Saturday, May 1, 2010

Tetradium - Evodia

A small genus of trees related to the Phellodendron. They are very easy to grow in sun to partial shade on just about any fertile, moist well drained soil. The Tetradiums can be propagated from seed with no pretreatment necessary as well as from semi-ripe cuttings and root cuttings.

Tetradium daniellii ( Korean Tetradium )
A broadly spreading, rounded, dome shaped, medium size tree to 50 feet that is native to mountain woodlands of western China and Korea. Some records include: first year - 6 feet; fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 5 years - 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.3 inches; 20 years - 50 x 50 feet; largest on record - 83 x 116 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.6 feet. The Daniels Tetradium is long lived and can easily exceed a hundred years. It thrives very well in both England and North America. The largest known tree in North America currently grows at the Mont Alto Campus of Penn State University.
Its deciduous foliage is pinnate and up to 20 inches in length. The leaves are composed of up to 11 oval, short pointed, leathery leaflets, up to 3.5 or rarely 7 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is hairy when young turning to very glossy deep green and smooth above and blue green beneath. The foliage turns to orange in autumn.
The aromatic, small, white flowers are in wide flattened heads up to 9 inches across at the ends of the shoots from June to August. The flowers are later followed by beaked red capsules up to 0.25 inches in dense clusters.
The light gray bark is smooth and beech-like. The canopy is light and open.
Prefers well drained, fertile soils in full sun. Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 ) and is very drought tolerant as well as tolerant of clay, sand, extreme heat, urban conditions and wind. They make an excellent street tree in the midwest.
Virtually immune to pests and disease, the foliage remains attractive all summer long.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA






* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


Tetradium fraxinifolia
A tree native to the Himalayas reaching a maximum size of 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. The leaves reach a maximum length of 27 inches and are composed of up to 11 leaflets up to 14 x 3.5 inches in size.
Hardy north to zone 9 though I suspect it may be hardier as a tree is recorded to be thriving at Benmore Botanic Garden, Dunoon Argyll and Bute, Scotland

Tetradium glabrifolium ( Hong Kong Evodia )
A low branched, twiggy, bushy, rounded tree with curving branches that is native to southeast Asia. Some records include: 15 years - 21 x 17 feet; largest on record - 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The pinnate leaves, up to 15 inches in length are composed of 5 to 19 elliptic leaflets up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is very persistant, lasting into December.
The creamy-white flowers are borne large, dense terminal clusters on large, persistant, red-violet stems in autumn and lasting until the beginning of November. The flower clusters are up to 7.5 inches in length.
The flowers are later followed by beaked red capsules up to 0.25 inches in dense clusters.
Hardy north to zone 7. It prefers full sun to partial shade. Very heat tolerant though it also survives in the Pacific Northwest and British Isles though it doesn't fruit much there.

Tetradium hupehensis ( Hubei Evodia )
Also called Chinese Bee Tree. A medium sized tree to 60 feet or more that is native to central China. Some records include: 20 years - 50+ feet; largest on record - 80 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet.
The pinnate leaves reach a maximum length of 14 inches and are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets up to 5 or rarely 6 x 1 inches. The foliage is glossy, medium green, turning intense bright yellow in autumn.
The profuse small white flowers are borne in wide, rounded terminal panicles in late summers. The flowers produce lots of nectar and get mobbed by honeybees.
They are followed by tiny capsules that are orange turning to red, splitting to reveal shiny black seeds.
The flower clusters are up to 6 inches in length.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Heat tolerant though it also thrives in the Pacific Northwest.

* photos taken on April 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD



* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC


Tetradium meliaefolia
A tree reaching up to 100 feet in height native to mild regions of southern China. Some records include: largest on record - 3.3 feet trunk diameter. It is moderately long-lived, persisting as long as 300 years.

Tetradium olleryana
A tree up to 70 feet in height that is native to New Guiana. The bark is pure white.

Tetradium ruticarpum
A broadly spreading, rounded, dome shaped, medium size tree that is native to Guangdong, Guangxi provinces of China and in northern Vietnam. Some records include: 8 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 35 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot ( possible that broader, wider trunked trees occur )
Its deciduous foliage is pinnate and up to 18 inches in length. The leaves are composed of 5 to 15 elliptic leaflets up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The very lush, tropical looking foliage is hairy when young turning to glossy deep green and smooth above and blue green beneath. The foliage turns to yellow in autumn.
The aromatic, small, creamy-yellow flowers are in wide flattened dense flower heads up to 7 inches across at the ends of the shoots from June to August.
The flowers are later followed by beaked red capsules up to 0.25 inches in dense clusters.
The light gray bark is smooth and beech-like.
Prefers well drained, fertile soils in full sun to partial shade. Hardy zones 5 to 9 thriving in the Mid Atlantic and Deep South as well as cooler climates such as the Pacific Northwest and Great Britain. Easy to grow and pest and disease resistant.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum,D.C.



* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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