Monday, May 31, 2010

Epimedium

One of the best groundcover plants for the shade; the Epimedium is tolerant of deep shade and also extreme drought. It even competes well with tree roots forming anything from dense mounds to widespread groundcover. Many Epimediums can spread to as much as 10 feet however this may take many decades and they are easily contained.
While taking up to 3 years to fully establish, the Epimediums are among the lowest maintenance plants that exists. They are virtually immune to pests, disease and deer, rabbits, voles and can last 100 years or more. They even grow well in competition with dense tree roots. If you can't grow a lawn - WHO CARES; EPIMEDIUMS ARE BETTER!
These are among my favorite landscape plants. Most designers that specialize in Asian plants would give these a perfect 10/10 on the Landscape Use scale as has myself.
Epimediums are long lived and many also withstand the stresses of the Midwest climate well. Epimediums do tolerate some sun however it should be kept in mind that they are natives to Asian Woodlands. Most are hardy from zones 4 to 8 and grow best on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Unless otherwise noted, most are not only tolerant but grow well on soils with high PH. Be careful with salt base fertilizers, overuse will burn the plants rather than increase growth. A fresh layer of compost can be applied to evergreen species after cutting back in early spring...this is not required but will enhance growth.
Old foliage should be cut off or sheared off at the base during late winter to make room for the new spring foliage. Propagated from division during early autumn or late winter or seed.


* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C. on August 2005


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.






* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


Epimedium acuminatum
Very striking elegant, evergreen, red new foliage eventually turning dark green with ruddy markings. An excellent groundcover. Individual clumps can grow up to 1 x 3.5 feet. It looks great trailing over a stump or wall.
Its leaves are divided into 3 strongly toothed, lance shaped leaflets up to 7 inches in length. They grow on stems up to 18 inches tall.
The very large, purple flowers, up to 1.6 inches wide, are borne on stalks up to 2 feet tall.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Endangered in the wild.


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Epimedium 'Alabaster'
A moderate growing, long-lived, clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 x 3 feet, that originated as a seedling of Epimedium diphyllum. It originated in Pennsylvania in the garden of Dr. Richard Lighty.
The heart-shaped leaves are bright green.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade. It is drought tolerant.

* photo taken on May 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 15 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 19 2017 in Columbia, MD


Epimedium alpinum ( Alpine Epimedium )
A rapid growing, semi-evergreen to evergreen groundcover forming foliar clumps up to 8 inches in height and 4 feet across with foliage flecked red. The clumps can expand by up to 1 foot per year. It is native to southeastern Europe ( from Austria to the Balkans; south to Italy and Albania ) and is also naturalized in the British Isles and other parts of northern Europe.
The short spurred foliage is red and yellow; they are borne in stalks up to a foot in height. The leaflets, up to 3 inches in length, are borne in 2s or 3s.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade. Drought tolerant.

'Rubrum'
Pink-red flowers. The foliage is deep red at first.

Epimedium 'Black Sea'
A perennial, forming a foliage clump, up to 10 inches in height. Epimedium pinnatum colchicum is a parent.
The green foliage turns purplish-black during winter.
The yellow flowers are borne on stalks, up to 15 inches high,during spring.
Hardy zones 6b to 9

Epimedium boreale-guizhouensis

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Epimedium brachyrhizzum

Native to China; this is an excellent evergreen ( deciduous north of zone 7 ) groundcover reaching up to 8 x 32 inches in size. Its leathery foliage is mottled red-purple in spring, turning to deep green in summer. Its leaflets are up to 5 x 3 inches in size.
The long spurred, very large, pink flowers, up to 2 inches in size, are borne in arching panicles up to 1 foot high.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Epimedium brevicornu rotundatum
Native to China
Evergreen to semi-evergreen, dainty green foliage minutely spined on the margins. Despite delicate looking foliage; this Epimedium is very easy to grow groundcover on both acidic and alkaline soils that spreads slowly by rhizomes. On moist soils; this species will continue growth all summer long.
Its profuse spring flowers are white with yellow centers.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 with sufficient moisture and soil nitrogen; this plant can form a sizable clump in 2 years.

subsp. 'rotundatum'
Reaches only 12 inches instead of 2 feet in height and has rounded leaflets.

Epimedium x cantabrigense
Semi evergreen forming a vigorous clump up to 2 x 2 feet.
The attractive, leathery foliage is divided into up to 9 heart-shaped leaflets up to 4 x 3 inches in size. They are reddish in spring later turning to dark glossy green in summer then to red in the fall.
The small orange-red flowers borne in late spring are very attractive.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 tolerating as low as -30 F

Epimedium chlorandrum
A spectacular vigorous groundcover with triangular leaflets in threes, that are mottled red in spring before turning leathery and shiny green.
The large cream colored flowers are produced on stems up to 2 feet tall in spring, then often again with a second flush in the fall.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is native to Sichuan Province in China.

Epimedium davidii
Native to western China and forming a compact clump up to 20 inches in height which can spread up to 2 feet in 5 years and eventually more.
The evergreen leaves are divided into ovate leaflets up to 3 inches in length. The leaves are coppery at first, turning to luxuriant glossy mid-green.
The abundant, bright yellow flowers are borne over a very long season. It is among the most attractive of the Epimediums and often reblooms during the summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and likes lime. It is not as drought tolerant as some of the other species.

Epimedium dewuense
Native to China and forming a tight clump up to 1.5 x 1.5 feet in size. It is fast growing, evergreen and very heavy blooming.
Hardy north to zone 5

Epimedium diphyllum ( Cherry-Flowered Epimedium )
A clumping species, reaching up to 1 x 2 feet in 7 years, eventually more. It is native to mountain forests in Japan.
The deciduous foliage is bright green. The toothed, ovate or oblong leaflets are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
The dainty, pure white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne on stalks up to 8 inches high during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Epimedium 'Domino'
Reaches up to 2 x 3 feet, with spiny green foliage.
The white flowers are tipped in maroon.
A plant may produce over 100 flower spikes at an age of only 4.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Epimedium epsteinii ( Epstein's Epimedium )
A vigorous, dense groundcover perennial, reaching up to 1 foot in height.
Extremely rare, it is native to the Tiangpingshan mountains in Hunan province, Central China. Fast spreading, it can spread up to 8 inches per year.
The foliage is glossy green.
The very large, bicolor flowers are red-purple and white. They are borne mid to late spring.
A single flower spikes may contain up to 30 flowers.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Epimedium fargesii ( Farge's Epimedium )
Reaches up to 20 inches in height.
Very handsome foliage with narrow leaflets.
The flowers are white ( tinged with violet ).
Reportedly hardy to -3o F.

Epimedium franchetii ( Franchet's Epimedium )
Native to China; this Epimedium forms an elegant, large foliage clump up to 2 x 2 feet.
Its attractive, divided evergreen foliage is bronze in spring, later maturing to glossy mid green.
The lance-shaped leaflets are up to 5.5 inches in length.
The abundant, light yellow flowers up to 1.5 inches are borne in stalks up to 2 feet high, that reach well above the foliage. Up to 20 flowers per stalk may occur.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Epimedium grandiflorum ( Bishop's Hat, Longspur Epimedium )
Native to the Orient from China to Korea & Japan; this is the most common Epimedium. It forms a very attractive, vigorous groundcover once established, reaching up to 3.5 feet in width.
The divided, deciduous, light-spiny, foliage is up to 15 inches in height.
The leaves are coppery-red when young, turning to light green. The ovate leaflets are up to 5 x 4 inches in size. Many of the cultivars produce an additional flush of taller leaves after blooming is finished.
The flowers vary in size depending on variety but may range up to 2 or rarely 3 inches in size with long spurs up to an inch in length.
This species prefers acidic to neutral soil ( no worries if you have alkaline soil...many other species are native to limestone outcrops and alkaline soils and can be used instead ). Finely shredded oak leaves make a good winter mulch.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it even thrives in dry shade once established.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 20 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD


subsp 'coelestre'
Large clumper with light yellow flowers borne on tall stalks above the foliage. An excellent very hardy groundcover for cold climates, it is much hardier than average, north to zone 3.

'Crimson Beauty'
Also called 'Yubae'. Deep bronze spring foliage. The large, flowers are deep red with white tip spurs, borne on stalks up to 14 inches in height.

'Dark Beauty'

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Harold Epstein'
A large clumper spreading up to 8 inches per year, with Epimedium grandiflorum koreanum parentage.
It's flowers are yellow and very large.
The foliage reaches up to 5 inches in length.

subsp. koreanum
Also called Epimedium koreanum, it has bright green, deciduous foliage and yellow flowers that are borne on stalks up to 3 feet in height. It is among the largest of the Epimediums and the leaflets are also larger than the species ( up to 6 inches ). Fast spreading, up to 1 foot per year. It is found in the wild in Korea and northern Japan.
Hardy zones 3a to 7

'La Rocaille'
A tall, vigorous spreader, reaching up to 16 inches in height, with bright green, arrow-shaped foliage. Ihis cultivar spreads more by runners than the species.
The yellow flowers are very large. Originates from Epimedium grandiflorum koreanaum

'Lilafee'
The foliage is purplish in spring.
The flowers are lilac purple.
Vigorous but compact in habit.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Orion'
Vigorous in habit, the foliage is divided up into 3 ( rarely 6 x 5 ) inch leaflets which are coppery-red duirng spring.
The deep pink-red flowers are borne on a spike up to 15 inches tall.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Pierre's Purple'
Reaches up to 1.3 feet, with large bright purple flowers; it is otherwise identical to species.

* photos taken on Nov 7 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on May 2 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 17 2017 in Annapolis, MD


'Queen Esta'
Foliage is purplish in spring. The large flowers are deep lavender color.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Queen of Elfs'
Vigorous growing with large white flowers up to 2 inches in size and having long white spurs.

'Red Queen'
The heart-shaped leaflets are very large, up to 6 x 4 inches.
The intense pinkish-red flowers are borne on stalks up to 18 inches in height.

'Rose Queen'
Deep bronze spring foliage. Deep pink-red flowers having white tipped spurs, that are
borne on stalks up to 1.5 feet in height.

'Saxton Purple'
Bronzed spring foliage. Purple-red flowers.

'Silver Queen'
long spurred silvery white flowers.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Sirius'
Bright green leaflets and pink-red flowers in stalks up to 18 inches

'Violaceum'
Also called 'Bronze Maiden'. Bronzed spring foliage and violet flowers ( spurs are white tipped ) in stalks up to 14 inches in height.
Fast growing, up to 1 x 2.5 feet in just 3 years, eventually more.

'White Queen'
Deep bronze spring foliage that later turns to deep green.
The very large whtie flowers up to 2 inches in size, have white spurs and are borne on stalks up to 14 inches in height.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Epimedium latisepalum
A dense slow spreading groundcover with beautiful glossy green foliage that is persistant in the winter. The yellow and white long spurred flowers are very large.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and drought tolerant.

Epimedium leptorrhizum
A very attractive rare native of southwest China.
Vigorous and spreading by long rhizomes up to 8 inches per year, up to a size of 6 inches x 1.5+ feet in 3 years, eventually more. It has deeply-veined, leathery, evergreen foliage that is wine red for several months in the spring, turning to green in the summer. The leaflets in threes, reach up to 4.5 inches in length.
The very large, long-spurred, rosy-pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches are borne in mid spring on stalks up to a foot in height.
Native to China and hardy zones 4 to 9 on consistantly moist soil.

'Togen'
Foliage is miniature, only reaching 3 inches in height yet the pink flowers are still very large.

Epimedium lishihchenii
A slow spreading evergreen Epimedium with leathery, triangular foliage that is bronze at first during spring, turning glossy green. It is among the most reliably evergreen in the midwestern U.S./ Canada ( foliage tolerates as low as 5 F, possibly even colder under snow cover ).
The large, yellow, spidery flowers are borne on stalks up to 2 feet high.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Epimedium membranaceum
A slow spreading, clumping evergreen perennial, native to western China.
Attractive glossy foliage is crimson mottled in early spring.
The pale yellow ( with reddish markings ) flowers are borne on stems up to 2 feet high during mid to late spring.
Unlike most Epimediums, this one often repeat blooms on and off throughout the summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Epimedium myrianthum
Very attractive red mottled young leaves which are long, tapered and large for an Epimedium. The red blotching fades during hot weather but returns in the fall.
The flowers are small and white with yellow centers but are very abundant, up to 210 on a single spike! This species often reblooms during the summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Epimedium ogisui
Native to China; this Epimedium is compact though vigorous and grows well under both deciduous and coniferous forest canopy. The foliage is deciduous though it remains late in the fall and appears early in spring when it is purplish before turning green.
It forms a foliage clump up to 10 inches in height and 2 feet or more across.
The profuse, very large pure white flowers up to an inch across appear very early in spring on sprays up to 2 feet tall. This is the earliest blooming of all the Epimediums.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Keep mulched and well watered; this Epimedium is not very drought tolerant unlike the others.

Epimedium omiense
Forms an evergreen clump up to 1 x 2 feet in 5 years. Flowers sprays are up to 18 inches in height.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Razzleberry'
Spring foliage is heavily speckled purple-red before turning to all green. The spectacular flowers are purple variegated with white.

Epimedium pauciflorum
A Chinese native forming an excellent rhizomatous, low, dense, evergreen groundcover reaching up to 6 inches in height.
The flowers appear 3 to 5 on a stem and are spurred white to light pink.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Epimedium x perralchicum
These are the attractive hybrids between Epimedium perralderianum and Epimedium pinnatum colchicum. They have glossy, evergreen, divided foliage that can reach up to 16 inches in height and bright yellow flowers up to an inch in length, on short stems. The foliage is often bronze-red at first, during spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Drought tolerant.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



'Frohnleiten'
Native under Cedars in the Atlas mountains of Morocco and Algeria, this Epimedium makes an excellent evergreen groundcover to 1 x 3.5 feet in size ( spreads 1 foot in 2 years and 8 inches a year after ). Its wavy, spine tipped margined leaflets are heart shaped and up to 5 x 4 inches in size. The leaflets are borne in 3s. The foliage is bronzed when young turning glossy deep green later on.
The flowers up to 2.5 inches in size are bright yellow and are borne on stems up to 2 feet in height.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Apr 22 2010





* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD





* photo taken on Nov 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 2 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 13 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Wisley'
Excellent luxurious foliage! The bright yellow flowers are huge, up to 3 inches wide, on stems up to 16 inches in height.

Epimedium 'Pink Elf'
A semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 1.3 x 2 feet in size, that is the hybrid between Epimedium leptorrhizum and E. pubescens.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to mid-green during summer, then finally to deep red during autumn.
The bright pink flowers appear during early to mid spring, sporadically again during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 3 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 2 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 19 2017 in Columbia, MD


Epimedium pinnatum colchicum
An extremely drought tolerant, dense, rhizomatous, evergreen groundcover native to northern Iran, Turkey and the Transcaucasus. This Epimedium spreads wide, up to 3 feet in 6 years.
The foliage, up to 1 foot in height, is composed of 5 broad-oval leaflets. The deep green foliage turns to bright red during autumn.
The bright yellow flowers are borne above the foliage on stalks up to 20 inches in height, during mid-spring. The bloom period may last as long as 3 weeks.
Exceptionally hardy north to zone 4 ( even thriving north to the Baltic Sea ); it is an excellent landscape plant even in St. Petersburg, Russia.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Thunderbolt'
Only difference is the foliage that turns from green to purplish black with green veins after the first fall frost.

Epimedium pubescens
A very attractive evergreen Epimedium, forming a clump up to 10 x 28 inches in size,
that is native to central China.
The spiny triangular leaflets, are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The white flowers are borne on stalks up to 2 feet in height.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

* photos taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Epimedium pubigerum
Native to mountain forests from the Balkan region of Europe, to northern Turkey and the southern Caucasus. It forms a very attractive groundcover with foliage up to 10 inches tall and reaching up to 2 feet across.
The evergreen foliage is divided into heart shaped, ovate, glossy, light green turning to medium green, leathery leaflets up to 3.5 inches in length.
The abundant, very pale yellow flowers are up to 1.5 inches in length and may number up to 30 in a stem which can reach well above the foliage, up to 26 inches in height. They are borne during late spring.
This Epimedium is drought resistant and grows exceptionally well in dry shade.
Hardy north to zone 4

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Orangekonigin'
Maybe this AWESOME plant would be more popular if it has a name more easily pronounced. The flowers are pale orange.

Epimedium rubrum ( Red Epimedium )
A dense ground cover plant reaching a maximum size ( not including blooms ) of 10 inches and 3 feet in width in 10 years; eventually more. The Red Epimedium is moderately fast spreading, creeping about 4 inches per year.
The semi-evergreen heart shaped foliage is reddish at first during spring, turning to green with bronze-red on the edges.
The foliage turns entirely bronze-red in autumn.
The 1.2 inch flowers are starry and red with spurs that are white. They are borne in clusters that are not much taller than the foliage in mid spring.
Growing exceptionally well in dry shade areas such as on top of tree roots; this species is also hardy from zones 4 to 9 and grows in anything from deep to light shade. It also grows well in moist shade and forms a thick clump.

* photo taken on Apr 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 13 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 15 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 28 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Sweetheart'
Much more vigorous, reaching up to 16 inches in height, with red bordered leaved and deep rosy-red flowers.

Epimedium sagittatum
A very attractive evergreen groundcover reaching up to 1 x 2 feet in size, that is native to Hubei province in China.
The leaves are among the most striking of all Epimedium, composed of huge, thick, spear-shaped, very glossy green leaflets, up to 6 inches in length. The leaves are margined with bristle-like hairs. The foliage is orangish at it emerges during spring.
The flowers are small however up to 60 are borne on a stalk that reaches up to 2 feet in height!
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Mar 8 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Warlord'
Intense red new foliage during spring.

Epimedium sanguinea

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Epimedium sempervirens
A moderate growing, evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching up to 6 x 18 inches in size, that is native to mountain forests on the western side of Japan. The abundant flower spikes are taller however reaching up to 15 inches in height. The flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are usually pink.
The rounded to arrow-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, are red-tinged during the spring before turning to green. The foliage turns to red, orange and yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( deciduous north of zone 7 )

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Epimedium setosum ( Seto White Barrenwort )
A clumping, deciduous perennial with the leaf mound reaching up to 16 inches in height. It is native to forests of Japan.
The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
The foliage during spring is green with faint red tints before turning all green.
The abundant white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in spikes, up to 15 inches in height or more, during mid to late spring.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Epimedium stellulatum
A very attractive evergreen groundcover forming a foliage clump, reaching up to 9 inches x 3 feet in size, that is native to central China.
The foliage is composed of leaflets up to 3 inches in length.
The abundant, starry, white flowers are borne above the foliage on spikes up to 1.5 feet in height.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Longleaf Form'
Unusually long narrow leaflets with spiny margins. Reaches up to 2 feet in height.


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


'Wudang Star'
Heart-shaped leaflets and very profuse white flowers.


Epimedium sutchuensis ( Sichuan Epimedium )
Reaches up to 15 x 15 inches but generally under 6 inches in height, that is native to mountainous forests at high elevations in western China. Very attractive, polished, evergreen foliage is light green heavily mottled red in spring turning all green in summer.
The flowers are pink-red and variegated white, borne during mid spring.

Epimedium x versicolor ( Persian Epimedium )
These are the hybrids between Epimedium grandiflorum and E. pinnatum colchicum.
These hybrids are known for very attractive foliage, up to 13 inches in height in rhizomatous spreading clumps up to 3 feet across or more with age. The clumps can creep up to 6 inches per year. The evergreen spiny foliage divides into heart-shaped, ovate leaflets. The foliage is bronzish in spring turning to mid-green in summer.
The spurred flowers are up to 0.8 inches in length and are often multicolored with yellow, orange and scarlet red. The flowers are borne in stalks up to 2 feet in height.
Prefers light to deep shady sites. Very drought tolerant and an excellent choice for massing in the front of a shady bed, even dry shade. Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 3b on protected sites, it is evergreen zones 7+ )

* photos taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD


'Cupreum'
Flowers are orange-red.

'Neosulphureum'
Foliage reaches up to 14 inches in height. Flowers are bright yellow.
The attractive foliage is red-brown during spring.

'Sulphureum'
Stoloniferus and fast spreading with foliage reaching up to 14 inches in height. It is known to spread as much as 28 inches in only 6 years to an eventual width of 3.3 feet.
Foliage is bronze in spring, later turning to green.
The long spurred flowers are dark yellow.

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Versicolor'
Vigorous an dense, with foliage reaching up to 14 inches in height. The spring foliage is green with red blotches turning all green in summer.
The flowers are pink and borne on stalks up to 2 feet in height.
Extremely cold hardy, north to zone 3

Epimedium x warleyensis ( Warley Epimedium )
Forms a moderate growing, semi-evergreen clump reaching up to 10 x 24 inches in 6 years, eventually spreading to 32 inches or more. It is the hybrid between Epimedium alpinum & E. pinnatum colchicum.
The lush green foliage is divided into cordate, heart shaped leaflets and turns orange in the fall.
The flowers are intense deep-orange and very large. They are borne in mid spring on stalks up to 20 inches in height.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( evergreen zones 7+ ) and very easy to grow.

* photos taken on Mar 8 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Orange Queen'
soft orange flowers

Epimedium wushanense
A very striking groundcover perennial, forming a foliage clump up to 1.5 x 2.5 feet, that is native to northeast Sichuan in western China where it is rare.
The compound evergreen leaves are composed of elegant long, spiny, narrow, spear-like leaflets, up to 8 inches in length.
Up to 100 large pink, orange or yellow flowers are borne on the stalks that reach up to 4 ( usually closer to 2 ) feet.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Epimedium x youngianum ( Young's Epimedium )
The hybrids between Epimedium diphyllum and E. grandiflorum. Once established; it forms a very attractive, dense growing groundcover, reaching a spread of 3 feet. Moderately fast spreading.
The deciduous foliage up to 8 inches, divides into 6 or 9 narrow ovate leaflets, up to 3 x 2 inches with toothed wavy margins. The foliage is pinkish-red in spring, turning to medium green in summer. The leaves turn to scarlet-red during autumn.
The flowers can be either with or without spurs, reaching up to 0.8 inches in length.
They can range from white to rose-pink and are borne mid-spring on stalks up to 20 inches in height.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is very tolerant of dry shade.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Asuza'
Silvery foliage. Long spurred, large, white flowers.

'Beni Kuyaku'
Very attractive purple spring foliage and deep pink flowers

'Merlin'
Coppery new foliage. Flowers are deep pink.

'Milky Way'
Foliage is silvery. Flowers are pure white.

'Niveum'
Foliage is purplish in spring.
Flowers are pure white

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 12 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Purple Heart'
The foliage is deep purple during spring. The flowers are bicolor white and lavender.

'Roseum'
Foliage purplish in spring.
Pale purple-pink flowers.

'Tamabotan'
Foliage reaching up to 16 inches in height is deep purple in spring before turning to green. The flowers are light lavender in color and are borne in spikes up to 20 inches in height.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


'Yenomoto'
Very long inner sepals and spurs on the flowers that are the largest of all Epimedium x youngianum hybrids.

Epimedium zhushanense
A Chinese native reaching up to a foot in height with large semi evergreen to evergreen, glossy foliage that emerges red in spring, later becoming green and heavily veined with soft spined edges.
The purple flowers are borne in tall sprays.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

2 comments:

  1. Excellent in depth listing and photos of the species. I love it.

    Here is a link from Plant Delights Nursery that contains a list of many Epimedium species plus an article on their history, and cultivation:
    (www.plantdelights.com/Catalog/Plants/Genus/Epimedium)

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  2. Plant Delights is one of the most impressive nurseries I've ever come across on the internet and also being in a state that is most impressive for horticulture. Amazing selection!!! Thank you

    * I was already planning on a summer vacation to NC this summer, also with Raulston Arboretum at NCSU high on the agenda.

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