching 150 feet; some of the largest old growth trees in the west have been recorded as large as 300 x 82 feet with a 15 foot trunk diameter. One tree of 230 x 70 feet grows in the Shasta National Forest in California. Such trees massive remnants are now even less likely to be sighted than the California Condor and global warming with milder winters and summer drought is causing plague like infestations of Pine Bark Beetle which is killing alot of the second growth as well. Even worse; the forests killed by the Pine Bark Beetle becomes kindling for forest fires. The Ponderosa Pine was originally among the most abundant Pines in North America and loosing the Ponderosa Pine is loosing as much of the heritage of the American West as was loosing the great herds of Buffalo. The Ponderosa Pine is also a highly valuable timber tree. The Ponderosa Pine also grows well outside its native range. On the Plains it has reached 70 feet in North Dakota and in the East trees have reached 90 feet tall with trunk diameters up to 3 feet in Ottawa, Ontario as well as Rochester, New York. Ponderosa Pine thrives in much of central & southeastern Europe where it is sometimes used as a landscape tree.
The Ponderosa Pine is easily distinguished by its solid straight trunk covered in bright reddish-orange bark that is in large, wide, irregular scaly plates that appear to fit together like a puzzle. The canopy is conical to broad and open.
The needles are long, dark green, stiff and pointed up to 11 inches ( the record being 16 inches ) in length. The needles are usually in bundles of 3 s, sometimes bundles of 2 s are found as well. The foliage is often found in tufts at the ends of the branches and the needles can sometimes last as much as 7 years.
The cones are brown and prickly up to 6 inches.
The deeply fissured, thick scaly bark is very attractive orangish-red in color.
This outstanding tree is hardy anywhere from zone 2 to 7 and seed sources from colder parts of its range can tolerate as cold as -50 F. It can also grow anywhere rainfall exceeds 15 inches in a year; best growth occurs on deep acid soil. Fine examples of this tree exist far outside its natural range with some of the most vigorous being in central Ontario, Canada.
Tolerant of coastal exposure, heavy clay, salt, alkaline soil; even thriving in Alberta. Extremely heat tolerant, it can even survive 120 F.
The Ponderosa Pine can live up to 800 years in age. Blue Stain fungus is a deadly disease that can enter the tree from damage gone to it by the Rocky Mountain Pine Bark Beetle.
Interesting article on Ponderosa Pine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponderosa_Pine

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON




* photo of unknown internet source

H.D. Cochran @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

Ray M. Filloon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database



* historical archive photos

























'Pendula'
Strong central leader and weeping side branches.

* historic archive photo


var Scopulorum
The subspecies that is native to the Rocky Mountains. It is not found in the wild in California.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.






Pinus pratermissa
An extremely rare to endangered Pine from central Mexico. Often twisted and contorted; it can reach 70 feet tall and 50 feet in width. The very slender needles are light green and up to 7 inches long. The cones occur single and are only up to 2 inches. Hardy from zone 8 to 9

Pinus pseudostrobus ( Smoothbark Mexican Pine )
A fast growing subtropical relative of the White Pine; this tree can grow to 50 feet tall with trunk diameter of 9 inches in only 10 years. It can also reach 87 feet with diameter of 14 inches in 20 years. Eventually it can exceed 130 feet and is even known to reach 200 feet in height with trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. The canopy is dense and rounded. It is native to mountains of sw Mexico and Guatemala. This Pine likes cool mountain climates and summer rain and grows well in the warmer parts of England where one has already reached 70 feet. The foliage is in 5s and soft, long and can reach up to 14 inches. The needles can last as long as 3 years and droop. The oval cones are up to 4 inches and have small thorns. The bark is brown and fissured. Hardy from zone 8 to 11; this Pine tolorates clay and any soil PH from 4 to 7. Grows well in New Zealand.

Pinus pringlei ( Pringle Pine )
A fast growing Pine from the mountains of Mexico. It can grow to 50 feet tall and 8 inches in diameter in 8 years; 74 feet tall with a diameter of 13 inches in 20 years and eventually up to 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The needles are in 4s and reach up to 11 inches. Hardy north to zone 9. Its rapid growth giving excellent potential for use in forestry.

Pinus pumila ( Dwarf Siberian Pine )
Usually a Dwarf Shrub; in the wild it can live for hundreds of years and one has been reported to have become a shrubby clump of up to 20 x 100 feet. Often if is few short creeping along the ground. Slow growing to 6 inches in a year at most, reaching up to 2 x 4 feet in 10 years. A tree of 20 x 27 x 0.8 feet is reported to grow at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA. It is native to extremely cold areas of northeastern Asia ( from Russia and Siberia to Sakhalin; south to northeast Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea and mountains of central and northern Japan.
The twisted, soft needles, up to 3 ( rarely 4 ) inches long, are borne in 5s. The very dense foliage is glossy blue-green.
The cones are up to 2 inches and are very dark turning to yellow-brown as they mature.
The scaly bark is blackish-brown.
Hardy from zone 1 to 6. This Pine does not like limey soils.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photos



'Dwarf Blue'
Slow growing, flat-topped and spreading, growing at a rate up to 6 inches per year and reaching up to 2 x 4 feet in 10 years. It can eventually reach up to 6 x 9 feet.
The densely-arranged, thick foliage is intensely bright blue.

'Globe'
Rounded in habit, reaching up to 32 x 32 inches in 10 years and eventually up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet. The foliage is blue.

Pinus pungens ( Table Mountain Pine )
A Pine native to sandy and rocky soil in the high reaches of the Appalation Mountains from central and eastern Pennsylvania to far northern Georgia. It often grows in very poor conditions in the wild where little else will grow and is therefore stunted and small. In cultivation it becomes moderate growing to 17 x 13 feet in 8 years and eventually to 80 feet; though trees as large as 120 feet in height; 50 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 4 feet have been recorded. The crown is irregular and rounded with horizontal branches. It is long-lived, persisting up to 400 years.
The rigid, sharp pointed, twisted needles, up to 3.5 inches in length, are deep green. The needles are in pairs or rarely 3 s. they also smell like lemon when crushed. The needles persist up to 3 years.
The bark is indian red, plated and scaly.
The cones are small and prickly up to 3 inches long.
Hardy zones 4b to 9 but does not like the humid heat of the lowlands in the south. Not well known in England but it does grow well there and one has already reached 80 feet. Prefers sandy acid soil with PH 4.5 to 7

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos




* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD


* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD


























Pinus quadrifolia ( Parry Pinyon )
A small tree with the largest on record being 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; this rare Pine is native to south central California and the Baja Peninsula. It is slow growing up to a foot per year and can live up to 600 years and loves summer heat.
The needles are in bundles of 4 and can be up to 2.5 inches long. They persist 3 to 4 years.
The cones are up to 2.3 inches in length.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10

* historical archive photo


Pinus radiata ( Monterey Pine )
Almost extinct in its native California; in moister areas it is planted in such as New Zealand the Monterey Pine becomes one of the worlds largest Pines.
The Monterey's current range is just a relic of the distant past. Before the last Ice Age it was native as far north as southwest Washington State.
It is also one of the worlds fastest growing trees. Some records include: 4 years - 25 feet; 6 years - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches; , 20 years - 133 feet; 25 years - 155 feet; 40 years - 220 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 10.2 feet. It is even capable with great age of reaching up to 280 feet in height; 90 feet in width with a trunk diameter up to 14 feet. In cultivation; the Monterey Pine grows with a straight trunk and irregular open crown. The record growth increase in a single year is an incredible 20 feet height and 3 inch trunk diameter!!!
Due to severe summer drought the Monterey Pine almost never exceeds 100 feet in its native range unless irrigated. More recently Pitch Canker is wiping out this tree in its native central California ( fungus originally from southeast U.S. ). If accidently introduced to New Zealand; it would have disastrous consequences. A very important nursery timber tree that is very widely grown in the Southern Hemisphere ( esp in NZ, South Africa & Valdivia part of Chile ). It is also planted in southwest England where it also grows very large and continues pushing growth all summer long. This tree is long lived up to 300 years.
The bright green foliage in 3s is dense with the needles up to 6 ( rarely 8 ) inches long and lasting up to 4 years. The cones are up to 5 inches long and light brown.
The bark is red-brown and fissured.
Preferring climates with over 40 inches of rainfall in a year; this tree is hardy from zone 7 to 10 and can tolerate 0 F. Many nursery grown trees are rootbound and end up being short lived and wind felled.
A very interesting article about wood from the Monterey Pine used in housing construction in New Zealand ( where this tree has now escaped into the wild
displacing native vegetation )
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monterey_Pine


* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by A. Gaskill @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photo taken by T.P. Lukens @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos








Pinus remota ( Papershell Pinyon )
A rare small tree native to the mountains of Texas near the Mexican border. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 48 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is similar to the Two-needle Pinyon except the needles, up to 1.5 inches in length can come in 2s and 3s.
Surprisingly hardy in southwest Missouri, it may be hardy north to zone 6

Pinus resinosa ( Red Pine )
A tall Pine native to eastern North America ( from southeast Manitoba to Cochrane, Ontario to southern Quebec to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to southern Wisconsin to Sarnia, Ontario to northern New Jersey ). The Red Pine has a straight trunk and a narrow oval crown. The bark is reddish brown. It is very often found in the wild on sandy soils and is a dominent tree on the sand dunes around Grand Bend, Ontario. Fast growing, usually about 2 feet in a year but with 82 x 36 feet in 20 years being the record; it can eventually reach 100 feet. There are reports of trees as large as 200 feet tall; 100 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 6 feet existing in the old growth forest that once covered southern Ontario. This forest ecosystem is long gone and so are these ancient giants that lived up to 500 years; however second growth of this tree is common and it is an important lumber tree in Canada and the northern Great Lakes for its structural timber & pulpwood. This tree can continue in growth for up to 4 months. In the first year; a Red Pine might only grow to an inch in height and by the time it is 4 years in age its growth will have sped up and if kept free from grass and weeds the tree will have reached up to 5 feet. In 12 years, it can reach up to 25 feet in height on average.
The needles in 2s ( rarely 3 ) resemble the Austrian Pine except that they are less sharp and are also brittle. They are up to 6 or rarely 8 inches long and are lush green lasting up to 5 years. On mature trees the reddish-orange bark forms irregular diamond shape scaly plates.
Hardy from zone 2 to 6 ( tolerating - 50 F ). Extremely hardy; this tree grows in even harsher climates than its native range; thriving in both Alberta and Winnipeg if grown from seed sourced from native populations in southeast Manitoba. This Pine is not tolerant of salt or pollution but grows very well on sandy soils with PH 4.5 to 6

* photo taken Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA

* photo taken on July 30 2013 in Grand Bend, Ontario


* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo of unknown internet source




* photo taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


















Pinus rigida ( Pitch Pine )
Native to eastern North America ( from southern Indiana to Ohio to eastern Ontario to northern Maine, south to Tennessee and North Carolina ); this is a rugged looking Pine with an irregular outline and flattened top. Often small, slow growing and stunted ( to 33 feet in 20 years ) on the rocky sites and sandy pine barrens it often grows wild on; on the best of sites; it can become fast growing ( record growth rate being 4 feet ) and grow large to 90 feet or very rarely 150 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.6 feet. The Pitch Pine makes several whorls of new growth in a year. It can live up to 400 years.
The clustered needles are stiff, in 3s, up to 4 inches ( very rarely double that ) and last up to 3 or 4 years. The Pitch and Pond Pines are the only 2 pines which sprout tufts of needles directly from the trunk.
Unlike most 3 needled pines, the twigs on this one are fibrous and do not snapped when bent.
Bark is red-brown and deeply fissured with long plates.
The cones are somewhat small up to 3 inches. They are very prickly and very persistant.
Deeply taprooted; the Pitch Pine is difficult to transplant but also very drought tolerant. It is hardy from zone 3 to 7 and can tolerate as low as - 43 F. The Pitch Pine prefers acid soil and can tolerate soil PH as low as 3.5. Tolerant of seashore conditions making an excellent shelterbelt in coastal areas.

* photo taken near Wilkes-Barre, PA

* photo taken in Wilkes Barre, PA on April 2010




* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photo taken Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA


* photos taken on Nov 30 2013 in Luzerne Co., PA


* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD







* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD



* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD





* historical archive photos






* photo taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Pinus rigida x taeda ( Pitchlolly Pine )
An excellent very fast growing forest tree. Hardy north to zone 4

Pinus roxburghii ( Chir Pine )
A fast growing, broad-canopy, large tree, reaching up to 130 feet, that is native to the Himalaya foothills. Some records include: 5 years - 28 feet; 9 years - trunk diameter of 5 inches; 14 years - 35 feet; 40 years - 92 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - 190 x 53 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet.
This relative of the Canary Island Pine has long, pendulous, sharp-pointed needles, up to 16 inches in length, that are borne in 3 s. The foliage is bright green.
The cones are large and light brown; up to 8 x 4 inches.
The bark is mottled gray and light brown.
Hardy from zone 6 to 11, drought tolerant and pest free. Chir Pine requires a yearly rainfall exceeding 18 inches and can tolerate dry seasons up to 4 months.

* historic archive photo


Pinus sabiniana ( Digger Pine )
An attractive fast growing landscape tree growing up to 45 feet in 15 years. Eventually up to 100 feet; it can sometimes grow much larger to 200 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameter to 6 feet. Has already reached 50 x 20 feet in Baltimore. Native to central and northern California; this Pine has an open irregular crown and can live up to 200 years.
The needles in 3s are drooping and long, up to 12 inches ( rarely 17 inches ) long and gray-green. The needles last up to 4 years.
The large spiked cones are up to 12 inches long.
The dark bark is deeply furrowed. The inner bark is furrowed.
Both drought and heavy clay tolorant; this Pine grows faster on deep, fertile acid well drained soil ( PH 6 to 8.3 ). Hardy from zone 5 to 11.

* photo taken at U.S. National Arboretum, D.C. on Feb 2009

* photo taken by J.R. Hall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos





Pinus schwerini 'Prairie Giant'
A hybrid between Pinus strobus & P. wallichiana; it looks like the latter but is fully hardy well into zone 4 thriving with zero winter damage @ Minnesota Landscape Arboretum in Chaska, MN. Resistant to Blister Rust

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD



Pinus serotina ( Pond Pine )
A large tree, native to swampy areas of the southeastern U.S. ( from central Mississippi to central Georgia to Delaware and southern New Jersey; south to the Gulf Coast and central Florida ). It is endangered in Mississippi, Alabama, New Jersey and Maryland where it is native only to the eastern shore. Moderately fast growing, reaching up to 20 x 17 feet in 10 years; this Pine grows with an open round topped crown. Some records include: largest on record - 132 x 61 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The long, flexible needles, up to 12 inches in length, are deep green. They are in bundles of 3 or 4 and last up to 3 years.
The oval cones are up to 2.5 inches in length.
The bark is red-brown, scaly and fissured.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -10 F ). Soil tolerant; the Pond Pine grows well in soils with PH from 4.8 to 7. It is also tolerant of flooding.

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.



* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014





* historic archive photo


Pinus squamata
A large subtropical Pine reaching up to 120 feet and hardy north to zone 8. The drooping glossy green needles are up to 8 inches in length. Extremely endangered with only 20 trees left in the wild.

Pinus strobiformis ( Chihuahuan White Pine )
Native to Colorado and w. Texas to Arizona & the northern Mexico mountains; this Pine is a fast growing, conical, large tree. It has the potential to with great age; reach up to 133 feet tall; 62 feet in width with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. This Pine has already reached as large as 100 x 36 feet in New York State. Some additional records include: 17 years - 32 x 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.8 feet. It is considered by some to be a subspecies of Limber Pine.
The soft dark blue-green needles are in 5 s and grow to 6 inches long. They persist for 3 to 5 years.
An excellent ornamental; it grows well from Michigan to Mexico and is hardy from zone 4 to 7 ( zone 8 only in high elevations, unconfirmed reports of 3 ). A tree thrives at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA. Growing well in climates with between 19 and 45 inches of rain in a year; this Pine is both heat and very drought tolerant. This is the best White Pine for use in the hot humid southeastern U.S.

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Pinus strobus ( White Pine )
One of the most important forest trees of Eastern North America ( from southeast Manitoba to Cochrane, Ontario to Newfoundland, south into northeast Iowa to Tennessee excl. the Southern Coastal Plain south of Pennsylvania ); the White Pine is also among the largest. Though 99.9% gone, the original old growth forest of Eastern North America upon discovery contained White Pine that was truly huge! Trees of heights of 280 feet; widths of 70 ft. and trunk diameters of 12 feet were known. 750 000 000 000 board feet of lumber existed in these woods ( only about 15 billion remains ). One of the last such truly massive tress to be cut was one of 210 feet in height and 12 ft. in trunk diameter in Lycoming County, PA. in 1899 not long after similar sizes ( recorded 250 ft. ) were wiped out in Merideth, NY and areas around Windsor, Ontario where slash and burn fires were seen as far as Chicago and the forest there never did recover - ever! These massive pine that grew in old growth forests were often up to 500 years old. Today some of the largest known White Pines grow in Marquette Co., Michigan ( 201 x 62 x 7 ft. ) and Haliburton Co, Ontario ( 153' x x 6 ft in diameter ). Still many trees exceed 150 feet ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_White_Pine ) and one has already almost reached that in the Netherlands. It is frequently planted for timber in central & eastern Europe. The White Pine though it tends to struggle on sites with heavy competition from sod and weeds, can grow very fast on good sites. Averaging 23 x 10 feet in 10 years, in the same time can grow a tree of 43 x 30 feet with excellent growing conditions. It can reach 90 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet in 38 years. Even far from it's native range, a 90 foot tree grows in Colorado while in the far west the similar looking but far less heat tolerant Western White Pine reaches truly massive dimensions in the Pacific Northwest.
This is one of the most important ornamental and lumber trees in North America and will likely remain so far into the future. The wood is valuable for lumber but not for firewood. It gives off only around 13 million BTU per cord. The fine softwood is used for construction, paneling and cabinetmaking. Total trunk volumes of the largest white pines are around 28 cubic meters (1,000 cubic feet) with some past giants reaching 40 m³ ( 1,400 cu ft).
It is a truly beautiful tree and the soft blue green needles, up to 6 inches long, are of much ornamental value.
It is hardy from zone 2 to 7 however due to hardiness ranges trees from northern Ontario should not be planted in Maryland and vice versa. Both White Pines may look identical but have difference in temperature preferance. Using seeds from local wild seedstock is important for success and often also are more successful in surviving drought. Seed from native populations near Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba may prove successful on protected sites on the northern Great Plains, however seed sourced from populations east of Manitoba did not survive the winters in trials at Indian Head, Sask. and Brandon, Manitoba. This pine is prone to blister rust where currents grow, and is not fond of road salt and pollution ( many white pines along road ways turn sickly yellow ).

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photo taken by P. Freeman Heim @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken at Toledo zoo, Toledo Ohio on July 1992

* photo taken @ Green Spring Gardens, Annandale, VA on October 2001





* photos taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010





* photos taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD



* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour



* photo taken on June 17 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Jul 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY




* photos taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD





* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Estate, Elkridge, MD


* photo taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on Nov 27 2015 @ Hickory Run State Park, PA





* photo taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 26 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos





























'Bennetts Contorted'
Strongly weeping with twisted branches and blue-green needles. Fast growing, reaching up to 12 x 8 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 25 x 20 feet.

'Blue Shag'
Shrubby and rounded with dense, bright blue-green foliage. It can reach up to 4 x 6 feet in 10 years; eventually to 21 x 23 feet with great age. Slow growing, up to 4 inches per year.

'Compacta'( Compact White Pine )
A compact, dwarf rounded form reaching a maximum size 11 x 15 feet with great age.


* photos taken on Sep 16 2013 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Contorta'
A very fast growing, upright, large tree, with both the branches and the blue-green needles being strongly twisted.

'Fastigiata' ( Columnar White Pine )
A fast growing, tall, upright narrow form, reaching up to 25 feet in height in just 10 years, 50 x 25 feet in 25 years; eventually much larger ( 100 x 55 x 3.3 feet or more ). It is great for use as screens and smaller lots.
The foliage is blue-green.

* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004


* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD





'Glauca'
Very blue foliage

'Nana' ( Dwarf White Pine )
Growing up to 8 inches a year, this dwarf ( not as dwarf as alot of people think ) White Pine can grow 4 x 5 feet in 10 years. Eventually it can grow into a small tree up to 21 x 23 feet with great age. The bluish green is similar to the parent tree except denser.
* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Pendula' ( Weeping White Pine )
An attractive weeping pine, reaching up to 18 x 6 ( rarely over 10 ) feet in 10 years with an eventual maximum size of 35 x 40 feet ( much smaller with pruning ). Young trees are often staked to encourage height.
The foliage is bright blue-green.


* photo taken at Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004

* photo taken on Clarksville, MD install



* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on Nov 28 2015 in Harrisburg, PA



'Radiata'
A light green foliaged dwarf, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 18 feet.

'White Mountain'
A large, upright pyramidal tree with intense silvery-blue foliage. It is otherwise similar to the species.

Pinus sylvestris ( Scotch Pine )
Native across Europe and northern Asia; the Scotch Pine is a round canopy tree. Moderate growing it can become fast on good soils; to 40 x 30 feet in 10 years and 120 feet in height with 1.5 foot diameter in 80 years. The tallest on record is 153 feet in Estonia and the oldest is 700 years in Sweden. Largest diameter is 6.6 feet. The blue-green needles are up to 4 inches in length, sharp tipped and last up to 4 years. They occur in pairs.
The bark is rusty orange and smooth on younger trees and upper limbs turning to scaly and plated on older trunks.
An important timber tree in Eurasia and also very popular as a Christmas tree. The Scotch Pine does not grow well in the U.S. and Ontario, Canada where the average summer temperature exceeds 68 F ( 20 C ), and partly due to damage by pests and diseases; the tree often grows in a twisted, haphazard manner. Scotch Pines can be killed by the pinewood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease. The nematode most often attacks tress that are at least 10 years old and often kills invaded trees within a few weeks.
Hardy from zone 1 to 8 and tolerating as low as - 60 F or even -83 F in eastern Siberia. This conifer thrives in harsh climates such as Edmonton, Alberta. In trials on the northern Great Plains at both Indian Head, Sask and Brandon, Manitoba; results varied wildly...many didn't survive yet others sourced from colder parts of it's natural range struggled during the first few winters then toughened up and thrived with even just moderate wind protection from the open prairie.

* photo taken on Aug 2007 in Bayfield, Ontario


@ Frohburg, Germany 1926

* Germany 1973


* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Mansion, Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON






* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* historic archive photos



'Aurea'
Slow growing and broadly-conical, eventually becoming rounded, reaching up
to 20 x 6 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 50 x 26 feet.
The foliage is yellow during spring, turning to bright green during summer and fall then back to golden-yellow during winter.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



'Argentea'
Fast growing, reaching up to 17 feet in 5 years, eventually very large.
Silver-blue foliage.

'Beauveronense'
A very compact, dense, dome-shaped large shrub, reaching up to 3 x 6 feet in 10 years; eventually to 10 x 16 feet with a dense domed shape.
The foliage is blue-green.

'Bonna'
A fast growing, upright, pyramidal, large tree with longer than usual needles that are intensely blue ( the most blue of any cultivar ).

'Burghfield'

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Doone Valley'
A miniature, upright, irrigular-conical shrub form to 4 x 3.3 feet in 10 years.
The needles, up to 2 inches in length, are deep blue-green and densely clothe the stems.

'Fastigiata' ( Columnar Scotch Pine )
Narrow upright and columnar in habit, reaching up to 14 x 3.3 feet in 10 years, 25 x 12 feet in 20 years; eventually reaching a maximum size of 50 x 5 ( rarely over 40 ) feet.
The twisted foliage is deep blue-green.
Tie up plants during winter to prevent damage from heavy snow and ice.

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Glauca Nana' ( Blue Dwarf Scotch Pine )
A slow growing ( up to 8 inches per year ), dense, bushy, rounded to broad-conical shrub, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet in 10 years, 8 x 8 feet in 15 years, eventually reaching a maximum of 10 x 10 feet.
The deep blue-green foliage is borne in pairs.

'Gold Coin'
The dwarf form of 'Aurea', forming a slow growing, densely-upright, pyramidal shrub, reaching up to 8 x 4 feet in 10 years, and an eventual maximum size of 20 x 15 feet.
The blue-green foliage turns intense golden-yellow during winter.

'Hibernia'
Dwarf, dense and rounded in habit, reaching up to 3.3 x 3.3 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 5 x 7 feet.
The foliage is blue-gray.

'Hillside Creeper'
A low, spreading groundcover conifer, reaching up to 2 x 8 feet in 10 years, eventually to 3 x 15 feet.
The blue-green foliage turns yellowish-green during winter.

'Ladoga'
An extremely hardy clone that thrives on the northern Great Plains, including Alberta, where it grows vigorously, reaching up to 12 x 8 feet in 5 years.

var lapponica
Shorter needles and smaller cones on this subspecies from northern Finland. This is the best clone for use in cold maritime climates such as Newfoundland.

var krylovii
Also called Pinus krylovii, sometimes given its own species status. A subspecies that thrives in the very arid climate of the steppes to the east of Lake Baikal. It is used for reforestation of the steppes of Transbaikal in Siberia, northeast Mongolia and northwest China. It is heavy-set and smaller in size compared to Pinus sylvestris, reaching only 65 feet with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet, however can be quite vigorous on ideal sites. It forms an attractive, rounded canopy that is typically denser than P. sylvestris.
The blue-green needles are up to 3.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 5. It is extremely drought tolerant and is much more tolerant of dry climates such as the northern Great Plains than is Pinus sylvestris.

subsp. 'Mongolica'
Vigorous, broad, open, pyramidal in habit and thriving especially well in the harsh climate of the northern Great Plains ( which resembles much of its native northern Mongolia ). Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 5.5 feet; 7 years - 12 x 6.6 feet ( Alberta ).
The needles are up to 4 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

'Prairie Green'
Vigorous, broad and pyramidal in habit, this clone is especially well suited for the northern Great Plains where it can reach up to 12 x 10 feet in just 5 years.
The foliage is blue-green year round.

'Watereri'
Slow growing and pyramidal becoming rounded with extreme age. It can reach up to 6.6 x 6.6 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 33 x 25 feet.
The foliage is bluish.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario



Pinus tabuliformis ( Chinese Red Pine )
Also called Pinus luchuensis var. shenkanensis or P. shenkanensis. A fast growing, broad flat-crowned tree, reaching around 80 feet, that is native to mountain regions of northern & central China as well as Korea. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 36 x 12 feet; largest on record - 100 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
The long needles are 8 or rarely up to 12 inches in length. The bright green needles are densely crowded near the branch tips.
The cones are ovoid up to 3 inches.
This Pine is extremely hardy ranging from zone 2 to 8. It thrives in the Midwestern U.S. including Chicago. It thrives in the Ottawa Valley if grown from northerly seed source and sheltered by nearby trees.

* photos taken Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario




Pinus taeda ( Loblolly Pine )
A fast growing, round-topped, large tree that is native to the Mid Atlantic and southeastern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to central Missouri to southern Illinois to the Smoky Mountains curving up the Piedmont to most of Virginia, central and eastern Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is especially common on the Delmarva Peninsula but endangered in New Jersey. It is one of the fastest growing and most important lumber trees in the southeast U.S. and is also a very attractive large shade tree. It can have a growth rate up to 6 feet and reach: 20 feet in 5 years, one tree grew 107 feet x 17 inches in 30 years and height of 100 feet and trunk diameters of 4' are very common at maturity. However on excellent growing sites; the Loblolly Pine can grow truly massive with sizes up to 200 x 80 feet with trunk diameter to 9 feet reported in the original old growth forest, as well as ages up to 400 years. Today the largest measured Loblolly Pine in the Mid Atlantic region is 115 x 50 x4 feet in Millsboro, Delaware.
The long needles in 3s ( rarely 2 to 5 s ) are bright green up to 10 inches ( record is 16 inches ). The needles persist 2 to 3 years.
The cones are oval to conical in shape and up to 4 inches.
The bark is orangish-red and in scaly plates.
This tree often grows with 2 to 5 flushes of new growth per year.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating -10 F ). Very soil tolerant and thrives with soil PH from 4.5 to 7; the Loblolly is also tolerant of drought and some flooding. Loblolly Pine is salt tolerant which leads it to being one of the most common trees in areas such as the Delaware Beaches and Ocean City. Very drought tolerant however extremely sandy soils and heavy root competition from sod can dwarf them and slow down growth. The Loblolly is 2nd only to the White and Ponderosa Pines as the most valuable pine in the United States. It grows very poorly in Europe due to it's preference to very hot humid summers. It is not found in the Western U.S. though the similar looking Ponderosa Pine takes it's place.

* photo taken in Jessup, Maryland


* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 7 2012 in Ellicott City, MD
* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA-NRCS-NPDT

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD







* historical archive photos









* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD










* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA




* historic archive photos














Pinus taiwanensis ( Taiwan Pine )
Native to the mountains of Taiwan; this Pine is closely related to Pinus densiflora.
This Pine is moderate growing, reaching about 60 feet; though in Taiwan trees up to 170 x 50 feet with trunk diameters of 8 feet have been recorded. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 6 feet; 20 years - 33 feet.
The mid-green needles, up to 7 inches in length, are borne in 2 s.
The fissured scaly bark is purplish.
It thrives much further north than would be expected considering its native range. It grows well in northern Virginia and it may grow much further north to zone 5. This Pine is drought tolerant.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Pinus takahasi ( Xinghainu Pine )
Very similar to Pinus banksiana; this Pine is native to far northeast China & Siberia. It is endangered and fast growing to 2 feet in a year.
The needles are up to 4 inches long and are in pairs.
The bark is red-brown and papery.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 thriving best on well drained sandy soil.

Pinus tecunumanni
A very fast growing Pine highly recommended for forestry use in the tropics. It is the same growth rate as Pinus caraibaea and 15% faster than Pinus taeda in subtropical areas. It can reach 32 feet in 5 years! and 50 feet in 8 years. Mature size is huge up to 170 feet in height and 4 feet in trunk diameter.
Native from sc Mexico to Nicaragua and hardy north to zone 8. Grows well in Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia & South Africa where it is cultivated for the paper industry.

Pinus tenuifolia
A large Pine native to Central America and up to 100 feet in height and 5 feet in diameter. The long needles are up to 10 inches in length.

Pinus teocote ( Twisted Leaf Pine )
Moderate growing native of the mountains of Mexico; this tree can reach 20 x 17 feet in 10 years and eventually up to 120 feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter. The rounded crown is dense with horizontal to drooping branches.
The needles are stiff, straight or slightly curved and up to 10 inches long.
The cones are light brown up to 2.5 inches.
The bark is red-brown, thick and furrowed.
Hardy from zone 7 to 11.

Pinus thunbergii ( Japanese Black Pine )
A tall very fast growing Pine native to south Korea and Japan with a single main trunk and an irregular shaped canopy. Growing to as much as 4 feet with diameter increase of 0.5 inches per year; it can reach up to 60 x 17 feet in 20 years. Japanese Black Pines mature height ranges from 50 feet in the windswept coastal areas it is often planted to 100 feet in forestry plantations. The largest ever recorded is 135 feet tall; 60 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. Known to persist as long as 1000 years in its native habitat, it is often short lived in the eastern U.S.
The sharp-pointed, thick, twisted, deep green needles range from 4 to 7 inches in length. They are densely arranged and last up to 4 or sometimes 5 years.
The cones are small up to 3 inches.
The deeply-fissured bark is purplish-gray
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( seed source in important since some clones are only hardy to zone 6b ). It is very drought and salt tolerant. Unfortunately it is dying off in the wild due to Pine Wilt which was accidently introduced from North America and in which this Pine has no natural resistance. The Scotch Pine is also prone and luckily the disease has not reached Europe yet.
Also it is rapidly killed in U.S. by Pinewood Nematode and Blue Stain Fungus ( even in just 2 weeks ) and as a result it should not be planted anywhere the above is prevalent which is anywhere the average summer temperature exceeds 20 C. It is unfortunate because it is wasn't for these deadly killers; this tree would do well and actually prefer continental climates with hot summers. Tolerant of sea spray and poor sandy soils. Anywhere from Maryland and south; there are many native Pines that are much better suited and also much longer lived.


* photo taken Aug 3 2010 @ Univ. of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo taken on Sep 15 2013 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Columbia, MD


* historic archive photos





'Kotobuki'
Dwarf, very bushy and upright-pyramidal in habit, reaching up to 6 x 2 feet in 10 years with an eventual maximum size of 12 feet.
The foliage is bright green later turning to very deep green.
The winter buds are white.
The bark is corky.

'Majestic Beauty'
hardy and compact.

'Thunderhead'
A dwarf form, forming a dense pyramid, reaching an eventual maximum size of 15 x 10 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 15 inches; 10 years - 10 x 9 feet.
During late spring, the white growth candles contrasts nicely with the long, glossy deep green foliage. This cultivar looks great combined with Gold Mop Cypresss.

* photo taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014



* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Tsukasa'
Attractive ( description to come soon )

Pinus torreyana ( Torrey Pine )
Almost extinct in the wild in its native coastal California; this Pine is an excellent ornamental shade tree. Rapid growing and dense; it can grow up to 4 feet in a year and can reach 17 feet in 5 years and 75 feet in height in only 20 years. Though often stunted in the wild; cultivated trees are often very straight trunked and reach up to 150 feet tall; 130 feet in width and 7 feet in diameter.
( 140 x 120 x 7 feet recorded in Carpenteria, CA ). In fact the massive dense dome shaped canopy of mature trees is one way to identify it at a distance. It has also grown very well in New Zealand forestry plantings reaching up to 142 feet. The bark is red-brown, scaly and fissured.
The coarse dark green long needles in 5 s are up to 14 inches long and last up to 4 years.
The cones are oval and glossy brown.
The reddish bark is deeply furrowed.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolorating - 2 F ). It is killed at - 5F
Drought tolerant but prefers acid soil.

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historical archive photo

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Pinus uncinata ( Pyrenean Pine )
Also called Pinus mugo var rostrata. From the European Alps; this is a fast growing, dense, broad-conical Pine that is closely related to the Mugo Pine but much larger. It can grow to 33 feet in 20 years and eventually reach as large as 82 feet in height and 4 feet in trunk diameter. It is extremely long lived in its native mountainous habitat surviving up to 2000 years and is also a colonizer tree.
The needles are up to 3 inches, dark green and last up to 10 years.
The scaly bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ). This tree is also tolerant of wind, summer frosts and drought.

* historic archive photos



Pinus virginiana ( Virginia Pine )
Native to the eastern U.S. ( from central Missouri to central Indiana to northeast Ohio to southeastern New York State; south to central Mississippi to southern Alabama to central South Carolina ); this drought and heavy clay tolerant tree is often the first tree to colonize deforested sites. It is endangered in the wild in Mississippi and New York State. Usually growing 1 to 2 feet per year, on good sites with absence of root competition it can grow to 3 feet per year. Often reaching 18 x 17 feet in 10 years, it usually tops out around 50 feet though trees up to 127 x 56 feet with trunk diameters of 4 feet are known. The tree pictures below far exceeds the average size of a mature Virginia Pine. Though older trees may exist - 170 years is commonly considered the maximum life expectancy on this pine. In the first year; seedling may reach up to 8 inches in height. This pine can also grow multiple whorls of new growth in a single year.This pine is very closely related to the more northerly Jacks Pine.
The needles, up to 3 inches long, last up to 4 years. The foliage is yellow-green to mid-green.
The cones are small to 2.5 inches and the scaly bark is orangish in color.
Hardy zones 4-8 and requiring full sun; it is tolerant of soil PH from 4.6 to 8. Virginia Pine is drought tolerant but does not grow well where summers are cool. Tolerates heavy clay but grows best with deep acid sandy soil with PH from 4.5 to 7.5. Soak seed for 24 hours and then expose to red light for best germination results.

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2009





* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD











* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015








* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD







* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD






* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


* photo taken on Sep 22 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Wate's Golden'
Bright green foliage turns intensely golden-yellow during winter. It is otherwise similar to the species.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Pinus wallichiana ( Himalayan Pine )
While rarely sold by nurseries for some unknown reason, this long needled relative of the native White Pine is one of the worlds most beautiful pines and also one of the largest!
On good sites without root competition from sod and weeds, it can grow very fast and reach over 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet within a century. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 7 years - 27 x 20 feet; 20 years - 70 x 33 feet; largest on record - 240 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; largest in Maryland - 102 feet in Talbot County.
It's long, drooping, very attractive, soft, blue-green needles reach 9 or rarely 10 inches in length in length. They persist up to 4 years.
It is hardy from zones 5 to 8 however the variety 'Morton' is even hardier to zone 4 ( -30 F ). This pine is resistant to diseases ( does not get Blister Rust ), is pollution tolorant and easy to grow in humid climates.


* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA August 2004

* photo taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photoa taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA







* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD






* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD







subsp. 'Bhutanica'
Has soft needles up to 12 inches in length.

'Glauca'
Foliage is more intense blue.

'Zebrina'
Fast growing and very large, with green foliage that is heavily variegated with creamy-white and yellow bands.

* photos taken on Oct 23 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC





Pinus washoensis ( Washoe Pine )
A pyramidal conifer related to the Jeffrey Pine; this pine can grow very large to 60 feet though sometimes much larger to 200 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet. It can also live up to 300 years. It is native to mountains of central California and Nevada where it once grew in pure stands. It is now endangered in the wild. br />The blue-green leaves borne in 3s are up to 7 inches in length and last up to 7 years.
The bark is reddish and fissured with scaly plates.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. It grows in areas with 30 inches or more of rainfall per year but is tolerant of occasional drought.

* historical archive photos





Pinus yunnanensis ( Yunnan Pine )
A large Pine, reaching up to 100 feet, that is conical when young, later becoming flat crowned with pendulous lower branches. It is native to Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in China. Moderate growing, it usually reaches around 10 x 8 feet in 10 years. It is closely related to P. tabuliformis.
The bright green needles, up to 10 inches in length, are borne in 2s and 3s. The long needles give this Pine a very tropical appearance.
The reddish exfoliating bark is very attractive. The bark becomes fissured and dark gray on older trunks.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

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