Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Japanese ( Palmatum ) Maples


Acer palmatum ( Japanese Maple )
A medium-sized to large tree native to China, Korea & Japan that grows upright in its youth and spreading with age. It can reach up to 20 x 5 feet in 10 years, 33 x 33 feet in 20 years and eventually to 50 feet with some much larger to 90 x 72 feet. The largest trunk diameter ever recorded is 5.5 feet! Long lived; the Japanese Maple is known to persist as long as 1000 years in age. In the U.S. an exceptional tree of 54 x 60 x 3.5 feet grows in Greenwich, CT.
The leaves are palmately 5 to 7 pointed toothed lobed. The foliage is light green turning to orange, red and purple ( sometimes with all colors on the same tree ) over a long season during late fall. The Japanese Maple typically leafs out early in spring.
The fruits are small to 0.5 inches in small clusters. They are reddish in color.
The smooth bark is greenish-gray.
Often Japanese Maple leaf scorch is caused by more water lost from the leaves that replaced by the roots. Often the problem is incompatability between understock and graft or a mechanical obstruction at the graft union that blocks uptake of water.
Its many forms must be propagated either from softwood cuttings during early summer or by grafting since seed grown trees are extremely variable. The species can be grown from seed that is soaked in warm water then sown during autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. The Japanese Maple is hardier than its delicate appearance might suggest though it does grow best on sites with fertile, moist, cool, acid, light, well drained soil and some shelter from wind. During the winters of 2010 and 2011 severe ice storms and blizzards have ruined and split alot of beautiful mature Japanese Maples on the East Coast. While I used to recommend enjoying their natural shape and tampering them as little as possible with pruning, it may now be an unfortunate necessity. Inspect young trees for narrow branch angles and older trees for over extended branches and excessively twiggy growths. Prune accordingly during early autumn to prevent winter storm damage caused by snow / ice weight. By doing so you may not have the biggest Japanese Maple in your neighborhood, but after winters such as 2010 and 2011, yours with a full beautiful canopy the following summer will be the envy of the neighborhood. Late winter to spring pruning is not recommended due to excessive bleeding due to rising sap, unless to fix broken limbs.
Mice sometimes eat the bark during winter, risking girdling to the tree - wrap the lower trunk of young trees where this is a problem.




* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour


* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.



* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA






* photos taken on Nov 24 2012 in Wilkes-Barre, PA

* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Sep 27 2013 in Laurel, MD

* photo taken on July 24 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Aug 30 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Arakawa' ( Roughbark Japanese Maple )
An upright tree to 26 feet or more. The rough creased cracked bark on this fast growing greenleaf palmatum develops after 3 years.

'Atrolineare'
A spreading shrubby tree, reaching up to 10 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 25 x 25 feet.
The leaves are palmate with 5 very narrow linear lobes. They are dark red in spring turning greenish-bronze during summer then orange-yellow in fall.

'Atropurpureum'
Same as 'Bloodgood' below except for not holding its deep red color as well during the summer.

* photos taken on June 24 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Bloodgood' ( Bloodgood Japanese Maple )
An upright tree that becomes spreading with age that grows to about the same size as Acer palmatum. A moderately fast grower ( no more than 2 feet per year ); it sometimes grows much faster in ideal sites with the record growth rate being 6 feet.
The 5 to 7 lobed leaves are dark red in spring and holding that color well in the summer. They turn vibrant red in the fall. The winged fruits are also red.
Reported to tolerate -30 F; this cultivar is very common in southern Ontario as well as much of the eastern U.S. Cuttings are easy to root.

* photo taken in Wilkes-Barre, PA on July 2009


* photo taken on May 7 2014 in Edgewater, MD

* photo taken in Catonsville, MD on April 2005
















* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 24 2011 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on June 17 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Burgundy Lace'
A vigorous spreading Laceleaf Maple with large, deeply-cut leaves that are rich purple, turning to intense scarlet-red in fall. Some records include: 10 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 20 x 22 feet.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Butterfly'
A small vase shape tree, up to 8 x 6 feet in 10 years, with the record being 20 x 15 feet. Slow growing; on ideal sites it can become almost moderate growing with the most recorded being 4 ( over 2.5 extremely rare ) feet.
The 5-lobed, distinctly twisted leaves are gray-green with creamy white margins.
Plant in light shade on a site sheltered from hot dry winds or the foliage may scorch during summer.

* photo taken on May 10 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on May 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Chishio'
A slow growing shrub or small tree that rarely reaches up to 30 + x 10 feet.
The foliage is shrimp pink in spring later turning to green. Fall color is poor. The leaves are small, up to 2 inches across.
An excellent choice for bonsais.

'Chitoseyama'
Slow growing, arching and mounding in habit, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 10 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet.
The deeply-cut leaves are purplish-red at first, turning to bronze-green during summer. The foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.

'Corallinum'
Slow growing compact round shrub to 6.5 x 6.5 feet in 20 years, eventually to 8 x 7 feet or more. The record height is 17 feet.
The leaves are coral pink in spring turning to bright green during summer, then to scarlet-red during autumn.
Propagated from softwood cuttings taken in early summer.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Crimson Queen'
Strong growing Laceleaf Maple to 5 x 8 feet in 10 years, 10 x 12 feet in 15 years with the record size being 15 x 20 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet. It often has a twisted trunk and is strongly weeping in habit.
The deeply-cut leaves are deep red all summer long, turning to intense scarlet-red during autumn.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2015 in Columbia, MD


'dissectum' ( Laceleaf Japanese Maple )


* taken on college landscape tour of Longwood Gardens, Philly on March 1994



'Emperor'
Identical to 'Bloodgood' but exceptionally vigorous and more upright, holds its color well in the shade and leafs out 2 weeks later avoiding frost damage. It reaches an average of 30 x 30 feet in 20 years, eventually much larger.

* photo taken on Apr 22 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 15 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Ever Red'
An irregular dome-shaped plant reaching up to 15 x 15 feet in 20 years though its height can vary depending on the height of the graft. Moderate growing; it can sometimes grow very vigorously to 4.5 feet per year when young. The largest on record is 16 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet making this one of the largest of all the Laceleafs.
The foliage is silvery pubescent at first during spring, turning to deep red and holding this color well during summer. In autumn its foliage turns to scarlet.

* photo taken on June 28 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 5 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Fireglow'
An Italian selection, averaging about 10 x 10 feet in 10 years, 15 feet in 15 years, eventually 25 feet in height. It is similar to Acer palmatum 'Bloodgood' but its foliage is even deeper purple and less deeply divided. It is also more heat and sun tolerant than 'Bloodgood'

'Garnet'
A very vigorous spreading Laceleaf Maple ( averaging 4 x 6 feet in 10 years, 12 x 8 feet in 20 years ). The largest on record is an amazing 17 x 34 feet and the record growth rate is 4.5 feet ( both mature size and growth rate usually half or less ). This Maple can be kept much smaller with pruning.
The finely dissected foliage is deep red during spring and holding its color well in summer. The leaves turn to fiery red during autumn.





















'Glowing Embers'
Hardy north to zone 5 and growing to 40 feet or more in height; it is sun, drought and heat tolerant. Very vigorous when growing on its own roots. Green foliage with intense orange-red fall color.

'Green Lace'
Cascading form to 13 x 13 feet with finely dissected fresh green leaves that turn golden yellow in the fall.




'Heptalobium Rubrum'
Similar to Acer palmatum except with 7 lobed leaves that are wine purple in spring turning green in summer then to orange-red in fall.

* photos taken on Dec 6 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Higasayama'
An open vase shaped small tree eventually reaching up to 10 feet in 10 years, eventually to around 27 x 20 feet. Largest on record is 40 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 14 inches. The 5-lobed crinkled leaves are variegated with cream and pink. This Maple needs shelter from western sun.

'Inaba Shidare'
The largest leaf of the cutleaf Purple Jap. Maples. It can reach up to 4 x 6 feet in 10 years, 10 x 12 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 15 x 15 ( rarely over 12 ) feet in size. It is often more upright & tree-like in habit than many other cutleaf Japanese Maples.
The leaves, up to 6 inches across, are deep purple, turning to red during autumn.
Hardy zones 5+

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken on Oct 6 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 10 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Katsura'
A spectacular shrubby tree that can reach up to 12 feet in 10 years, 30 feet with great age.
The small foliage is amber in spring and fall; yellowish-green during summer.

* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


'Kiyohime'
Low and spreading, reaching up to 6 feet in height.
The filagree foliage is orangish-red at first, turning to luxuriant mid-green. The leaves turn intense orangish-yellow during autumn.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

'Linearilobium'
An elegant small tree to 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot with great age.
The palmate leaves have 5 narrow long lobes and are bright green in spring and summer turning to yellow-orange in fall.

* photo taken on May 16 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD



'Linearilobium Atropurpureum'
Same as 'linearilobium' except with purple-bronze foliage.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 16 2017 in Pikesville, MD


'Lionheart'
A small tree reaching up to 5 x 3 feet in 10 years, eventually to 13 x 13 feet.
Semi-upright with cutleaf foliage which is red in spring and fall and bronze in summer.

'Margaret Bee'
Vigorous growing to about same size and form as Acer palmatum. Has 7 lobed deep purple foliage that holds its color well in summmer. Fall color display is poor.

'Moonfire'
One of the fastest growing Japanese Maples to 3.5 feet per year to eventual size of 25 x 18 feet. It is upright in habit.
The 7 lobed leaves are claret in spring turning to purple in summer. The new growth during summer is red. Autumn color is poor.
Very heat tolerant.

'Nicholsonii'
A dense branched shrub or small tree, reaching up to 8 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 17 in height. The foliage is similar in shape to Acer palmatum and 7 lobed. The color is olive-bronze in spring and summer and turns to brilliant gold and red in the fall.

'Nigrum'
very similar to Acer palmatum in size and shape. The leaves are also similar but 5 lobed and very large. They are very dark purple.

'Okagami'
Shiniest of black-red leaves. Vigorous, upright and very large growing.

'Omurayama'
With a moderate growth rate eventually reaching to 20 x 16 feet; this Japanese Maple is shaped like the Weeping Willow.
The brilliant green deeply divided leaves turn red in the fall.

'Orangeola'
A vigorous cascading shrub, reaching up to 5 x 4 feet in 10 years, 10 x 8 feet in 15 years and eventually to 15 x 10 feet.
The finely-dissected foliage is orangish-red during spring, turning to reddish-green during summer with long lasting fiery orange-red fall color.

* photo taken on July 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Ornatum'
A widely spreading shrub; this Cutleaf Japanese Maple can grow huge with great age with the record being 28 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It produces a mound of deeply dissected leaves that are bronze in spring turning to greenish in summer then to deep red during autumn. The leaves are large for a cutleaf Maple and are up to 6 x 5 inches in size.

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Osakazuki'
Rapid growing and rounded in habit, reaching up to 10 x 6 feet ( avg ) in 10 years; eventually 26 x 20 feet or more. The largest on record is 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. This cultivar has very large leaves, up to 5 inches across, which are rich mid-green during summer and turn intense scarlet in autumn.

'Oshio Beni'
A fast growing tree with a single trunk and rounded crown; it reaches about the same size as Acer palmatum.
The very deeply-lobed leaves are bright red during spring turning to darker red then bronze-green in summer. The leaves turn to deep red during autumn.

'Our Backyard'
A freak of nature "Japanese Maple on Steroids!" 6 feet of new growth is common. The large foliage turns brilliant red very late in the fall.

'Purple Ghost'
Fast growing & upright in habit to 30 feet in height.
The leaves are deep purple veined black during summer. They turn fiery scarlet-red in autumn.

'Red Dragon'
A fast growing Laceleaf Maple, reaching up to 3 feet in 4 years, 8 x 8 feet in 10 years and eventually to as large as 12 x 15 feet.
The foliage is rich reddish-purple and holds this color even in hot dry conditions.
Very resistant to leaf scorch.


* photos taken on Sep 19 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 30 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Red Filagree Lace'
Foliage is the most finely dissected of all the Cutleaf Japanese Maples. Very deep purple color holds well in summer. Slow growing.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



'Redwood'
Similar to 'Sangu Kaku' but faster growing. The stems are red for 2 or more winters.

'Reticulatum'
Slow growing eventually becoming a tall spreading shrub up to 15 feet in height. The leaves are 7-lobed with white net-like patterning.

'Sango Kaku'
One of the most beautiful of all Maples this one grows to about the same size as Acer palmatum. Typically of moderate growth rate, some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 10 years - 10 feet; 20 years - 25 x 22 feet; largest on record - 40 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 22 inches.
The foliage is luxuriant bright green during spring and summer; turning apricot-orange over a long period during autumn. It is known for the bark on it younger branches which is glowing red in winter.



* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on June 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Nov 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Sherwood Flame'
An upright, rounded tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 16 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 8 feet; 20 years - 13 x 10 feet.
The laceleaf foliage is deep reddish-purple.

'Shishigashira' ( Lions Mane Maple )
A dense, upright tree, reaching up to 10 feet in 10 years, 15 x 12 feet in 20 years, eventually around 20 x 15 feet.
The dense, crinkled, deep green foliage turns to bright golden-orange during autumn.

* photo taken on June 22 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Sieryu'
An upright, vase-shaped cutleaf Japanese Maple. Vigorous growing ( record growth rate is 4.5 feet ) and upright; reaching up to 50 feet in height with great age. In normal conditions, 10 to 12 feet is about average for 10 years, 20 x 15 feet in 20 years.
The dissected, lacy foliage is rich bright green for most of the growing season turning to red-purple during autumn.
The green stems are especially attractive during winter.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Shin-deshojo'
Scarlet new growth matures to green. Fall color is bland. It reaches up to 8 x 6 feet in 10 years, the largest on record is 13 x 17 feet.

'Suminagashi'
Growing vigorously to about the same size as Acer palmatum; this cultivar has very deeply cut 7 lobed leaves. They are very dark purple, hold their color well in the summer and turn crimson during autumn.

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Tamukeyama'
A Cutleaf Japanese Maple very vigorously reaching up to 6 x 8 feet in 10 years, 12 x 12 feet in 20 years, and eventually to 13 x 15 feet in size.
The foliage is deep red during spring turning to deep reddish-purple during summer and remaining that color even in the hot humid summers of the southeast U.S.
The foliage on the long pendulous branches turns to scarlet-red during autumn.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Trompenburg'
A very vigorous, upright tree, averaging 15 x 6 feet in 10 years, reaching an eventual maximum size of 30 x 30 feet in size.
The deeply-divided leaves are made up of 7 serrated narrow lobes. The scorch resistant leaves are shiny purple in the spring turning rich purple-red through the summer then to scarlet in the fall.

'Tsukubane'
A vigorous, upright, large form, reaching up to 15 feet in 10 years, eventually to 30 feet or even more in height. The foliage is bright red at first, quickly turning to mid-green, then developing a reddish tinge by late summer. The foliage turns intense orange-red during autumn.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Ville Taranto'
A striking small tree with an open vase-shape habit reaching up to 18 x 18 feet at most.
The fine-textured leaves are greenish-purple, turning to golden-yellow during autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Viridis'
The green version of Acer palmatum dissectum ( except in autumn when the foliage turns intense flaming orange. It can reach up to 12 x 12 feet in 20 years, eventually much broader.
The bright green foliage turns to golden-yellow or orange during autumn.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 17 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Apr 24 2015 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photo


'Waterfall'
A cascading dome-shaped shrub reaching up to 8 feet in 10 years, eventually up to 10 x 14 feet in size.
The luxuriant mid-green deeply cut foliage, turns to golden-yellow during autumn.

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD


* additional Jap Maple photos

* photos taken on Nov 9 2011 in Columbia, MD










2 comments:

  1. You have some fabulous pictures! It's just too bad they are not individually labeled, so that we could know what we are enjoying.
    Although there are descriptions of several different tree species (or sub-species), the text is all over the page and we whom do not know our foliage, find ourselves lost without names and labels.
    If you spoke and understood only Swahili, what would the next four lines mean?
    ~
    One
    1
    Two
    Too
    ~
    Is the word describing the number above or below the actual number and what is it?

    Thank you.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you! I just made more additions to this article. I placed each photo directly under the cultivar or species being written about.

    ReplyDelete