Sunday, May 2, 2010

Columbine

Aquilegia
A genus of mostly late spring blooming, short lived but self seeding perennials that are part of the Ranunculacea family. The flowers are highly attractive to hummingbirds.
They mostly prefer full sun to partial shade on fertile, moist, well drained soil.
Deer / rabbit resistant but prone to leaf miners which tunnel through the foliage and often kill the entire plant. It is recommended to cut back and burn foliage that is damaged by leaf miner. Get rid of the infested leaves or the larvae will overwinter and infest the plant the following year. Plants can be treated with a systemic pesticide ( after blooming ) such as Bayer during spring. Luckily, these beautiful plants are highly rabbit and deer resistant. These herbaceous perennials are usually cut back to ground level during late autumn. Propagation is usually from seed which is sprinkled on top of loose soil and not buried.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken by A.G. Nord @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by W. Hutchinson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken by J.E. Broaddus @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Aquilegia alpina ( Alpine Columbine )
A compact perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, that is native to mountain woodlands in central Europe. It makes a great plant for the rock garden.
The finely-divided foliage is gray-green.
The nodding, violet-blue to deep blue flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne late spring to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, cool, fertile, well drained soil.
Tolerant of hot humid summers if planted in the shade.

Aquilegia atrata
Compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 4.3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet x 15 inches in size. It is native to alpine meadows and woodlands in central Europe.
The foliage is blue-green.
The short-spurred, purple-violet flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on just about any somewhat moist, well drained soil.

Aquilegia bertolinii
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 ( rarely over 14 ) inches x 1 foot, that is native to southeastern France and Italy.
The violet-blue flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it is much more tolerant of heat and drought than similar looking Aquilegia alpina.

'Biedermeier'
Very neat and compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 1.5 feet.
The flowers come in a variety of colors including cream, pale pink, light blue and purple. The flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD


Aquilegia buergeriana ( Japanese Columbine )
A moderate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 feet, that is native to alpine meadows in Japan.
The foliage is bright green.
The bright purple and creamy-white bicolor flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to part shade.

Aquilegia caerulea ( Rocky Mountain Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum height of 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to high mountain forests in the western U.S. ( Idaho to southwest Montana; south to central Nevada to central Arizona to northern New Mexico )
The leaves, up to 15 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is blue-green.
The very showy, white ( with violet-blue sepals ) flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, borne late spring to mid-summer. The sepals are up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it prefers cool, high altitudes and in other areas should be grown on a cool shady site. Does not like excessive heat and humidity.

* photo taken by C.A. Kutzleb @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


'Kristall'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 2 feet, with nodding, pure white flowers.

'Red Hobbit'
Compact in habit, reaching a maximum height of 16 inches, with showy, deep red, long-spurred flowers with white carollas that are borne late spring into early summer.

'Rose Queen'
Reaches a maximum height of 2.5 feet, with flowers that are pink with a white corolla, that are borne early to mid summer.

Aquilegia canadensis ( American Columbine )
A moderate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from east-central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba to Haileybury, Ontario to Gaspe to Nova Scotia; south to northeast Oklahoma to far northern Florida with a separate population in central Texas ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time. Great for rock gardens, woodland gardens and containers. It is found in deciduous woods in the wild.
The leaves are up to 12 inches in length and are composed of leaflets up to 2 inches. The foliage is evergreen in the southern part of its range.
The yellow ( with red sepals ) flowers are borne during late spring into early summer. The red spurs are up to 2 inches in length.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Resistant to leaf miners and easy to grow over most of eastern North America.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD


'Corbett'
Reaches up to 2 ( rarely over 1.5 x 1.5 ) feet, with long-spurred, pale yellow. The attractive foliage is persistent and leaf miner resistant.

'Little Lantern'
A moderate growing, dwarf, compact perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 1.5 feet.
The bright red ( with yellow carolla ) flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
The attractive foliage is verdant bright green.

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD



Aquilegia chrysantha ( Golden Columbine )
A vigorous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet, that is native from southwest Utah to central Colorado; south to northwestern Mexico.
The leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are composed of leaflets up to 2 inches in length.
The fragrant, long, narrow-spurred, bright yellow flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne during late spring. The spurs are up to 3.2 inches in length and the stamens are very prominent. It will often rebloom if cut back after flowering.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in sun or shade on humus-rich, well drained soil. Very heat tolerant and mildew resistant, it may go dormant early during severe drought. It makes a great plant for dry shade conditions.

* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.



* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Little Treasure'
A very profuse flowering, miniature form, reaching a maximum size of only 15 x 10 inches, with beautiful foliage resembling that of the Maidenhair Fern.
This cultivar originated in the wild in New Mexico and is sold by High Country Gardens.

'Texas Gold'
Reaches a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, with attractive blue-green foliage all season long and flowers borne early to late spring.
Very heat tolerant, even in Texas. Pest free.

'Yellow Queen'
Vigorous in habit, reaching a maximum size of 4.7 x 3.5 feet, with bicolored pale-yellow and golden-yellow flowers, borne late spring to mid summer.

Aquilegia clematiflora
A compact perennial, reaching a maximum height of 1.5 feet.
The clematis-like foliage is rich green.
The red-purple, spurless flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Aquilegia discolor
A compact, dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 foot x 6 inches, that is native to Spain.
The blue and creamy-white flowers are up to 1.6 inches across.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Aquilegia ecalcarata
Also called semiaquilegia ecalcarata. A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet, that is native to moist forests in western China north of Yunnan Province.
The twice-ternate foliage is mid-green above, purplish beneath.
The abundant, spurless purplish flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shsde on moist, humus-rich soil.

'Flore Pleno'
Double purple flowers, otherwise identical to species.

Aquilegia flabellata ( Fan Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 1 ( rarely over 1.5 ) foot, that is native to Sakhalin, Korea and Japan. It looks great when used for edging.
The attractive, trifoliate-lobed foliage is blue-green. The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 1 inch long.
The hook-spurred, light blue flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne late spring into early summer.
The flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.
It is deer and rabbit resistant.



* historic archive photo


'Cameo Series'
Very dwarf and compact, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 10 inches. Excellent for rock gardens or as potted plants on patios. The 'Cameo Series' comes in Blue & White, Bright Red & White, Rosey Pink & White, Pale Pink and Pure White.

* photo taken on May 2 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Ministar'
Reaches a maximum height of 1 foot, with bright blue and white, nodding flowers borne late spring into early summer.

'Nana Alba'
Reaches a maximum height of 1 foot, with pure white, nodding, cup-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, borne late spring to mid summer.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


var 'pumila'
Compact and miniature in habit, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 1.5 feet.
Looks great edging a border and in the rock garden.
The fine-textured foliage is gray-green.
The blue flowers are borne late spring through early summer.

* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Aquilegia formosa ( Western Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5.5 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to moist woodlands in western North America ( from Anchorage, Alaska to central Yukon to Jasper National Park, Alberta and Montana; south to northern California to Utah ).
The attractive, biternate leaves, up to 16 inches in length, are blue-green.
The red and yellow flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne late spring to late summer.
The flowers are loved by hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade ( requires much more water in full sun ). If plant looks leggy and worn after blooming, cut to ground to encourage new flush of foliage. Do not remove all flower stalks if you want this often short-lived perennial to self seed.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by The Wild Garden, www.nwplants.com


Aquilegia glandulosa ( Altai Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 1 ( rarely over 1.5 ) foot, that is native to open coniferous forests and grassy slopes in Siberia, Tibet and Mongolia. It is among the most beautiful of all Columbines
The leathery foliage is blue-green.
The intense violet-blue ( with lilac-blue sepals ) flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are huge in comparison to the plant. The flowers have short hooked spurs.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

Aquilegia x hybrida
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade ( also full sun in cool summer climates ) on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

'Blue Star'
Reaches up to 2 feet, with bicolored blue and white flowers borne late spring into early summer.

'Crimson Star'
Reaches up to 3 x 1.5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, with bicolored flowers that have a white corolla and intense red spurs, borne late spring into early summer.

'Dragonfly Hybrids'
Compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 feet x 16 inches, with long spurred, large flowers that come in a range of colors borne on strong stems.

'Koralle'
Reaches a maximum height of 3 feet, with very showy bicolored coral-pink and pale yellow flowers borne late spring to mid summer.

'Maxistar'
Reaches a maximum height of 3 feet, with yellow, long-spurred flowers borne during late spring.

'McKana Giant'
Reaches a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet, with large flowers, borne late spring to mid summer that come in a wide range of colors. The large showy flowers, up to 4 inches across, have long spurs.

Aquilegia longissima ( Long-Spurred Columbina )
An evergreen perennial, reaching up to 3 feet in height, that is native to mountains from southern Arizona to southwest Texas into northeastern Mexico.
It is similar to Aquilegia chrysantha but with paler yellow flowers and spurs, up to 6 inches in length.
The foliage is blue-green.
It requires partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

Aquilegia olympica ( Olympic Columbine )
A moderate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 1.5 foot, that is native to mountain meadows and forests from Greece to the Caucasus.
The showy, large, long-spurred, nodding, blue and white flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Aquilegia rockii ( Chinese Columbine )
Reaches a maximum size of 3.5 x 2 feet, with rich purple flowers with a corolla that is edged in white. The flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Aquilegia saximontana ( Alpine Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum height of 10 inches, that is native to high mountains in Colorado.
The lavender-blue flowers appear during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Aquilegia scopulorum ( Utah Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 10 ( rarely over 10 ) inches, that is native to Nevada and Utah.
The leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are blue-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The long-spurred flowers are bicolored lavender-purple and creamy-white.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on sandy or gravelly, very well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Aquilegia sibirica ( Siberian Columbine )
A perennia, reaching up to 2.3 feet in height, that is native to moist river plains in Siberia, Kazakhstan, Tibet and Mongolia. The blue or purplish-red flowers, up to 1.2 inches long, appear during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Aquilegia skinneri ( Skinner's Columbine )
A perennial, reaching a maximum height of 3 feet, that is native to mountains of Sierra Madre in Mexico.
The foliage is blue-green.
The pale red flowers, up to 2 inches in length, appear during late spring.

Aquilegia 'Songbird Series Mix'
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Aquilegia vulgaris ( Granny's Bonnet )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x ( rarely over 3 ) 2 feet, that is native to most of Europe. It has also naturalized over much of Newfoundland and the Maritimes.
The leaves are up to 12 inches in length.
The short-spurred flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
The flowers are typically violet however the cultivars can also some in white, pink or red.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, moist, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed and they often readily self seed.

* photos taken on May 4 2012 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



'Altrosa'
Reaches up to 2 feet, with pink flowers.

'Black Barlow'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very dark purple, spurless, dahlia-like, double flowers.

'Blue Barlow'
Double blue flowers.

* photos taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on May 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 1 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Grandmother's Garden'
Forms a bushy clump, up to 3 x 1.5 feet, with rose-pink, deep red and violet flowers during late spring.

'Heidi'
Reaches up to 28 inches in height, with pink flowers during late spring.

* photos taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

'Lace Frills'
Bright blue flowers during late spring.

'Leprechaun Gold'
Very attractive foliage that is green with yellowish-green streaking, constrasting with intense deep purple flowers.

'Miss Jekyll'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with pure white flowers during late spring.

var 'Nivea'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, rarely more, with pale gray foliage and single, white flowers.

'Nora Barlow'
Reaches a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, with spurless, double pink and purplish-pink flowers borne late spring to mid summer.
Almost breeds true from seed.

* photos taken on May 7 2012 in Baltimore, MD

'Plena'
Reaches a maximum height of 3 feet, with double flowers that come in a mix of colors.
Full sun or partial shade.

'Plum Pudding'
Reaches a maximum height of 2.5 feet, with violet-red, short-spurred, double flowers borne late spring into early summer.

* photo taken on May 7 2012 in Columbia, MD

'Raspberry Tart'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with double, deep pinkish-red flowers borne late spring into early summer.

'Ruby Port'
Reaches a maximum height of 3 feet, with showy, large, deep red, double flowers.
Full sun or partial shade.

'William Guinness'
Forms a bushy clump, reaching a maximum of 3 x 2 feet, with double, blackish-purple ( with white corollas ) flowers borne late spring into early summer.

'Woodside Gold'
Compact and tidy in habit, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2 ( 3 feet in bloom ) feet. The intense golden-yellow foliage contrasts well with the bicolored blue and rose-pink flowers.

'Woodside Variegata'
Reaches a maximum size of 2 x 1.5 feet, with very attractive foliage that is green and heavily streaked and marbled creamy-white to yellow.
The flowers come in a mix of color.

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